This is a list of stock exchanges in Africa. There are several notable countries on the continent that do not have a stock exchange. The most notable is Ethiopia , which does have a commodities exchange in Addis Ababa. It has been rumored that a stock exchange will open in Ethiopia sometime between From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Calibration of the measures needs to take into account the specificities of the markets and market players e. Communication of these measures is also paramount to help ensure continuous trust in the authorities and the markets. The market must recognize that these measures are there to ensure orderly trading conditions and are not seeking to avoid sharp market re-pricing.
When adopting temporary restrictions, such as on the use of short selling, authorities should consider the potential negative impact on liquidity and price discovery, and ensure that they are justified to support market confidence and financial stability.
The restrictions should only be implemented within a predictable and reliable framework and for no longer than absolutely necessary. Regulators may also need to consider other ad-hoc market resilience measures as the situation evolves e. Market participants should be encouraged to examine their trading algorithms to ensure they are operating appropriately in present circumstances and are not unnecessarily adding to market pressures. Authorities should consider mandatory closures of exchanges and other trading platforms only as a last resort if all other available policy measures have proved ineffective and disorderly trading cannot otherwise be curtailed.
It is crucial to identify potential knock-on effects of such closures e. It is also important that the criteria for reopening of exchanges be set out in advance to provide as much clarity as possible to investors and other market participants. Some regulatory requirements may be more difficult to apply in the current context due to activation of business continuity plans. Authorities may wish to consider showing flexibility in their expectations for these requirements.
For example, a requirement for continuous recording of oral communications between key trading personnel might be replaced by temporary permission for written records of communications to be used. It would nevertheless be important for comprehensive information on the relevant communication to be maintained so that firms and authorities are still able to exercise their oversight duties appropriately. While full and prompt disclosure is critical for the fairness and efficiency of markets, it is extremely difficult for companies to make reliable judgments on the duration of the pandemic and the potential impact on their business.
Regulators may consider providing guidance to issuers on how they should address the impact of Covid on their businesses, as well as the measures they are taking to mitigate its effects, to provide investors with as reliable and clear information as possible.
This should include any relevant factors such as government support, guarantees or other backing measures that may be available. As the circumstances are fluid, both issuers and regulators should take account of the fact that this disclosure may need to be updated more frequently than other material change reporting; multiple reports should not be assumed to mean improper initial reporting. At the same time, the outbreak may pose practical challenges for timely disclosure and reporting of regulatory filings annual reports, financial statements due to travel restrictions, staff shortages and service provider limitations, among others.
Regulators may need to come up with approaches that provide needed flexibility to companies in complying with regulatory requirements while ensuring transparency to investors e. Extensions of filing deadlines for other issuer documents, such as updated prospectuses, should also be considered.
Similar considerations may also apply to routine disclosure and filing requirements for intermediaries and trading platforms. Regulators should be ready, however, to continue strong enforcement of market abuse rules and remind companies to carefully consider the impact of Covid on their business, operations and revenues to assess whether such information constitutes inside information. Companies should be reminded of the importance of strict compliance with insider trading regulations to prevent the misuse of the information.
General meetings are an important opportunity for a company to inform their shareholders, and for those shareholders to hold company management to account. Where significant corporate changes are proposed, it may be mandatory to obtain consent at a meeting of shareholders. In light of restrictions on large gatherings and similar measures put in place in many countries, regulators may wish to consider reminding companies of the options that are available to replace physical meetings e.
Where possible, regulators should be flexible regarding the preconditions that might otherwise apply to the use of these technological alternatives. Waivers of the by-law or prior notice requirements should be considered.
Similarly, authorities may find it appropriate to allow companies some flexibility in the timing of their shareholder meetings. Maintaining daily contact with systemically relevant institutions and market infrastructures will be key to understand how firms are operating under crisis management plans and to provide information concerning industry trends and dynamics relating to the impact of the outbreak. This should allow regulators to better understand operations at the firm and industry level and react promptly if needed to respond to requests for guidance from firms or to take further market resilience measures.
Regulators could also consider reviewing business continuity plans of relevant institutions to make sure they are appropriate to maintain operational continuity in line with regulatory obligations under the Covid outbreak scenario. Cybersecurity risk management processes should be reinforced at all market participants and regulators. Data security processes should be reexamined and reinforced as necessary. All affected parties should remain vigilant in their surveillance regarding cyber threats and take steps to reduce the risk of breaches.
The disclosure challenges for funds are similar to those identified above for other issuers, and regulators should apply similar responses. A significant challenge for funds in the current environment is the application of their risk management frameworks, particularly those relating to liquidity management.
It is important for authorities to ensure that risk management frameworks are being applied in a robust and effective manner. Regulators should support the availability of the widest possible set of liquidity management tools e. Depending on the asset classes within the portfolio, a fund manager may face particular difficulty in obtaining timely, reliable valuations.
Authorities should monitor developments of this kind and seek to provide clarity to fund managers on their expectations, including on the circumstances in which use of liquidity management tools, including a temporary suspension of redemptions, may become appropriate.
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Ziria Tibalwa Waako. What mechanisms should be developed to integrate private sector thinking more effectively into public policy? What PPP structures and other solutions are there to transmission shortfalls? Tariffs that reflect cost of upgrading and building new transmission and distribution infrastructure. How should existing grid networks, grid extension, grid edge and fully off-grid coexist?
How storage can help strengthen the grid. Benon Bena. Balancing the and off- grid The transmission challenge for high voltage producers and consumers Lunch. David Muthike. John Lentaigne. Eric Mwangi. What are the barriers to reaching financial close and how can these be overcome?
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Caroline Kimathi. Andrew Githaiga. However, there are several caveats to using their data. Secondly, the reports are only available in PDF instead of data-friendly formats such as comma separated values file. CSY receives their information from the China Customs, and their records go back further. Since it is published annually, there is a one year lag in their data, and their data cannot be retroactively updated.
Though most of their files are available for download in Excel, the formats of the datasets vary from year to year, including the order of countries. Comtrade data is continuously updated. Currently there are no other sources that are more reliable than those provided by the Chinese government and the U. It is believed that this disparity is caused by differences in valuing mineral goods.
Please be aware of this if you are using the dataset for research purposes, and please contact us if you have any questions. Contact Us Use the form on the right to contact us. China Africa Research Initiative. Info Email. Data: China-Africa Trade. Learn more. China-Africa bilateral trade data overview China-Africa bilateral trade has been steadily increasing for the past 16 years.
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China-Africa bilateral trade has been steadily increasing for the past 16 years. However, weak commodity prices since have greatly impacted the value of African exports to China, even while Chinese exports to Africa remained steady. Our data includes North Africa. While U. Comtrade and Chinese government sources do not report the exact same trade figures, the two sources are very close.
For consistency, we provided all Comtrade data for users to download. We also included U. CARI only provides data as reported by the Chinese government in order to maintain consistency. Trade reports from African governments are less consistent in both their frequency and reporting standards. The General Administration of Customs of the PRC compiles and reports quarterly and annual bilateral trade statistics on their website.
The Customs is the first to report the most updated trade data, and usually does so in both English and Chinese. However, there are several caveats to using their data. Secondly, the reports are only available in PDF instead of data-friendly formats such as comma separated values file. CSY receives their information from the China Customs, and their records go back further.
Since it is published annually, there is a one year lag in their data, and their data cannot be retroactively updated. Strategies to increase generation - auctions, FiT and negotiated deals. Encouraging a greater role for local entities in power projects, improving access to long-term funding in local currency, strengthening the capacity of local markets and creating opportunities for local investors.
Analysis of the ways commercial and industrial consumers are developing their own generation capacity, and the extent this is likely to grow across the continent, including input from manufacturing and mining industries. It worked for telecoms and, increasingly, it seems it can work for electricity access. This session will discuss financial instruments and strategies, and new approaches to consumers in a period when millions more Africans are becoming financially empowered and buying a range of basic services.
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Acceleration in off-grid consumption: is it forcing a reassessment of centralised generation? Tariffs versus solvency: the future power utility business model Coffee. Ziria Tibalwa Waako. What mechanisms should be developed to integrate private sector thinking more effectively into public policy?
What PPP structures and other solutions are there to transmission shortfalls? Tariffs that reflect cost of upgrading and building new transmission and distribution infrastructure. How should existing grid networks, grid extension, grid edge and fully off-grid coexist?
How storage can help strengthen the grid. Benon Bena.
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