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We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settingsotherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue. Privacy Policy. Home Search In. Previous Fields Gender Female. Profile Information Location southampton hampshire. Gutted im going to miss this one sounds like a great place to go, next year I will make sure i book my holiday round the gp dates.

Betting beras basah perak flag online horse betting usa

Betting beras basah perak flag

Dairy products yes, milk and cheese, and milk-based produce. You, The Oily-s, have skin that is very acne-prone. Dairy can definitely aggravate acnes. You definitely do not want that. You can start eating high-fibred food though! Not only is it good for your skin, but for your overall health too. Citrus fruits oranges, lime and lemons has the acid content that is able to wash away most oil in your system, so two oranges a day for breakfast it is!

The other option is having oatmeal topped with berries and sprinkled with lemon zest as a healthy snack. These are all great for keeping the moisture of your skin within the normal range. What to eat? Well, water! Most of us do not drink the amount of water our bodies need in a day — 8 glasses of them. But remember, the more water you drink, the more hydrated your skin will be. Attention to all you Dry-s and sashimi lovers!

You can increase your daily fat intake by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids good fats. Where do you get good fats from? Salmon, of course! As a side dish, you can have oysters and other sorts of seafood. That is not all though, you can replace your usual vegetable oil with coconut oil for cooking. When snack time comes, you can have fresh fruits and vegetables, for instance, melons and cucumber — these two are the best solid source of water.

Also consider lettuce, beans, avocados, tomatoes, zucchinis, and various types of nuts. Another good snacking option would be oatmeal topped with your favourite choice of nuts and tiny cuts of melons and other fruits! As you have guessed it, combination skin comprises the two most general skin types — oily and dry. You may have oily skin on the T-area, and dry on the other areas — or vice versa. It is annoying, but at least you have a little bit of everything!

In general, keep foods with high antioxidants in your list! Have some green tea during tea times with a couple of your favourite cookies and berries on the side will do! These are good for your skin maintenance. Now that you know that you can splurge while maintaining the health of your skin, your mealtimes are going to be twice as fun as it already is!

Remember, do not entirely stop on one food, just reduce the intake amount of them so you get to kill two birds with one stone. Fellows, if you're washing your face with soap and water only,then it's time for you to improve your skincare game.

However, we do recommend you to remember and to practise these skincare tips. Why should you wash your face? If you do nothing else, cleansing is the only most significant thing you can do for your face. However, your face requires a little more than just a simple lather of soap and quick splash of water. Therefore, it is important to use a gentle cleanser to clean the excess dirt and oil from your skin.

Neglecting to wash your face will bring you no good and will make the skin prone to breakouts. Aim to wash your face in the morning and at night. Try to feel your skin now; if it feels like sandpaper, then you have definitely been doing it wrong all this while. A good moisturiser plays a vital role in keeping your skin hydrated after washing. The best time to use moisturiser is after you shave or exfoliate and at night.

Furthermore, our bodies lose a lot of water at night and the skin goes into repair mode only at night. Why exfoliate? No worries, exfoliation is not a daily routine. Two to three times a week is sufficient enough to clear those nasty stuff that hide in your pores. What is Laneige Homme Dual Action? The Laneige Homme Dual Action has you covered completely. It is specially formulated to combat. Moreover, this new range contains six essential minerals and vitamins that help to sustain hours hydration and to restore skin damage caused by UV rays.

It provides you a quick, neat, safe yet effective cleansing and shaving. Moreover, it revitalises your tired skin quickly and ensures your skin feels clean for the whole day. Homme Dual Action Energy Toner While providing moisturising energy to the skin, this toner also helps in exfoliating dead skin cells around the pores for pore-tightening and to brighten your overall skin tone. Furthermore, its dual action enables it to tackle wrinkle formation and to enhance skin whitening.

Homme Dual Action Essence Lotion This is the key product in this range because it works to tighten pores and it is able to penetrate the skin to hydrate and revitalise it. Besides, it is also able to control the formation of sebum.

Hence, leaving your skin bright and oil free. If straight and smooth hair makes you feel beautiful and confident, then you should try Sunsilk Perfect Straight. With the Straight Lock Technology, this range, which comprises a shampoo and a conditioner will penetrate deep into the hair fibre, reduce frizz and lock in the straightness in each strand.

Amazingly, your hair will still stay perfectly straight as it dries. You can now enjoy the convenience of wash and go without worrying about your hair. They are available in all leading supermarkets and retail outlets nationwide at RM Desire to have flawless curling with vibrant definition and rich colour lashes? This mascara will achieve this for you. With ultrafine brush curves at nearly 40 degrees, jet black pigments and volumising wax, your desire is no longer a dream.

It also contains five different beauty ingredients to moisturise your lashes. Use both of them at night to deeply nourish your skin like an overnight mask. Enriched with 2x Sakura Extracts, Natural Fruit Extracts and vitamin Cg, your skin will be visibly improved with a pinkish radiance after a night.

They are available nationwide. Say goodbye to boring balms and embrace these bright colour balms. In just one application, it instantly and continuously moisturises your lips for eight hours. It also makes your lips soft, smooth, comfortable and look virtually line free.

They are available in six electric flavours with four shades featuring an electric pop of colour and two with a translucent result. These lip balms are the new must have accessories with a recommended retail price of RM Stop popping your pimple, but start patching it with this acne patch.

It will not only cover it up, but will also absorb the pus from acne. At the same time, the patch will serve as a protective layer to prevent the acne wound from infection. Oh wait, it has passed. But really, who cares? Swimsuits vary from the tiny coverage of bikinis to the half coverage of tankini, and full body coverage of burqini Muslim women normally wear this for water activities. Now, put them sunnies on, lather more sunscreen, and stick your hair up!

One last thing, show your pretty bodies in them! That means no exposed body parts and no proper fit. In fact, rulers would charge them for indecency! Back in the mid s, women used to wear full-length gown swimsuits with weight sewn.

As time goes by, the garments used for swimsuits got shorter and tighter, and it came to the point where they became as tiny as they are now. Even though it is an acceptable norm to expose most of your body parts in swimsuits, the majority of you are most embarrassed by your own bodies. That kind of thinking is so last year!

Other than having balanced diets and taking. Looking for suitable swimsuits can be a daunting task, and the options available on the shopping rack are less than encouraging. Remember, the formula for a bikini body is simply owning a pair of bikini and a body, and there you go!

You just made yourself a bikini body without even dropping a sweat. As you can see, these celebrities and plussized models are not shy to show their bodies off in front of the camera, so you do not have to be too, at all! Contrasting to the deep blend of feminine look in his latest designs, Ted involves snakeskinprint and sparkling sequins sportswear in the collection, influenced by the urban, futuristic feel of the year of Better yet, Ted includes the vibrant orange colour of summer.

Above all, Ted involves colour blocking in the midst of his charming prints. Layrite Original RM75 e. Slick Devil Pomade RM75 g. REX RM40 i. Rebirth, renew, and refresh. Embrace the 3Rs for a happier you, and believe it or not, you do not have to fork out an arm and a leg to grab these three.

Let KL Greaser make your 3R dream come true! Check them out, pick your favourite hairstyling product, and have fun looking good! Flip to the next page to find out more! Men from that age normally wear their hairs short; however, those from different parts of the world wear their hairs differently. Where the s women kept their hair short and curly, the men kept their hairs, of course, shorter than the women did, and combed them slick backwards. John Lennon and the rest of The Beatles also stepped into the circle of popular hairstyles, boosting the fame of The Shag, in which people and their forever fans still follow up to now.

Oh, how we laugh at those hairstyles now, but probably would have sported them if we grew up in that era. Up to now, most men wear Faux Hawks and a Pompadour, just not as high as how Elvis wore it. The popular hairstyle for men now goes around the top with short sides. From David Beckham to his Manchester United replacement Cristiano Ronaldo and countless other footballers and celebrities, this is the de rigueur hairstyle.

Check out some below! The beauty industry is a huge industry and its influence reaches far and wide, with every trend being copied and emulated, effecting a powerful impact on everyone from the man in the street to impressionable young college students. Industry wide, the image of beauty is that of completely skinny and in some extreme cases, malnourished models, unrealistically high-priced products, and the obsession with staying forever young.

Moreover, it puts pressure on the everyday Joe and Jane to achieve the unachievable, in an already distorted reality. From then on, they will validate all sorts of methods to reach the almost-impossible point, leading them to sickening realities, depression, and eventual deaths. Every industry, no matter its size, has its followers and fans.

The fashion industry especially, has a substantially huge fan base that, unlike their models, keeps on growing bigger. The fan base largely consists of females, with increasing number of males making up the percentages. With the proliferation of the portrayal of Western beauty as being the standard to aspire to, the pressure spills over to us college students to go for extreme weight maintenance strategies.

In terms of fashion, students and youth in general need role models to look up to. However, whether knowingly or unknowingly, the fashion industry passes on its disorders and negative viewpoints and practices on to its followers as well. She said it as the trend of the fashion model champ of the 80s — toned women — went down the ladder, and was being replaced by skinny models, popularised by legendary British model Twiggy, and the 90s supermodel herself.

Kate Moss was greatly backlashed for the statement, as it was seen as encouraging eating disorders among girls, mainly anorexia nervosa food-consumption refusal and bulimia nervosa force-expulsion of food. Medical professionals describe eating disorders as psychologically abnormal eating habits, involving insufficient or excessive.

Contemporary mass media has distorted the ideal portrayal of body shape as being skinny. From glossy magazines, to advertisements and films, we are constantly bombarded with altered visuals of body. Regardless of age, this is applicable to women and a small portion of men. Although Marian has no factual evidence, she confirms that girls are far more obsessed with their weight compared to boys. However, it is still applicable to both genders due to the media and peer pressure.

Moreover, it guides the already superficial fashion industry to validate extreme measures of losing weight — cue bulimia and anorexia. Most female fashion models suffer from both, due to the size-zero outfit samples given by fashion houses to satisfy the distorted standards. Going against this, Marian thinks that companies, fashion retailers and designers have to respond more appropriately by having models wear clothes that does not necessarily publicise its size.

Modelling agencies have embarked on more extreme measures now, resorting to hanging outside eating disorder rehabilitation clinics to scout teenage girls just out of their treatments, especially those on wheelchairs. More revolting still, these agencies look to hire girls as young as 14 years old, because of the tiny bone structure pre-teenagers have — just to cash in on the thinness trend. Although famous Vogue editor Anna Wintour has entirely halted her magazine from featuring size-zero and below 16 models, that is only in Vogue, what about other magazines?

Most of them died from heart problems, and medical professionals have proven that it is the result of insufficient food intake. Worse still, kids as young as 10 years old are having this mind-set. It then leads on to older females, especially college students. They resemble the group with the most exposure to eating disorders, and the ones most sociologists conduct research on.

Marian confirms this statement, and says that it has struck quite a number of college students who came to her office for consultation. From Depression to Death Depression is an excessively common disorder in the fashion industry. Apart from the pressures to stay skinny and avoiding food as mentioned earlier, models are subjected to a variety of unrelenting stressors that ultimately spirals into mental disorders.

Behind the glam of the catwalk or photo shoot, modelling can be and is a lonely profession, in the sense that the models themselves are detached from pre-existing psychological and physical support systems in the form of family and friends, as travelling on short notice is a requirement of the job.

Pre-shows and walking on runways is not as easy as it seems too. Think about the vicious physical criticism s from potential clients and even from their own representatives. Furthermore, modelling agencies pay very little attention to the wellbeing of their models, and this in turn makes them vulnerable to psychological disorders. This leads to a never-ending cycle of stress, anxieties and depression. A model not only suffers from these; eating disorders and substance dependencies and abuses usually accompany these detrimental psychological conditions.

Some tragic examples of models that have ended up taking their own life include Canadian Hayley Kohle who jumped. Depression resulting from eating disorders is becoming increasingly common amongst students too. Based on experience, Marian admits that depression and severe mood swings are common results from eating disorders. It is not abnormal for people with eating disorders to be easily irritable, anxious, and in a state of feeling down all the time, which if not treated may lead to depression.

A Malaysian college graduate, majoring in communications, says that she does not feel good after eating, and that it makes her feel extremely guilty. She will head to the bathroom to purge the food out right after a meal, and she will not wait long to do that because it will be harder for her to forcefully expel the food. I will hate myself for it. This includes the effect it can have on loved ones, family and friends. Indeed, it takes a great amount of treatment, effort and support to overcome the eating and accompanying psychological disorders.

Abdil Azim B Abdul Rahim took the time to talk to and show the students the particulars and quirks of the industry and shared details about the Animasia studio. Wong Yen Lin then showcased the usability and mobility of their hard drives. Thanks to this workshop I now know that animation can be done in Malaysia, instead of overseas. Overall the workshop was a resounding success, with many students learning and knowing much more about the animation industry than before.

Students left with the hope that many more great and enlightening workshops like this will be organised and conducted in the future. It all started at a family recreational clubhouse in Kulim known as the Kulim Club; that was the first time I was exposed to the karaoke machine.

From that point on, all I ever wanted to do was sing. I have been singing professionally for 12 years now; I secured my first paid gig at age So I made the decision to pursue my love for music after all and go full steam with it.

PY: It was tough but worth it. You will face rejection and encounter many a curveball but the only thing that will keep you moving forward is determination and perseverance. Those moments of weakness will pass. Keep on going. PY: My inspiration comes from everyday experiences, my travels, listening to my favourite artistes, movies— just about anything, really.

Ultimately, it all boils down to personal and professional priorities; when the two collide, it can get rough. The massive crowds, atmosphere, big stage, sights, and sounds were super intense and I liked it. It was all very surreal. I felt like I belonged on that stage. It was a beautiful moment for me. PY: Yes, I do. I get to help my students tackle their concerns where singing is concerned. PY: Music is not a destination, but rather a journey through a myriad of extreme highs and lows.

Brace yourself for impact because the unexpected can creep up on you when you least expect it. Stay professional, creative, and fluid. Also, advice can come in many different forms; take the good and throw out the bad. Be true to the musician inside you. For the said track, I have put together a self-made lyric video— one which hopefully captures my love of stop motion animation. It took me a month to churn out and I am very excited to share it with everyone.

For a listen, tune in to www. Beauty Around The World Women have devoted so much time and effort in improving their physical beauty. The question is, is the depiction of beauty as being super skinny and tall the norm? Super skinny and tall - Is that the beauty standard?

The Western depiction of beauty has come a long, long way in influencing beauty and the perception of it around the world. Women, mostly, have devoted so much time in improving their beauty accordingly for years, but not to some women in other places of the world. According to other cultures around the world, super skinny and tall are not the main ingredients of beauty. Their depictions of beauty may seem peculiar; however, these women have dedicated their bodies for beauty ever since they were little girls.

The bold and beautiful bodies of Mauritanian women 1. The beautiful big feet of Indonesian Karo Batak women The Karo Batak, who live in the northern island of Indonesia of Sumatra, deem women with big feet attractive, even until now. University of Washington anthropologist Geoff Kushnick conducted a sociological research about this matter, proving that both genders of the ethnicity prefer an illustration of women with bigger feet than smaller ones.

The scientist found that Western media has not thoroughly exposed the Karo Batak population, resulting in their continued traditional and cultural perspective of beauty. Linking to the ecological value, Kushnick interviewed a Karo Batak man, who confirmed that big feet are indeed attractive, and the interviewee goes on to wonder how women with smaller feet can work in a rice field. The tall and beautiful necks of the Burmese Kayan tribe The longer your neck is, the more attractive you become.

As fellow South East Asians, who happen to live in relatively close proximity with the Kayan tribe, surely you must have heard of them. Yes, they are the women who wear brass rings on their necks, whose weight can reach up to 22 pounds the brass rings, not the women themselves! This beauty ritual starts since they are as young as five years old, and their mothers, who are wearing the same brass rings on their already-elongated necks as well, will add it up as they grow older.

The norm of the brass rings in the Kayan village depicts elegance and social status for these women — two main points explaining why most women dress up, only in a different way. Contrary to popular Western beauty belief, the men of a Mauritanian village called Atar see overweight women as being attractive and stretch marks as huge turn-ons. Mauritanian elders will force-feed the younger ones to achieve such a look, making them eat at least 15, calories a day — more than what a regular male body builder eats, or Michael Phelps!

The women send their daughters off to a camp, and promise them that they will turn beautiful once they are home from the camp. The camp leaders will force-feed these girls, and even threatening to cane if they refuse to eat. Even so, the bold bodies of the Mauritanian women portray higher social class and beauty. These women normally scar their torsos and chests, while the men will find them attractive and sensual. Scarification, however, is only popular in the dark-skinned cultures, because tattoos will be difficult to view.

It is a type of body art as well, and is deemed as being a part of the modern tattoo culture. Tattoo artists will create shallow cuts and form visual or typographic designs on skins. The beautifully stretched earlobes of Kenyan women In the tradition of a tribe called Maasai, located in the border of Kenya and Tanzania, the women have different ways of portraying beauty.

Their elongated ears are the most significant among all. Although they acknowledge the presence of Western media and the ideologies it tries to disseminate into their lifestyle, the Maasai still stick to their traditions. The women still elongate their ears by piercing them with thorns, and then lengthen them by using elephant tusks, stones, or twigs. They, moreover, will wear beads to beautify their ears, and setting the beads up together as headpieces and necklaces as well.

It validates you to dress up, and be as beautiful as you think you are. You do not have to follow the popular culture; you just have to be yourself because you are most beautiful when you feel beautiful. Before all your you planning see an increase in price, what are will be to buy? Whatever I can find and I will ask my friend to help me to assemble it. Enjoying music on the go just got a whole lot easier. Without a doubt, the Philips BT is designed for ease-of-use and portability in mind.

Built-in microphones enable you to not only listen to your fave music on-the-go, but to answer calls hands-free. It has NFC, Bluetooth and of course, a 3. It can also double as a hands-free speaker system thanks to an integrated microphone, allowing you to make conference calls. For something that is roughly the size of a modern smartphone, the Philips BT is more than capable of outputting great audio. Filling an entire classroom with music is an easy task for this speaker system.

To find out more, please logon to www. S h aver! Back in the old days, men carried clubs, started fires with stones and were forced to wear beards. Nowadays, we go to clubs, wear gem stones and can choose whether or not we want to keep a beard.

How times have changed! Things are seeming to become better, along with the boom of technology. Travel time has reduced; there was a time we used only our legs and the legs of animals to transport us but now we can reach half way across the globe in a matter of hours. Thus, allowing us to shave off wasted time. With the introduction of the Philips AquaTouch range of electronic shavers, we see more benefits than meets the skin, especially compared to the conventional blades of past.

That, on top of how simple it is to just run an electric shaver across your face and get the results you want in no time, makes this a no brainer — or should we say, no hair-er? Fret not about the mess either, as hairs will be trapped within the shaving head and you only need to open it up and rinse at your earliest convenience. Charge and Go The electric shavers of past required batteries, making it not as cost effective.

However, these days, most, if not all electronic shavers allow you to plug in to a socket and charge the device. For example, the AT only needs an hour to charge and allows for an equal hour of shaving time — but it would only take a fraction of that time for you to be done. Thus, making it even more efficient that the usual blade, or electric shavers of the past.

No Pain, Yet Gain! Remember how when you shave with your blade and when you rinse it the water runs slightly red, then you realise you cut yourself? Well, it would be a thing of the past with electric shavers. Despite having the same close cut feel as a traditional blade, it has less of the adverse effects. Trim or Clean? For those who prefer keeping a little fuzz on their face, all they need to do is charge their shaver and take charge! The electric shaver allows for control of your shaving outcome.

Hence, the electric shaver is also a good tool for styling. Cut exactly where you want to, and at your desired length, as some shavers feature an adjustable trimmer. All in, the electric shaver seems to have more pros than cons to it. Therefore it would definitely be a worthy investment for men around the world — well those who shave at least. We would also recommend the Philips range of shavers and trimmers. Calling all EDM lovers! Drop by Zouk on Saturday to check out Gareth Emery!

Gareth Emery has so far produced three studio albums, and is famous for his singles, Meet Her to Miami, Lights and Thunder, and Drive — this means you are going to get sore feet from too much dancing on Sunday morning! The Turkish-descent producer, who is famous for the acclaimed hit, Tung! Do not disappoint the producer who has fashioned those songs you have been enjoying!

Drop by on Friday and give him a warm Malaysian welcome! Have you experienced partying on a ship with a bunch of other music lovers? Livescape, the team behind Future Music Festival Asia, is inviting you all to a different partying experience, surrounded by international waters! Who remembers the movie The Pick of Destiny? If you do, and you happen to love the band featured in the movie, it is time for you to catch them live!

Tenacious D consists of well-known actor Jack Black and his sidekick, Kyle Gass, who are sure to tickle your funny bones while entertaining the musical side of you! It is a great way to kick off your Monday blues, and storytelling time the next day!

Have you felt the refreshing fall breeze blowing towards you? Are you excited to know what animes await you? Inspector Tsunemori Akane begins to have doubts towards the system and discovers the truth behind it. Having known the truth, what would she do to execute justice and to maintain the peace? We are amazed with how all those tiny details could explain so much of the story. Their endings are completely different, but are co-related nevertheless.

As a big fan of the Fate series, we highly recommend you to watch. However, a criminal has fallen outside of. In order to adapt into their complicated new reality, they have also formed a strong alliance with the People of the Land, which was once known as the non-player characters NPC.

With everything now set, Shiroe along with his guild members are prepared for a new quest to explore the unknown. We are excited as Shiroe and gang slowly discover what awaits them! Who knows if this would affect or have major implications for their new reality? If you are expecting the German version of this album, we are sad to tell you that this album was only released in English. Spending five years on recording and experimenting, Kings of Suburbia is a mix of different genres, which is totally different than.

Are you excited? He is back with his third studio album, Carry On The Grudge after five years and yet we are so worried that he might have given up on music. We recommend you to turn your speakers up before listening to it because it opens with a perfect opening track that makes you want to dance! But what makes us love it so much is the sound they produced! This is the new sound from Tokio Hotel that we really love. Grab this album and take a journey with Tokio Hotel. It is an amazing blues ballad with rich melody that is hard to resist.

This album is the evidence of his growth and it is beyond our expectations. It is certainly worth a listen or two. It does not suck. We love the vocal harmonies from the guitarist very much. German electronic DJ and producer, Robin Schulz has finally released his first album. Unlike with his previous singles, Prayer is a simple album that relies on emotion and ordinary dance beats. However, it is still something amazing that we have never heard. It is musically unpredictable and special.

It is a wonderful song with perfect arrangement, we like the whistling part a lot and it is truly enjoyable. They are not the Weezer you once knew anymore. Give this album a try now. It is irresistible and he is also able to enhance the original version of the songs. The astonishing piano melodies and loops, saxophone rifts and shakers dominate the whole album.

We love this album, it is pretty well done and exhilarating. Gets A Modern Remastered Touch Led Zeppelin is set to unleash an extensive reissue programme of all nine of its studio albums in chronological order. Who or what is that you ask? Shame on you for asking! For the uninitiated, Led Zeppelin is like, only the most successful, innovative and influential of rock groups in history.

Let us school you in the ways of rock. Their heavy, guitar-driven sound was rooted in blues for their early albums, though their unique style drew from a wide variety of influences, including folk music. III, are the first to be released. Each album is newly remastered by guitarist and producer Jimmy Page. Excited yet? Because on top of that, Led Zeppelin will also be opening its vault to share with listeners dozens of as yet unheard studio and live recordings through a second disc of companion audio comprised entirely of unreleased music related to that album.

The nine-song set features seven tracks from the album, including an epic minute version of Dazed And Confused, as well as Heartbreaker and Moby Dick. Leeteuk and Heechul have finally returned to the team after their military service! It is indeed unusual to Super Junior because dance tracks are their strong point. Evanesce is another track that is moderately within Midnight Blues tonality.

It slows things down, but still keeps the intensity high. Raining Spell for Love is more upbeat and it highlights the pleasant voices of the group. It is a party mix that combines hip hop, Samba and pop. This is Love is the standout track on the album due to its amusing music that makes you want to sing together.

Teen Top is all grown up musically! Hoping to give a sexy and manly image in the future, they have released their new album Exito to show their determination. Do you think they have achieved it, even just a little bit?

Generally, the album emphasises on ballads more than dance tracks, which is fascinating. It is unusual to them because they are known for their danceable songs. Cry is a beautiful ballad and it makes Teen Top shine. Love Is… and Remote Control are the most powerful songs on Exito.

Love Is… is attractive because it sounds like a Latin song and is done by guitar and piano. The entire album is skilfully constructed and gorgeously sung. According to S. After persistent discussion of priorities and interests, both. However, the remaining members of the group claimed that they are only doing the best for the group and they are also trying to protect the group.

Known as one of the most powerful vocalist in K-pop, Ailee has finally released her much anticipated mini-album, Magazine. What comes next is Crazy, which has a hip hop vibe with a minor hint of jazz. But that one track that we really love on this album is Goodbye Now.

This track is a warm and touching ballad that moves our heart. Ailee sings beautifully and she has achieved the hardest aspects of singing a ballad, which is the ability to deliver the emotion of the song to us. By listening to this song, you can easily imagine a break up scene of a drama that once made you heartbroken. We also like the last song on the album, Teardrop.

The piano, the hook and the beat are the important elements that make the track amazing. All in all, not a bad effort. Wow, the album opens with the maddeningly bouncy, catchy and playful party song, Go Crazy! Like Tonight is relatively more down tempo than Go Crazy! Unfortunately, a cunning investor appears to take them down.

A team of archaeologists discovers and then explores an ancient pyramid buried under the Egyptian desert. As they investigate, they become trapped and hopelessly lost inside the pyramid, and soon realise to their horror that they are being hunted by a supernatural force. Bilbo Baggins Freeman , Thorin Oakenshield Armitage and his Company of Dwarves have unwittingly unleashed the fury of the dragon, Smaug that soon rains his rage down upon the people of Lake-town.

The Magic Tablet, an Egyptian artefact that keeps everything in the museum alive is beginning to die out. Therefore, Larry Daley Stiller and his exhibit friends decide to travel to London to embark on an epic quest to save the magic before it is gone forever. That doesn't mean if you are over 35 you are unlikely to develop testicular cancer. And if discovered early, the treatments needed are simple.

Though this cancer is still rare, it affects an increasing number of men every year. By being aware of your testicles and checking them regularly, you could help diagnose the problem and quickly arrest and treat testicular cancer. If you check your testicles regularly you will get to know how they normally look and feel and you will be able to spot any unusual changes or growth.

The best time to check your testicles is after a shower when the scrotal skin is relaxed. While testicular changes are not necessarily cancerous or harmful, even the smallest changes to your testes should be checked by your doctor.

Many men are shy to seek professional help. As such a self-examination can be very helpful to detect warning signs that may include swelling, lump or pain in a testicle. Blood test: these are often done to measure the levels of the following tumor markers in your blood:. The causes of testicular cancer are generally not known. However, we know that you can be at risk if you have:. The usual treatment involves the surgical removal of the affected testicle, followed by chemotherapy. Radiation Therapy, which uses high doses of radiation to shrink the tumour, is sometimes used.

Early diagnosis and treatment can cure almost all cases of testicular cancer. So, remember to check after your shower the next time. In the early stages testicular cancer may not exhibit any symptoms. However, the following symptoms may develop as the cancer progresses:. Forget what you have heard about carbs all this while and listen to this: You can eat carbs and still manage to slim down, as long as you stick to these healthy carbs.

Or you are wondering how could this be? The story is more complicated, but it is mainly because all carbs are not created equally. Undeniably, fruits are relatively high in sugar compared to other foods, which is why in some of the popular diets, they recommend you to limit the intake of fruits.

Apart from that, fruits actually fall into the carb category too. However, with the correct amount of intake, you can still continue to lose weight while enjoying fruits. Moreover, for those who are craving for sugar, fruit is your perfect life saviour. Yes, beans are rich in carbs, but they are also an outstanding source for regulating your digestive system and sugar levels, fighting against fat, lowering cholesterol levels and helps in stopping your cravings.

Do not hate beans because they are actually your important ally in your slimming project. However, purchasing oatmeal is tricky because oatmeal companies have convinced us that cooking real oats is tough and very time consuming. I desire to place him in your hands so that he may be taught to read the word of God, You will need a torch to lighten his path to knowledge, so please let me present you with this cane for use as a rod of correction in the event of his showing any indifference to the Divine Light, You should not poke out his eye or break his bones, but — short of such extreme measures- all things are permitted unto you.

The penghulu now visits parents, talks about " average attendances " at the village school, and finally threatens the father with the wrath of the Government if he allows his son to grow up in ignorance. Even this is sometimes ineffective. I have seen a Malay mother go down to a school, smash her son's slate, tear up his books, and defy the head master — and all because the boy's irregularity in attendance prevented his being presented at the annual examination of the class. On this occasion I ventured to suggest that the visiting-teacher might be sent round to bring her to a more reasonable frame of mind, but my proposal was met by the crushing rejoinder that the lady was the visiting-teacher's wife.

The old Malay Koran-schools were often residential. Boys were sent to live in the house of some renowned teacher, the parents supplying each of their sons with a sleeping-mat and pillow, a cooking-pot and a sack of rice. Three lessons were given daily. They lasted for an hour at a time— one after the early morning prayer, the other after the midday devotions and the third after vespers. The instruction was of a most primitive character, A pupil began by learning to repeat correctly the Arabic formula with which every lesson began and ended.

When he had mastered these preliminaries he proceeded to study the alphabet, less for its own sake than as a sort of guide to reading Arabic prayers and texts. Through much memorising and through the assistance given him by his knowledge of the lettering he would in time succeed in being able to read the Koran and the principal prayers from end to end. There his education stopped. The general drift of the text was explained to him, but not the construction of the sentences nor the meaning of the Arabic words.

A slight amount of dogma was also imparted. Religious doctrine can, of course, be made to vary greatly accord- ing to the needs of the locality. A Patani imam onco gave a lecture on " infidels " in the presence of a Siamese Governor and of a European visitor. It did not necessarily refer to other faiths. Other religions had prophets of their own who were nevertheless true prophets like Nabi Isa 9 the prophet of the Christians, and Nabi Musa, the prophet of the Siamese.

Here he bowed to his foreign audience. Doctrines of this sort are not mere diplomatic statements to meet the needs of the moment ; they are sedulously preached by Moslem advocates of peace and conciliation in every part of the world. Of course they differ very greatly from the. In practice the Malay boy has to memorise his Koran and his prayers before he can be admitted by circumcision to the community of Islam, and he can afford to postpone his studies of doctrine to a later date.

At first sight nothing could appear more futile than the Koran-class instruction given to boys all over the Moslem world. It is mere parrot-like repetition of certain texts in a language not understood by the pupils ; and, even if it develops the memory, it would seem to be useless either as an intellectual training or as an education in morals.

But it is never safe to condemn a system that has proved acceptable to a large section of humanity. In some schools the more logical process of teaching a boy Arabic before teaching him the Koran has been tried and found wanting. Arabic is a very difficult language; the teachers were unskilful, and the pupils became discouraged and gave up a task that seemed hopeless. Modern educationists are inclined to insist on the necessity of making study interesting to the student.

The Malay child who mastered an Arabic " broken plural " or some eccentricity in the ways of the Arabic verb would never receive as much praise and satisfaction as the boy who learnt a new prayer and was able to chant it correctly to the great joy and pride of his parents and the envy of the whole neighbourhood. Malay boy to pick up a good deal of knowledge about the meaning of Arabic words and the syntax of the language.

The process was slower, but the steps were pleasanter and more encouraging. Every prayer re- presented one more step to the good ; it was a milestone on the way to wisdom. The duller boys dropped out, and were content with what they knew; the cleverer boys went on and studied more. Learning took a strong religions tinge and became rather fanatical, but it was never stifled by the form in which instruction was given.

Meanwhile a boy learnt his Arabic alphabet and with a little coaching could apply it to the reading and writing of Malay. Manners were recognised as a very important item iu the education given at these old Malay Koran-classes; and nothing is more deplored by natives of the old school than the alleged inferiority of the present generation in this branch of instruction. A boy was taught to be silent until he was addressed, to keep. He generally learnt these lessons well; Malay courtesy is admired by all.

But such cases are rare. The well-educated Malay of the older generation is a master of courteous manners and quiet. With great reluctance the chief rose and spoke at considerable length in a manner that roused the keen aesthetic appreciation of his critical fellow- countrymen.

This feast is part of the circumcision ceremony. The formalities begin when the boy is clad in royal gar- ments and is set upon a royal throne for all and sundry to see. Then on the following day he is stripped, bathed and purified; he is stained with henna like a bridegroom and is dressed in the garb of a pilgrim to Mecca.

In this guise he recites prayers to the assembled guests in order to prove the sufficiency of his learning. When the prayers are over he rises and prostrates himself before his teacher in gratitude for past kindnesses. The parents now come forward with the customary gifts : a suit of clothes, a sum of money and certain articles of food. Then there follows in some parts of Perak a very curious ceremony.

The boy is taken to an inner room, where he is stripped and covered with a rich cloth, while his mouth is filled with yellow glutinous rice and his body is sprinkled with the purifying rice-dust. After this, two coconuts and two small packets of rice are slowly rolled over him from head to foot. This is done to drive away ill-luck. The circum- ciser or mudin then comes forward and gently taps the boy's teeth with a stone. This is also done to avert misfortune.

Feasting follows. The boy is dressed again and is carried in procession round the village and down to the river for another ceremonial purification. There the circumciser makes an appeal to the Spirit of the Waters, deprecating his wrath. The usual purifying rice powder is scattered on the stream and the usual offerings are made— yellow rice, a quid of betel, an egg, seven long packets of cooked rice and seven square packets of cooked rice.

When the Water Spirit has been pro- pitiated the boy is washed by his mother and has his long lock of hair solemnly shorn off by the mudin. The people then return to the house to witness the actual circumcision itself. While this is taking place the boy is made to sit either on a banana trunk or on a sack of rice. It is usual to circumcise a number of boys at one time so as to minimise the cost of the celebrations.

In such cases the son of the giver of the feasts is treated as the king for the occasion, while the other boys whose parents contribute nothing play the part of mere attendants upon the central figure. He appears in the Estimates. In the towns of the Straits Settlements the royal ceremonies are less con- spicuous.

More attention is paid there to the religious details, while motor cars, jewellery and brass bands make up for the absence of the regalia and symbolism of the Native States. A Malay girl is taught something of the Koran, though she is not expected to attain to the same standard of proficiency as her brothers. When her religious education is complete she is dressed like a pilgrim to Mecca and is admitted to the community of Islam by a ceremony much simpler and less public than the circum- cision-rites of boys.

Ear-boring is still practised, but the huge, round ear-studs 2 which were assumed after this ceremony and worn by girls as emblems of' their maiden state, are now becoming ceremonial and are only put on for the wedding itself in order that they may be formally discarded a few days afterwards. This seclusion varies in rigour in different parts of Malaya, being strictest among the " Jawipekan " popu- lation of the towns and least strict in the districts where 1 In Patani this ceremony is performed in infancy.

The confine- ment of girls to their houses served to guard them from the dangerous notice of the chiefs and also from the risk of their injuring their matrimonial prospects by any foolish compromising acts. In the law-abiding Menang- kabau communities of Sumatra a good deal of freedom could be safely allowed, provided that the women kept in parties by themselves and did not indulge in tete-a-tete interviews with fascinating young men.

Out of this degree of freedom there grew up a pretty custom that has greatly influenced Malay literature — the practice of holding rhyming contests between the rival parties of the men and the girls. A girl might be suddenly in- spired to extemporise or quote some pantun or verse that was apposite to the character, history or appearance of some young man who happened to be present. The opportunity was not to be missed.

The person chaffed or one of his friends would retort with a second pantun. The contest would then continue till one or other party was at a loss for a proper reply. The Malay quatrain is a very easy thing to extemporise, owing to the fact that its first two lines are mere jingles put in to rhyme with the last two, and also because every line is sung slowly and is followed by a chorus or refrain that gives time to the other party to think of an appro- priate answer.

At the same time there can be a vast difference in quality between one pantun and another, and there is every scope for skill and wit in these poetic contests, punctuated as they are by the applause or laughter of the audience. While, therefore, in everyday life the negotiations for a wedding are of a very common- place order, it is quite otherwise in ceremonies and in literature. The diplomacy of a marriage generally commences when the parents or friends of the prospective bride- groom make advances to the girl's family with a view to finding out without exposing themselves to the humilia- tion of a public rebuff whether a proposal of this sort would be likely to be well received.

Enquiries such as these need a good deal of tact. The suitor's party do not wish to take any risks and the girl's parents do not like to show any suspicious eagerness to part with their daughter. Hints are sometimes used. What could be more innocent than the position of the little silver vase containing the sireh that is offered to a visitor?

Yet if this vase is upset and left lying on its side, the quick-eyed enquirer knows that his quest is useless ; the lady's people do not desire the marriage. If his hints become broader and the vase still remains upright he knows that he can proceed to more definite action.

Professional marriage- brokers are often employed at this stage; their very presence suggests their errand to the girl's parents. When it seems likely that the proposal of marriage will be well received the ladies of the young man's family call upon the bride, make much of her and endeavour to appraise her character and charms.

The meaning of such overtures can hardly be mistaken ; but it is essential that a real understanding should be arrived at before the marriage can be openly discussed. A rebuff would be fatal to any friendly relations between the two families ; it would indeed be an insult. Says one proverb. Betrothal — because of the feuds that may spring out of a broken promise — is the one occasion in life when the Malay tolerates no indecision and no evasion.

Let us therefore suppose that the proposal is welcome to both parties and that there are no real difficulties in the way. The main details — the amount of the settlement to be made on the bride, the value of the wedding gifts, the probable duration of the engagement, and other questions of the same sort — are roughly settled by custom and are known to both.

All that is left is to have them definitely laid down so that no misunderstandings may arise afterwards. As these matters are too delicate for direct negotiation between the parties, they are usually referred to the penghulu and elders of the village. At this point secrecy ceases to be possible, even if every one is pledged to it. Both parties submit their case to arbitration, knowing in outline what they have to expect and ready to abide by the decision of their elders if it is unfavourable to them on the minor issues that have to be decided.

It was only drawn up for the guidance of Kathis who have to appraise the mas kahvrin for purposes of divorce in cases where no definite sum was actually agreed upon at the time of the wedding itself. But this scale of settlements shows approximately what the bridegroom expects to have to pay and what the penghulu and his elders are likely to fix.

Other matters have also to be arranged. The cost of the wedding festivities has to be paid by the bride's family, but the bridegroom has to contribute to it. The penghulu has to fix the amount of this contribution of " money to go in smoke. The penghulu has also to fix the approxi- mate date of the marriage, so that neither side may evade its obligations by prolonging the engagement indefinitely.

When everything has been arranged in such a manner as to leave no loophole for future disputes the agreement has still to be confirmed by a formal proposal and by its formal acceptance. Malay etiquette expects the suitor's parents or guardians to proceed on his behalf to the lady's house and, after many apologies and much circumlocution, to enquire usually in verse whether the young man may be permitted to offer himself for acceptance as the lady's slave.

It also insists that the girl's relatives shall declare themselves quite unworthy of the proposed honour. The most that they will admit is that they are like the proverbial expression, "nearly up to but not attaining. Ceremonial gifts of betel- nut are then brought forward in two boxes adorned with palm blossoms and decorations of gilt or coloured paper.

After these rings have been passed round from hand to hand so that everyone may be able afterwards to testify to the occurrence the suitor's mother is invited indoors to see the girl. Of course such a visit is never unexpected. The girl is there, dressed in her best and overcome by self -consciousness as her future mother-in-law comes in, addresses her as "my child," kisses her and gives her the engagement-ring as evidence of her betrothal.

The girl answers by doing obeisance. The ladies of the suitor's party then strike up a verse declaring that they have been attracted from afar by the lodestone of the damsel's beauty. After a few more quatrains of this sort refreshments are handed round and the suitor's relatives go home. The public proposal of marriage and its public acceptance give finality to the contract. Its nature can no longer be questioned, and it has to be carried out unless one or other contracting party elects to pay damages for its violation.

The contract is final: the bystanders have witnessed it, the whole village is invited to testify to it. The rule as to its breach is ianda hnpat puking delapan : " if the engagement rings are worth four dollars, the girl's relatives must return eight. Nowadays the presents may be worth much more than four dollars, but that sum meant a great deal to the poverty-stricken ryots in the days before British ascendancy.

After this settlement the suitor and the girl are looked upon as definitely engaged and are allowed to interchange small complimentary gifts. They are not, however, supposed to see anything of each other, as any conduct suggesting forwardness on the lady's part would be an offence against the Indonesian rule that forbids " the well to seek the bucket " or " the pestle to seek the mortar.

Some men, intoxicated with love, cannot sleep after this vision; others can. He is entertained to dinner on the verahdah, brings gifts of money, is very obsequious to his future mother-in-law. When the month of Shaaban comes round and the annual fast is imminent, the girl's parents send over to the house of her betrothed a gift of rice-powder, limes, loofah-fibre, perfumes and other cosmetics used in the ceremonial ablutions that precede the Malay Lent.

This delicate attention is acknowledged by return-gifts of cakes and small sums of money for spending at the minor feast days that occur about this time. Similar courtesies are shown once or twice during the Fast itself, but the great festival of the hari raya is not used for any exchange of civilities between the betrothed.

In every country it sometimes happens that a man falls desperately in love with a girl already engaged to someone else. In such cases every possible opposition must be made to the new suitor if a feud with the first suitor is to be avoided. On this point all Malay law was explicit. He had to defend himself against the murderous enmity of his injured rival until such time as the authorities could step in and put an end to the quarrel. Indonesian custom knew by experience that it had to concern itself more with pacifying feuds than with preventing them ; it never hesitated about compounding an offence.

If a man's betrothed was seduced or abducted, the law stepped in and made the wrong-doer pay compensation all round and a fine to the Bendahara as well. If he failed to pay, he was sold into slavery for the debt. If he paid, the matter blew over. Marriage by abduction became a recognised institution, 1 with a special scale of enhanced payments associated with it.

In the old wild days of Malay rule these abductions often led to most tragic results. If a girl was famous for her beauty the report of her engagement was enough to bring about a crisis. Any disappointed suitor — or perhaps some gay Lothario tempted by the spice of danger that attends the plucking of forbidden fruit — might have recourse to the simple expedient of seizing the girl and threatening to drive his heris through her heart if any attempt was made at a rescue.

An outrage of this sort was known as panjat angkara and was hazardous in the extreme. Even if the abductor escaped instant death he dared not sleep, lest he should be mur- dered in his sleep ; he dared not eat, lest his food should be drugged ; he had to be constantly on his guard, lest he should be suddenly speared by a treacherous thrust through the thin flooring of a Malay house. The "Malay Annals' 9 record the case of a Javanese chief who succeeded in winning a Malacca wife by a desperate panjat angkara.

Many abductors were less fortunate. The relatives refused. He then forced his way into her house, seized her by the hair, drew his kris and defied everybody. Eventually he was drugged — probably with his friends' connivance, for he was not slain — and the girl was released and married to one Mat Arshad.

But it must not be supposed that this pmjat angkara was a recognised and regular form of marriage like panjat adat. It was far too violent for that ; it was a savage variant of the crime pasdonnel, and had much in common with the amok, which is only the Malay form of suicide. How else can one explain the action of Hang Kasturi, who, when his intrigue was discovered, slew the girl in the most cruel manner, stripped and exposed her mutilated body, and then fought all comers till he was slain?

The average Malay engagement pursued its tranquil uneventful course until the prosaic incident of a rice harvest placed the families of the prospective bride and 1 The Btory is given in the " Malay Annals " and is very famous. In the old days of native rule a bad harvest meant a general curtailment of the wedding-festivities.

In the present age of security and peace the beneficent alien money-lender is always ready to make up for the defi- ciencies of the crops. The marriage-ceremonial has become more elaborate than ever, while the people are sinking more and more into debt. The formalities attending a Malay wedding are so elaborate that a European is apt to lose sight of their essential features in his bewilderment at the quantity of incidental detail.

Indeed, the actual marriage service is a very simple rite that lies outside the customary cele- brations. These celebrations should go on for at least seven days. The first three days are given up to the " henna-staining " festivities ; the fourth day is devoted to the adornment of the happy pair, to their meeting and to their sitting in state; the fifth and sixth days are days of little importance ; the seventh day witnesses the ceremonial lustrations of the married couple.

The fourth day is the most notable. During the first three " henna-staining " days the bride is at home to those of her lady-f riendB who express a wish to assist in painting her fingers with henna. The actual henna-staining is done by a professional expert and the assistance given by the visitors is purely nominal. The first " henna " night is known as the hinai churi, because the staining is done in private and in a very small way ; the second night is the hinai bgsar, when the fingers, the toes and even the sides of the feet of both bride and groom are painted with henna.

Both nights are marked by feasts and dancing. On one of the two nights a special " henna-dance " is performed; the other dances and amusements are of the regular Malay type and are only given for the amusement of the guests. On one of these two nights also a special wedding-dish of rice 1 is served. These gifts are presented to the sound of much music and gun or cracker firing. The morning of the fourth day is taken up with the ceremonial' shaving 4 of the bride's fringe and with her adornment for the festivities of the evening.

Her hair to the width of a finger's breadth all round the forehead is drawn forward and shaved off, while the band plays special tunes in honour of the event. After this shaving is over, the bride puts on her bridal dress and jewellery. In her hair she fixes a number of artificial flowers of tinsel- work, kept in position with wires; to her ears she attaches the heavy, round ear-studs 1 that are the emblems of virginity.

She is also adorned with golden nail-protectors, with hollow anklets, with necklaces, with three heavy crescent-shaped breast ornaments known as dokoh, and, in many cases, with as much additional jewellery as her mother can borrow for the occasion. He is dressed as a warrior king. He wears the soldier's short coat, 8 made of rich silk with a gold edging. When the procession is ready it starts off with the bridegroom and sometimes with many symbolic gifts to make its way slowly and "circuitously to the house of the bride.

It cheers itself upon the way with the sound of much cracker-firing, with shouts, with shots, with the banging of drums, with the clanging of gongs and with as many other noises as the village is capable of produc- ing. The bridegroom himself is borne in state by the best means of conveyance obtainable, be that conveyance 1 8ubang. As he approaches his destination the noise becomes more and more deafening, and when he stops it is impossible to hear anyone speak.

This is the signal for the bride's people to suddenly become awake to the fact that something is happening. Does he come in peace or in warP" A colloquy ensues. Sometimes the bridegroom's party apologize for his coming : " He comes by no wish of his own ; he is drawn by some magnet of. All this, of course, gives unlimited opportunities for friendly chaff. Or again, they may pretend to resist him and hurl sweetmeats at the advancing host of the bride- groom's supporters.

A mimic battle ensues and goes on until some well-meant act of treachery gives the bridegroom admission and prevents the jest from lasting too long. His followers crowd in after him. It is usual at this stage for the young man to display a timid modesty that accords very ill with his truculent soldier-dress.

Everyone hastens to reassure him and to lead him to the bridal dais where his bride is waiting. There the pair have to be cere- monially seated together with their little fingers inter- locked. The process is like an exercise in physical drill in which the performer is made to sink slowly down into a squatting posture and then to straighten his knees and stand erect.

Bride and groom have to go on doing this together till they succeed in seating themselves slowly and exactly at the same moment — as custom requires. They also sometimes have to exchange vows that they will cherish each other and each other's good name.

Once seated they are expected to remain motionless while the eyes of all the guests are fixed upon them. In Perak the guests are allowed to come up in strict order of precedence and lay offerings of silver on a platter before the newly-married pair. One by one they come up, doing obeisance, first to royalty if present and then to the bride and bride- groom, as king and queen of the evening.

The married pair interchange mouthfuls of rice as evidence of their new relation to one another ; the feast begins, and at last the guests are sent off in honour to their homes, the less distinguished being sometimes presented with packets of boiled rice and the more distinguished with the telur joran or coloured eggs stuck on branches. On or about the seventh day the ceremonial bathing takes place.

A temporary bath-house is built on a dais above a flight of seven steps, and is prepared for the reception of the bridal pair. The two march up together into it, either holding a handkerchief or with their little fingers interlocked. They sit side by side on a bench or on a banana stem. The bride's hair is untied. In some cases the water is passed through a cloth filled with flowers and palm-shoots; in some cases coconut-milk, lime-juice and rice powder are used as cosmetics for these ablutions ; in all cases everything possible is done to give a ceremonial character to the whole lustration.

In the south the pipe carrying the water is carved into the shape of a dragon's mouth at its extremity. Both in the north and in the south of the Peninsula the lustration ceremony includes the passing of a curious bridal cord round the necks of the married pair, and it ends with the severance of this cord. But long before this cord is severed the excited matrons who wash the bridal couple have turned the water on each other and the ceremony turns into a general fight, in which syringes are the guns and the missiles are streams of water.

The spectators are splashed and wetted until the signal for the cessation of the fun is given by the breaking of the cord that binds the bride and the bride- groom. At a Patani wedding, observed by Mr. Winstedt, this severance was effected by fire; the flame of the burning ends was blown out by the bridegroom and the soot of the charred extremities was rubbed on the foreheads of both him and his wife.

They see very little of each other and are not permitted to be alone. It is not till three days, or a week, or even a fortnight has elapsed after the " final " fourth day l that the bridegroom is allowed to have tho bride to himself. But the marriage is not considered void 2 and the passing of such a public affront on his wife's family is not likely to conduce to the success of his future life.

It is considered bad taste as well as bad policy to create a quarrel at this stage. Any differences are enquired into and can be amicably settled without the cognizance of all the scandalmongers of the village. What happens is this. The imam or other officiating elder opens the proceedings with a religious appeal, such as, " I exhort you to the fear of Allah.

But as the formula is long, and as it is in Arabic, and as the guardian is usually too illiterate and too flustered to be intelligible in a language that he does not know, he appoints some more learned man to be his attorney l and to make the offer in his name. The offer is then made by the attorney. As soon as it has been made the presiding elder gives a warning tug to the bridegroom's arm by way of telling him that he must now express his acceptance of the offer.

He does so — in Arabic. This formula is short enough to present little difficulty even to an illiterate man, but the nervousness of a bridegroom occasionally makes him use some expression that is not to be found in any Arabic dictionary. Everything has then to be repeated all over again — the offer, the warning tug, and the reply. At last the bridegroom gets his words right and the marriage is nearly valid. It is made quite valid by the two necessary witnesses being appealed to, and by their replying that they have heard everything that has taken place.

The presiding elder then repeats a prayer 2 more or less to this effect: M Grod, make union between these two as Thou didst make union between the water and the earth. The bride need not be present at all, and if she is a maiden and under age her consent need not be asked. What is fairly evident from the elaborate wedding ceremonies of the Malays is the fact that the actual religious rite is looked upon as a legalising form like the signing of the register in an English church or the attendance at the Mairie in France.

Henna-staining is a custom that prevails in most Muhammadan countries and was probably imported with Islam. The procession of the armed and mounted bridegroom, the mimic resistance offered to him and the efforts to overcome it either by bribery or battle may be far-away echoes of a time when marriage by capture or marriage by purchase was the recognised rule of the day.

Many of the other incidents have no special reference to marriage. The sitting in state and the ceremonial lustrations, for instance, are not confined to weddings. The shaving of the forehead is hard to explain: certain superstitions are connected with it; inferences regarding the bride's virtue are drawn from the way the hair behaves. In one old romance, the " Hikayat Koris," a distinction is drawn between wives for whom a bridegroom thought it worth his while to shave his own forehead and those to whom he did not pay that compliment.

We can see traces of marriage by purchase in the advances paid at betrothal and in the other customary gifts. We find signs of the matriarchate in the rule that the bridegroom must reside in his wife's house for some considerable time after his wedding. Upon the simple Moslem marriage-rite there is superimposed a whole mass of ancient custom that the Malay refuses to discard. He considers the religious ceremony to be legal but inadequate ; he wants the other things as well.

He does not change old customs for new: he adds the new to the old. In old days high officers of state used to come on painted elephants to their installation. In the Raja Bendahara arrived in a carriage and pair, In the Raja Muda came in a motor-car with carriages and elephants in his train. Last of all will come a faithful retainer, prepared to carry the Chief on his shoulders should our modern contrivances end by leaving his old master in the lurch.

Immediately after his marriage a Malay husband settles down to live in his father-in-law's house. He gives his services to his wife's relatives, helps in their rice-fields, looks after their fruit-trees and repairs the family dwelling. This idyllic state of things may go on for some time, but sooner or later it is apt to be ended by the growth of the new family.

When the old home ceases to be big enough, the young couple desire to set up an establishment of their own. This is not a difficult matter. During some idle month, when rice is not being planted, the husband and his friends clear an acre or two of good dry soil on which to erect a small house and plant a little garden of coconuts and fruit- trees. If the ancestral rice-lands are of small extent, they proceed to extend them by adding a little field or two.

By degrees they build and furnish the new house, and make everything ready for the flitting. The migration would not, however, be reckoned as an incident in Malay life if there were no ceremony attached to it. The villagers assemble ; the old people make a speech enumerating all the articles with which they are endowing the new household; the young people express their complete satisfaction with all that has been done for them, and the flitting is ac- complished.

These formalities are not intended, as a cynic might suggest, to advertise the family reputation for generosity; they are necessary to avoid disputes. Should there subsequently be a quarrel or divorce, every neighbour will be able to testify to the proper distribu- tion of the family property.

When the speeches are over, the neighbours go home enriched by an additional subject of conversation, while the new householders indicate their approval of everything by keeping indoors for three days, so as not to display their radiant faces to any malignant spirit of envy that may be lurking about the village.

Possessed of a house, a garden and a rice-field, they are now in a position to earn a comfort- able living. Of course the above procedure is not invariable. A Malay official cannot afford to live in his wife's house if the Government desires his presence in some other place. Old parents, when their last remaining daughter is married, sometimes move to an annexe or enlarge the house so as to retain their daughter and to save them- selves from the danger of being left alone in their old age.

Moreover, it is not always possible to find unoccupied land in the vicinity of the house of the old people. In such cases the new household is apt to make its home in the new country while the old parents keep to their ancestral village. Krian has been largely populated by this planting-out of young families from Province Wellesley; the coast of Selangor is being settled from Malacca; the whole Peninsula is being helped by a similar tide of migration from Sumatra and Banjermasin.

But Perak itself is not yet over-populated, and the Perak Malay does not leave his native country. Once settled in his new house the young Malay is "king in his own place " ; he can " think of what he pleases and sing when- ever he likes. They also re- cognise that woman's kingdom is the home — a fact which militates against the young husband's perfect freedom. Apart, however, from what the Malays call "the foe in one's own blanket" the householder is independent enough. He works whenever he likes and takes a holiday as often as he pleases.

For a few weeks in the year he is very busy in the rice-fields ; during the remaining ten months he enjoys comparative leisure. He has his meals at irregular times, goes to mosque irregularly, does a little fishing at odd moments — indeed, apart from padi- planting, most Malay work is done at odd moments : it is not the great business of life. Religion supplies him with a time-table — the lunar calendar of the Muhammadans — with its incidents for each day, week, month and year.

It divides up the day with the five daily prayers which he forgets and insists on his attending mosque every Friday, unless he can find some excuse for his habitual absences. It also marks off certain days of the year as great religious festivals. The Moslem year is a lunar year unconnected with seasonal events. It begins with the month Mnhwrram. The first day of the year is not marked by any fes- tivities nor does the month itself contain any special Sunnite holidays, but Indian Shiite influence shows itself in Fenang in the boria performances and in occasional lamentations over the death of the Prophet's grandson Husain.

A boria is a troupe of strolling minstrels, generally dressed and drilled as soldiers and headed by a Captain and an Army Chaplain. The troupe visits the houses of wealthy or popular Moslems and serenades them till paid to go away. The songs are sometimes eulogistic and sometimes comic; the tunes are admir- ably suited for their purpose — pleasing at first and monotonous after a time, so that the troupe is gladly welcomed and gladly dismissed.

The religious element is entirely absent from the boria performances and there is no apparent reason for their association with the month of Muhwrram. Safar, the second month, is regarded as unlucky : to take up any enterprise in Safar is like beginning a journey on a Friday. It is the month in which Muham- mad's fatal illness declared itself.

The last Wednesday of the month is a religious event, a day of penitence and of ceremonial purification from the sins of the world ; but it has been turned by the light-hearted Malays into a sort of bathing-picnic known as the Mandi Safar. The twelfth day of the third month is the anniver- sary of the Prophet's birth and also of his deaths but the former event is regarded as the. The day is wholly a day of rejoicing, marked by much good cheer and by the chanting of many mqbulud or Arabic hymns and discourses about the life of Muhammad.

In consequence of this great festival the name mavlud is often given to the whole month in preference to the orthodox Arabic description of Rabi'u'-l-awwaL Malays, who do like long Arabic words, sometimes use the ex- pression "the four months with the same name" when speaking of the months Rabi'u-l-awwal, llabi'u-'l-akhir, Jamcbdu-l-awwal and Jawwdu-l-akhir.

The names are not the same, but they seem to possess certain family likenesses and are all equally unpronounceable. The next great Moslem holiday is the 27th day of the seventh month, Rajab, the anniversary of the Prophet's journey to heaven. It is a great occasion for chanting and prayer and it is commemorated by all Malays of piety and learning.

The eighth month,. Shaaban, is rendered dismal by the approach of the ninth, the Fasting Month. The fifteenth night of Shaaban is believed to be the time when the Almighty shakes the Tree of Life causing the fall of leaves that represent the lives of men. Through- out this night in some parts of Arabia the mosques are thronged with agonised suppliants appealing to the Almighty to allow their lives to be prolonged through- out the coming year.

Such scenes are rare in the Peninsula. They represent the days of preparation for the Malay Lent and should be marked by ceremonial ablutions to purify the soul and by much food to fortify the body. They are soon over, and the Great Fast begins. Throughout the month of Ramazcm a Moslem is forbidden between sunrise and sunset to eat, drink, chew, smoke or swallow.

It is a time of misery, toiti- gated by the possibility of sleeping all day and feasting all night. During the whole of this period the Spirits of Evil are believed to be chained up, so that the supersti- tious Malay can and does go about at night without fear of ghostly visitants. As each sunset approaches a faithful few find their way to the mosque and await in prayer and meditation the exact moment when they will be permitted to break their fast. When sunset comes the worshippers share a light meal of rice-gruel kanji buka puasa before returning to their homes.

The whole of the month is treated as a sort of a religious retreat, during which great princes like the Sultan of Perak offer a generous hospitality to the pious poor who flock to the palace-assemblies. All through the night there may be heard the long wailing souud of the Arabic chants with which the devotees beguile the weary hours, At last the dawn approaches, the last long meal is taken, and the exhausted worshipper curls up on the floor in sleep.

As the end of the month approaches, the fervour of devotion becomes more intense, the special Arabic chants tarawih become longer, and the strain becomes more cruel. The 26th night is the " Night of Power " l 1 LailatuH-kadir. It is the culminating point of the Bamazan devotions. After the "Night of Power " the weary worshipper scans the horizon anxiously for a sight of the new moon that is to put an end to his long-drawn troubles.

The new moon comes at last; the Great Fast is followed by the Great Feast. Every Malay dons his finest garments, calls on all his friends, gives his family the best dinner he can afford, sends small gifts of cakes to his European acquaintances and apologizes to his seniors for any offence that he may have committed during the past year.

The rejoicings go on for the first three days of the tenth month, Shaunoal. The next great day is the 10th of the twelfth month, Dzu'l-kijjah. It is the month of the Pilgrimage. On this 10th day the pilgrims at Mecca visit a place called the Mina Bazaar, near Mount Arafat, and offer up a sacrifice to mark the conclusion of the Haj. The day is known in the Straits as the hari raya haji.

It is the anniversary of his pilgrimage. On this day the haji — who is often a humble Javanese gardener working in some Singapore or Penang compound — puts on the gorgeous robes and turban of the Arab, takes a holiday and astonishes his employer by his sudden magnificence. The transformation does not last long. This festival is the last of the Moslem year. The Malay possesses another year, a solar year, with holidays and festivals that have no connection with religion.

It begins with some definite sign — the height of the Pleiades above the horizon or the seasonal ripen- ing of some fruit 1 — telling the ryot that the time for planting is at hand. The true Malay year is a sort of farmer's almanac.

Its first festival is marked by the reading of prayers, the burning of incense, and the singing of chants over the mother-seed that is to be used in the rice-nursery. The calendar is marked by further festivals at every stage of cultivation — at the sowing, the transplanting and the harvesting.

It is supplemented by special holidays, when mimic fighting or mock-propitiation is used to get the better of the ghostly denizens of the district who prey upon the crops. This solar calendar is only unsatisfactory because it is unauthorised and uncontrolled by any supreme authority, so that its details vary in every part of the Peninsula.

It is the relic of an old agricultural religion and belongs properly to the province of Folk- lore and Malay Belief. None the less its holidays are observed and its feasts are well attended. The exact day for each event is fixed by the local pawang, but it turns upon the state of the crops and the details of the padi-planting industry.

The industry is the subject of a special pamphlet and need not be considered here. One thing alone must be discussed: how does rice-planting pay? The whole of Malay life turns on this industry and the crucial point in it is one about 1 The ptrah fruit. Hale was appealing for a reduction of taxation, and in his anxiety to forestall any criticism of his figures he made out a strong case against himself.

His figures seem too high. In a most interesting experiment was made in Krian by order of the Director of Agriculture. Eight small pieces of land were marked off and cultivated in different ways in order to test the relative effectiveness of different processes of planting. The bulkiest crop gantang to the acre was obtained from the land cultivated by Banjarese according to their own native methods.

Some instruc- tive differences were noticed in the three other fields cultivated by Banjarese on their own lines as modified in some small detail by the Director. The average for the four Banjarese fields was gantang per acre. A field cultivated by Tamils gave a poorer result. A field treated with bone manure gave a miserable crop gantang to the acre ; selection of local seed by- weight was a failure gantang to the acre , and the importation of special seed from Ceylon resulted in a complete fiasco.

The local ryots, who saw in these ex- periments an attempt to improve on their own methods, summed up the situation with the pithy proverb that it is useless to teach swimming to ducks. The crop of gantang was declared to be a fair crop for the locality. Hale's estimated price of 8 cents per gantang is also rather high. If we set against this sum the tithe taken by the mosque, the cost of buffaloes if used for ploughing , and the money-lender's interest at 24 per cent.

As a matter of fact, it does pay. A loan at 24 per cent, is not a business transaction, nor does a Malay borrow money to open up new land ; indeed, he could not get his loan till he has cultivated his land and secured his title. He borrows money for some wedding-ceremony or afl security for a friend ; and we ought not to lay at the door of the rice-growing industry the improvidence and recklessness of individual ryots. Rice-growing is not the Malay peasant's sole means of livelihood.

He usually has his little holding with its thirty or forty cocount trees round his house. If he resides near the sea he can earn an' appreciable amount by working as a fisherman. If he lives near a forest he may gather and sell rattans and other jungle produce.

In some places he can make great profits by cutting the nipah palms and making house-roofing. If his house is near a high road he may keep a cart or carriage and earn an occasional dollar by letting it out on hire. In many cases he has some special source of income of his own — he may be a mosque-official or a Koran-teacher or a school-master or a smith. Separately considered these sources of profit amount to very little; collectively they mean a great deal.

As it is, the Malay peasant is never likely to furnish a plentiful supply of cheap labour ; he is far too well-off for that. He may take odd jobs and small contracts, but he will not consent to exchange his lot for that of a regular wage-earner on an estate. Why, indeed, should he? His life is varied, pleasant, and healthy ; it supplies him with all that he needs ; it allows him ample leisure and absolute personal freedom.

All that is necessary is the choice of a suitable season — the month after the harvest — when everyone is at leisure and the granaries are full. Agriculture is the soul of Malay life. When a Malay becomes so ill that the ministrations of the local herbalists are of no avail he sends for the pawang.

Now the paivang is a very unorthodox person : historically he is the priest of an older religion and theoretically a trafficker with evil spirits and a dabbler in the blackest of black art. To the pious dignitaries of the mosque the pawang is an abomination, because he represents the accredited agent of the Devil.

But the sick man is not likely to stand upon such ceremony ; believing as he does that all sickness comes from the Evil One he will not be deterred by any rules of propriety from entering into negotiations with his tormentor. He sends for the paivang. The paivang realises the delicacy of the situation and begins with mild measures : he tries to feed the Evil One. He hangs out baskets of food and cakes in the jungle — raw food and cooked food, vegetable food and animal food, dainties to suit all tastes.

If the spirit is malicious enough to go on tormenting the poor sick man after such kindness has been shown, the paivang tries a little mild deception. Having built a sacrificial boat, filled it with money and provisions, and induced the evil spirits to step on board, he sets it adrift on the river to float away to its fate in the Great Sea.

It is wicked; but what else is the poor sick man to do? Sir Prank Swettenham has described a berhantu ceremony; 1 so has Mr. But descriptions are of all sorts : one may dwell on the ridiculous aspect of an incident, and another may resolve itself into detailed inventory of the pawang 9 s paraphernalia and a word-for-word record of the formula that he uttered. Sir Frank's pawang was "a woman in male attire — in ordinary life she was an amusing lady named Raja Ngah, a scion of the reigning house on the female side"; JMt.

Skeat's pawang was a man of no special importance. Sir Frank's orchestra consisted of "five or six girls holding native drums " and was headed by the daughter of Raja Ngah ; Mr. Skeat's was only the pawang 's wife, ," an aged woman whose office was to chant the invoca- tion. Skeat's was the plebeian tiger-spirit, the common property of the whole Malay world. There is a vast difference in the importance of the incidents described; Mr.

When Sultan Abdullah was charged with complicity in the assassination of the British Resident, one of the allegations against him was that he had "sent off a boat to Pasir Panjang to fetch down the Raja Kechil Muda and his son, Raja Ahmad, to conduct a main berhantu in his presence," and that the object of the performance was in some way connected with the murder of Mr. He described it as " a superstitious performance which the Perak people have learnt from the Sakais or wild men of the interior for looking into the future by calling up spirits and questioning them ;.

Birch's life.

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That means no exposed body parts and no proper fit. In fact, rulers would charge them for indecency! Back in the mid s, women used to wear full-length gown swimsuits with weight sewn. As time goes by, the garments used for swimsuits got shorter and tighter, and it came to the point where they became as tiny as they are now. Even though it is an acceptable norm to expose most of your body parts in swimsuits, the majority of you are most embarrassed by your own bodies.

That kind of thinking is so last year! Other than having balanced diets and taking. Looking for suitable swimsuits can be a daunting task, and the options available on the shopping rack are less than encouraging. Remember, the formula for a bikini body is simply owning a pair of bikini and a body, and there you go!

You just made yourself a bikini body without even dropping a sweat. As you can see, these celebrities and plussized models are not shy to show their bodies off in front of the camera, so you do not have to be too, at all!

Contrasting to the deep blend of feminine look in his latest designs, Ted involves snakeskinprint and sparkling sequins sportswear in the collection, influenced by the urban, futuristic feel of the year of Better yet, Ted includes the vibrant orange colour of summer. Above all, Ted involves colour blocking in the midst of his charming prints.

Layrite Original RM75 e. Slick Devil Pomade RM75 g. REX RM40 i. Rebirth, renew, and refresh. Embrace the 3Rs for a happier you, and believe it or not, you do not have to fork out an arm and a leg to grab these three. Let KL Greaser make your 3R dream come true! Check them out, pick your favourite hairstyling product, and have fun looking good! Flip to the next page to find out more! Men from that age normally wear their hairs short; however, those from different parts of the world wear their hairs differently.

Where the s women kept their hair short and curly, the men kept their hairs, of course, shorter than the women did, and combed them slick backwards. John Lennon and the rest of The Beatles also stepped into the circle of popular hairstyles, boosting the fame of The Shag, in which people and their forever fans still follow up to now.

Oh, how we laugh at those hairstyles now, but probably would have sported them if we grew up in that era. Up to now, most men wear Faux Hawks and a Pompadour, just not as high as how Elvis wore it. The popular hairstyle for men now goes around the top with short sides. From David Beckham to his Manchester United replacement Cristiano Ronaldo and countless other footballers and celebrities, this is the de rigueur hairstyle.

Check out some below! The beauty industry is a huge industry and its influence reaches far and wide, with every trend being copied and emulated, effecting a powerful impact on everyone from the man in the street to impressionable young college students. Industry wide, the image of beauty is that of completely skinny and in some extreme cases, malnourished models, unrealistically high-priced products, and the obsession with staying forever young.

Moreover, it puts pressure on the everyday Joe and Jane to achieve the unachievable, in an already distorted reality. From then on, they will validate all sorts of methods to reach the almost-impossible point, leading them to sickening realities, depression, and eventual deaths. Every industry, no matter its size, has its followers and fans. The fashion industry especially, has a substantially huge fan base that, unlike their models, keeps on growing bigger.

The fan base largely consists of females, with increasing number of males making up the percentages. With the proliferation of the portrayal of Western beauty as being the standard to aspire to, the pressure spills over to us college students to go for extreme weight maintenance strategies.

In terms of fashion, students and youth in general need role models to look up to. However, whether knowingly or unknowingly, the fashion industry passes on its disorders and negative viewpoints and practices on to its followers as well. She said it as the trend of the fashion model champ of the 80s — toned women — went down the ladder, and was being replaced by skinny models, popularised by legendary British model Twiggy, and the 90s supermodel herself.

Kate Moss was greatly backlashed for the statement, as it was seen as encouraging eating disorders among girls, mainly anorexia nervosa food-consumption refusal and bulimia nervosa force-expulsion of food. Medical professionals describe eating disorders as psychologically abnormal eating habits, involving insufficient or excessive. Contemporary mass media has distorted the ideal portrayal of body shape as being skinny. From glossy magazines, to advertisements and films, we are constantly bombarded with altered visuals of body.

Regardless of age, this is applicable to women and a small portion of men. Although Marian has no factual evidence, she confirms that girls are far more obsessed with their weight compared to boys. However, it is still applicable to both genders due to the media and peer pressure. Moreover, it guides the already superficial fashion industry to validate extreme measures of losing weight — cue bulimia and anorexia.

Most female fashion models suffer from both, due to the size-zero outfit samples given by fashion houses to satisfy the distorted standards. Going against this, Marian thinks that companies, fashion retailers and designers have to respond more appropriately by having models wear clothes that does not necessarily publicise its size. Modelling agencies have embarked on more extreme measures now, resorting to hanging outside eating disorder rehabilitation clinics to scout teenage girls just out of their treatments, especially those on wheelchairs.

More revolting still, these agencies look to hire girls as young as 14 years old, because of the tiny bone structure pre-teenagers have — just to cash in on the thinness trend. Although famous Vogue editor Anna Wintour has entirely halted her magazine from featuring size-zero and below 16 models, that is only in Vogue, what about other magazines?

Most of them died from heart problems, and medical professionals have proven that it is the result of insufficient food intake. Worse still, kids as young as 10 years old are having this mind-set. It then leads on to older females, especially college students.

They resemble the group with the most exposure to eating disorders, and the ones most sociologists conduct research on. Marian confirms this statement, and says that it has struck quite a number of college students who came to her office for consultation. From Depression to Death Depression is an excessively common disorder in the fashion industry. Apart from the pressures to stay skinny and avoiding food as mentioned earlier, models are subjected to a variety of unrelenting stressors that ultimately spirals into mental disorders.

Behind the glam of the catwalk or photo shoot, modelling can be and is a lonely profession, in the sense that the models themselves are detached from pre-existing psychological and physical support systems in the form of family and friends, as travelling on short notice is a requirement of the job. Pre-shows and walking on runways is not as easy as it seems too.

Think about the vicious physical criticism s from potential clients and even from their own representatives. Furthermore, modelling agencies pay very little attention to the wellbeing of their models, and this in turn makes them vulnerable to psychological disorders.

This leads to a never-ending cycle of stress, anxieties and depression. A model not only suffers from these; eating disorders and substance dependencies and abuses usually accompany these detrimental psychological conditions. Some tragic examples of models that have ended up taking their own life include Canadian Hayley Kohle who jumped.

Depression resulting from eating disorders is becoming increasingly common amongst students too. Based on experience, Marian admits that depression and severe mood swings are common results from eating disorders. It is not abnormal for people with eating disorders to be easily irritable, anxious, and in a state of feeling down all the time, which if not treated may lead to depression.

A Malaysian college graduate, majoring in communications, says that she does not feel good after eating, and that it makes her feel extremely guilty. She will head to the bathroom to purge the food out right after a meal, and she will not wait long to do that because it will be harder for her to forcefully expel the food.

I will hate myself for it. This includes the effect it can have on loved ones, family and friends. Indeed, it takes a great amount of treatment, effort and support to overcome the eating and accompanying psychological disorders. Abdil Azim B Abdul Rahim took the time to talk to and show the students the particulars and quirks of the industry and shared details about the Animasia studio. Wong Yen Lin then showcased the usability and mobility of their hard drives.

Thanks to this workshop I now know that animation can be done in Malaysia, instead of overseas. Overall the workshop was a resounding success, with many students learning and knowing much more about the animation industry than before. Students left with the hope that many more great and enlightening workshops like this will be organised and conducted in the future.

It all started at a family recreational clubhouse in Kulim known as the Kulim Club; that was the first time I was exposed to the karaoke machine. From that point on, all I ever wanted to do was sing. I have been singing professionally for 12 years now; I secured my first paid gig at age So I made the decision to pursue my love for music after all and go full steam with it.

PY: It was tough but worth it. You will face rejection and encounter many a curveball but the only thing that will keep you moving forward is determination and perseverance. Those moments of weakness will pass. Keep on going. PY: My inspiration comes from everyday experiences, my travels, listening to my favourite artistes, movies— just about anything, really. Ultimately, it all boils down to personal and professional priorities; when the two collide, it can get rough. The massive crowds, atmosphere, big stage, sights, and sounds were super intense and I liked it.

It was all very surreal. I felt like I belonged on that stage. It was a beautiful moment for me. PY: Yes, I do. I get to help my students tackle their concerns where singing is concerned. PY: Music is not a destination, but rather a journey through a myriad of extreme highs and lows.

Brace yourself for impact because the unexpected can creep up on you when you least expect it. Stay professional, creative, and fluid. Also, advice can come in many different forms; take the good and throw out the bad. Be true to the musician inside you. For the said track, I have put together a self-made lyric video— one which hopefully captures my love of stop motion animation.

It took me a month to churn out and I am very excited to share it with everyone. For a listen, tune in to www. Beauty Around The World Women have devoted so much time and effort in improving their physical beauty. The question is, is the depiction of beauty as being super skinny and tall the norm? Super skinny and tall - Is that the beauty standard? The Western depiction of beauty has come a long, long way in influencing beauty and the perception of it around the world.

Women, mostly, have devoted so much time in improving their beauty accordingly for years, but not to some women in other places of the world. According to other cultures around the world, super skinny and tall are not the main ingredients of beauty. Their depictions of beauty may seem peculiar; however, these women have dedicated their bodies for beauty ever since they were little girls. The bold and beautiful bodies of Mauritanian women 1. The beautiful big feet of Indonesian Karo Batak women The Karo Batak, who live in the northern island of Indonesia of Sumatra, deem women with big feet attractive, even until now.

University of Washington anthropologist Geoff Kushnick conducted a sociological research about this matter, proving that both genders of the ethnicity prefer an illustration of women with bigger feet than smaller ones. The scientist found that Western media has not thoroughly exposed the Karo Batak population, resulting in their continued traditional and cultural perspective of beauty. Linking to the ecological value, Kushnick interviewed a Karo Batak man, who confirmed that big feet are indeed attractive, and the interviewee goes on to wonder how women with smaller feet can work in a rice field.

The tall and beautiful necks of the Burmese Kayan tribe The longer your neck is, the more attractive you become. As fellow South East Asians, who happen to live in relatively close proximity with the Kayan tribe, surely you must have heard of them. Yes, they are the women who wear brass rings on their necks, whose weight can reach up to 22 pounds the brass rings, not the women themselves! This beauty ritual starts since they are as young as five years old, and their mothers, who are wearing the same brass rings on their already-elongated necks as well, will add it up as they grow older.

The norm of the brass rings in the Kayan village depicts elegance and social status for these women — two main points explaining why most women dress up, only in a different way. Contrary to popular Western beauty belief, the men of a Mauritanian village called Atar see overweight women as being attractive and stretch marks as huge turn-ons.

Mauritanian elders will force-feed the younger ones to achieve such a look, making them eat at least 15, calories a day — more than what a regular male body builder eats, or Michael Phelps! The women send their daughters off to a camp, and promise them that they will turn beautiful once they are home from the camp. The camp leaders will force-feed these girls, and even threatening to cane if they refuse to eat. Even so, the bold bodies of the Mauritanian women portray higher social class and beauty.

These women normally scar their torsos and chests, while the men will find them attractive and sensual. Scarification, however, is only popular in the dark-skinned cultures, because tattoos will be difficult to view. It is a type of body art as well, and is deemed as being a part of the modern tattoo culture.

Tattoo artists will create shallow cuts and form visual or typographic designs on skins. The beautifully stretched earlobes of Kenyan women In the tradition of a tribe called Maasai, located in the border of Kenya and Tanzania, the women have different ways of portraying beauty. Their elongated ears are the most significant among all. Although they acknowledge the presence of Western media and the ideologies it tries to disseminate into their lifestyle, the Maasai still stick to their traditions.

The women still elongate their ears by piercing them with thorns, and then lengthen them by using elephant tusks, stones, or twigs. They, moreover, will wear beads to beautify their ears, and setting the beads up together as headpieces and necklaces as well.

It validates you to dress up, and be as beautiful as you think you are. You do not have to follow the popular culture; you just have to be yourself because you are most beautiful when you feel beautiful. Before all your you planning see an increase in price, what are will be to buy?

Whatever I can find and I will ask my friend to help me to assemble it. Enjoying music on the go just got a whole lot easier. Without a doubt, the Philips BT is designed for ease-of-use and portability in mind. Built-in microphones enable you to not only listen to your fave music on-the-go, but to answer calls hands-free.

It has NFC, Bluetooth and of course, a 3. It can also double as a hands-free speaker system thanks to an integrated microphone, allowing you to make conference calls. For something that is roughly the size of a modern smartphone, the Philips BT is more than capable of outputting great audio.

Filling an entire classroom with music is an easy task for this speaker system. To find out more, please logon to www. S h aver! Back in the old days, men carried clubs, started fires with stones and were forced to wear beards. Nowadays, we go to clubs, wear gem stones and can choose whether or not we want to keep a beard.

How times have changed! Things are seeming to become better, along with the boom of technology. Travel time has reduced; there was a time we used only our legs and the legs of animals to transport us but now we can reach half way across the globe in a matter of hours. Thus, allowing us to shave off wasted time. With the introduction of the Philips AquaTouch range of electronic shavers, we see more benefits than meets the skin, especially compared to the conventional blades of past. That, on top of how simple it is to just run an electric shaver across your face and get the results you want in no time, makes this a no brainer — or should we say, no hair-er?

Fret not about the mess either, as hairs will be trapped within the shaving head and you only need to open it up and rinse at your earliest convenience. Charge and Go The electric shavers of past required batteries, making it not as cost effective.

However, these days, most, if not all electronic shavers allow you to plug in to a socket and charge the device. For example, the AT only needs an hour to charge and allows for an equal hour of shaving time — but it would only take a fraction of that time for you to be done. Thus, making it even more efficient that the usual blade, or electric shavers of the past. No Pain, Yet Gain! Remember how when you shave with your blade and when you rinse it the water runs slightly red, then you realise you cut yourself?

Well, it would be a thing of the past with electric shavers. Despite having the same close cut feel as a traditional blade, it has less of the adverse effects. Trim or Clean? For those who prefer keeping a little fuzz on their face, all they need to do is charge their shaver and take charge! The electric shaver allows for control of your shaving outcome. Hence, the electric shaver is also a good tool for styling. Cut exactly where you want to, and at your desired length, as some shavers feature an adjustable trimmer.

All in, the electric shaver seems to have more pros than cons to it. Therefore it would definitely be a worthy investment for men around the world — well those who shave at least. We would also recommend the Philips range of shavers and trimmers.

Calling all EDM lovers! Drop by Zouk on Saturday to check out Gareth Emery! Gareth Emery has so far produced three studio albums, and is famous for his singles, Meet Her to Miami, Lights and Thunder, and Drive — this means you are going to get sore feet from too much dancing on Sunday morning! The Turkish-descent producer, who is famous for the acclaimed hit, Tung! Do not disappoint the producer who has fashioned those songs you have been enjoying!

Drop by on Friday and give him a warm Malaysian welcome! Have you experienced partying on a ship with a bunch of other music lovers? Livescape, the team behind Future Music Festival Asia, is inviting you all to a different partying experience, surrounded by international waters! Who remembers the movie The Pick of Destiny?

If you do, and you happen to love the band featured in the movie, it is time for you to catch them live! Tenacious D consists of well-known actor Jack Black and his sidekick, Kyle Gass, who are sure to tickle your funny bones while entertaining the musical side of you! It is a great way to kick off your Monday blues, and storytelling time the next day! Have you felt the refreshing fall breeze blowing towards you?

Are you excited to know what animes await you? Inspector Tsunemori Akane begins to have doubts towards the system and discovers the truth behind it. Having known the truth, what would she do to execute justice and to maintain the peace? We are amazed with how all those tiny details could explain so much of the story. Their endings are completely different, but are co-related nevertheless.

As a big fan of the Fate series, we highly recommend you to watch. However, a criminal has fallen outside of. In order to adapt into their complicated new reality, they have also formed a strong alliance with the People of the Land, which was once known as the non-player characters NPC.

With everything now set, Shiroe along with his guild members are prepared for a new quest to explore the unknown. We are excited as Shiroe and gang slowly discover what awaits them! Who knows if this would affect or have major implications for their new reality? If you are expecting the German version of this album, we are sad to tell you that this album was only released in English.

Spending five years on recording and experimenting, Kings of Suburbia is a mix of different genres, which is totally different than. Are you excited? He is back with his third studio album, Carry On The Grudge after five years and yet we are so worried that he might have given up on music. We recommend you to turn your speakers up before listening to it because it opens with a perfect opening track that makes you want to dance!

But what makes us love it so much is the sound they produced! This is the new sound from Tokio Hotel that we really love. Grab this album and take a journey with Tokio Hotel. It is an amazing blues ballad with rich melody that is hard to resist. This album is the evidence of his growth and it is beyond our expectations.

It is certainly worth a listen or two. It does not suck. We love the vocal harmonies from the guitarist very much. German electronic DJ and producer, Robin Schulz has finally released his first album. Unlike with his previous singles, Prayer is a simple album that relies on emotion and ordinary dance beats.

However, it is still something amazing that we have never heard. It is musically unpredictable and special. It is a wonderful song with perfect arrangement, we like the whistling part a lot and it is truly enjoyable. They are not the Weezer you once knew anymore. Give this album a try now. It is irresistible and he is also able to enhance the original version of the songs.

The astonishing piano melodies and loops, saxophone rifts and shakers dominate the whole album. We love this album, it is pretty well done and exhilarating. Gets A Modern Remastered Touch Led Zeppelin is set to unleash an extensive reissue programme of all nine of its studio albums in chronological order. Who or what is that you ask?

Shame on you for asking! For the uninitiated, Led Zeppelin is like, only the most successful, innovative and influential of rock groups in history. Let us school you in the ways of rock. Their heavy, guitar-driven sound was rooted in blues for their early albums, though their unique style drew from a wide variety of influences, including folk music. III, are the first to be released. Each album is newly remastered by guitarist and producer Jimmy Page.

Excited yet? Because on top of that, Led Zeppelin will also be opening its vault to share with listeners dozens of as yet unheard studio and live recordings through a second disc of companion audio comprised entirely of unreleased music related to that album.

The nine-song set features seven tracks from the album, including an epic minute version of Dazed And Confused, as well as Heartbreaker and Moby Dick. Leeteuk and Heechul have finally returned to the team after their military service!

It is indeed unusual to Super Junior because dance tracks are their strong point. Evanesce is another track that is moderately within Midnight Blues tonality. It slows things down, but still keeps the intensity high. Raining Spell for Love is more upbeat and it highlights the pleasant voices of the group.

It is a party mix that combines hip hop, Samba and pop. This is Love is the standout track on the album due to its amusing music that makes you want to sing together. Teen Top is all grown up musically! Hoping to give a sexy and manly image in the future, they have released their new album Exito to show their determination. Do you think they have achieved it, even just a little bit? Generally, the album emphasises on ballads more than dance tracks, which is fascinating.

It is unusual to them because they are known for their danceable songs. Cry is a beautiful ballad and it makes Teen Top shine. Love Is… and Remote Control are the most powerful songs on Exito. Love Is… is attractive because it sounds like a Latin song and is done by guitar and piano. The entire album is skilfully constructed and gorgeously sung. According to S. After persistent discussion of priorities and interests, both.

However, the remaining members of the group claimed that they are only doing the best for the group and they are also trying to protect the group. Known as one of the most powerful vocalist in K-pop, Ailee has finally released her much anticipated mini-album, Magazine. What comes next is Crazy, which has a hip hop vibe with a minor hint of jazz. But that one track that we really love on this album is Goodbye Now. This track is a warm and touching ballad that moves our heart.

Ailee sings beautifully and she has achieved the hardest aspects of singing a ballad, which is the ability to deliver the emotion of the song to us. By listening to this song, you can easily imagine a break up scene of a drama that once made you heartbroken. We also like the last song on the album, Teardrop.

The piano, the hook and the beat are the important elements that make the track amazing. All in all, not a bad effort. Wow, the album opens with the maddeningly bouncy, catchy and playful party song, Go Crazy! Like Tonight is relatively more down tempo than Go Crazy! Unfortunately, a cunning investor appears to take them down. A team of archaeologists discovers and then explores an ancient pyramid buried under the Egyptian desert.

As they investigate, they become trapped and hopelessly lost inside the pyramid, and soon realise to their horror that they are being hunted by a supernatural force. Bilbo Baggins Freeman , Thorin Oakenshield Armitage and his Company of Dwarves have unwittingly unleashed the fury of the dragon, Smaug that soon rains his rage down upon the people of Lake-town.

The Magic Tablet, an Egyptian artefact that keeps everything in the museum alive is beginning to die out. Therefore, Larry Daley Stiller and his exhibit friends decide to travel to London to embark on an epic quest to save the magic before it is gone forever. That doesn't mean if you are over 35 you are unlikely to develop testicular cancer. And if discovered early, the treatments needed are simple. Though this cancer is still rare, it affects an increasing number of men every year.

By being aware of your testicles and checking them regularly, you could help diagnose the problem and quickly arrest and treat testicular cancer. If you check your testicles regularly you will get to know how they normally look and feel and you will be able to spot any unusual changes or growth. The best time to check your testicles is after a shower when the scrotal skin is relaxed. While testicular changes are not necessarily cancerous or harmful, even the smallest changes to your testes should be checked by your doctor.

Many men are shy to seek professional help. As such a self-examination can be very helpful to detect warning signs that may include swelling, lump or pain in a testicle. Blood test: these are often done to measure the levels of the following tumor markers in your blood:. The causes of testicular cancer are generally not known. However, we know that you can be at risk if you have:.

The usual treatment involves the surgical removal of the affected testicle, followed by chemotherapy. Radiation Therapy, which uses high doses of radiation to shrink the tumour, is sometimes used. Early diagnosis and treatment can cure almost all cases of testicular cancer.

So, remember to check after your shower the next time. In the early stages testicular cancer may not exhibit any symptoms. However, the following symptoms may develop as the cancer progresses:. Forget what you have heard about carbs all this while and listen to this: You can eat carbs and still manage to slim down, as long as you stick to these healthy carbs. Or you are wondering how could this be? The story is more complicated, but it is mainly because all carbs are not created equally.

Undeniably, fruits are relatively high in sugar compared to other foods, which is why in some of the popular diets, they recommend you to limit the intake of fruits. Apart from that, fruits actually fall into the carb category too. However, with the correct amount of intake, you can still continue to lose weight while enjoying fruits. Moreover, for those who are craving for sugar, fruit is your perfect life saviour. Yes, beans are rich in carbs, but they are also an outstanding source for regulating your digestive system and sugar levels, fighting against fat, lowering cholesterol levels and helps in stopping your cravings.

Do not hate beans because they are actually your important ally in your slimming project. However, purchasing oatmeal is tricky because oatmeal companies have convinced us that cooking real oats is tough and very time consuming. Wake up and stop buying those instant, pre-sweetened oats! Real oats are actually low in calorie, high in fibre and not fattening. Additionally, they also cook up in minutes. Oats are definitely your best friend because it releases the energy slowly to keep you full and satisfied.

It is far more efficient than a bowl of cereals or a piece of fruit! Forget what you have heard about carbs all this while and listen to this: Y ou can eat carbs and still manage to slim down, as long as you stick to these healthy carbs. This superfood cooks just like rice and is a complete protein.

It contains all nine essential amino acids, which are astonishing for your skin and your body to form lean, calorie-burning muscle. Four grams per half-cup serving is sufficient to be your lunch or dinner! Another best friend of yours in fighting hunger during your diet. Comparatively, barley groats or whole hull-less barley contains more healthy nutrients than pearled barley.

So make sure you get the right one! Whole grains are actually good for your diet. With the correct proportion — around three servings daily — it will bring you a lower BMI and less abdominal fat. Say hello to them and be glad that they came into your life.

While many of us are used to clubbing and bar hopping, there is another form of moving from spot to spot that can be equally, if not more fun! There are a few clusters of little green emeralds that rise above the sapphire ocean that are worth the time and money; and the returns of your investment will come in the form of experiences and memories to cherish for a lifetime!

While there are many islands to choose from in Malaysia, we will only be focusing on three islands. The curse was that there would be no peace and prosperity on the island for seven generations. Whether or not one chooses to believe this, the curse has been lifted and the island has become quite prosperous indeed. In the surrounding waters of tax-free haven Langkawi, are a number of islands.

Head on over to the beach side and you will find a myriad of tour operators that provide island hopping packages. Usually the time taken to visit all three islands is about 4 hours. Here, legend has it that a celestial princess named Mambang Sari had a favourite bathing pool, Lake Dayang Bunting, also known as the.

Lake of the Pregnant Maiden. The lake is believed to have mystical qualities that help barren women bear children, upon taking a dip in its waters. Seen from afar, the entire island also has the features of a pregnant woman lying on her back. One can enjoy the lush greenery of the island through the nature walk which has been paved to make the experience enjoyable for tourists — but beware the monkeys!

Other activities that can be enjoyed include a natural fish spa and use of paddle boats. There is also a souvenir shop for those who want mementos of the place. The island is rather undeveloped and this allows it to maintain its natural charm and beauty. The major attraction on this island would be the eagle feeding. Most tour services would stop slightly away from the shore and the boatman would throw pieces of chicken into the sea; then watch as magnificent eagles swoop down at the water to feed.

There is also the option to camp on the island for those who want to. However, you should get in touch with the Langkawi Tourist Information Centre before making plans to go camping. The sands are white, and the water clear. Beras Basah is essentially the best spot to relax and unwind. There is not much of activities per se, but just soak up the sun and embrace your surroundings. It is a great venue to spend some quiet time by yourself or with those you love; so bring a book or pack a picnic — just make sure that you pack those stuff well as the ride in motorboats tend to splash water all over the place, so prepare to get wet!

These are merely three destinations that we have mentioned. Additionally, should you get the opportunity, island hop around the isles of Redang, Perhentian and Lang Tengah. Topshelf, named after the culinary jargon to mean the top of the shelf where only the best is meant to be, has managed to live up to its set standard.

It makes a great spot for friends, families and even for couples looking to cosy it up amidst the slight feel of romance as the restaurant offers soft, cascading yellow light from unique lighting fixtures. Led by manager Chef Gary, the restaurant offers classic French cuisines with a touch of Italian at bistro prices. The menu presents a range of starters, some of which are true French classics such as escargot, chicken liver pate and Crab Meat Risotto.

The Nicoise salad; RM27, is a good choice for a fresh start as it comes with mixed greens, beans, tomatoes and quail eggs which is generously topped off with fresh slices of tuna. The tuna was firm yet succulent and tasty with a fleshy red tone, a clear indication of its freshness. On a rainy night, the best of all starters is the Moules Mariniere priced at only RM The dish is a warm, soup based meal of fresh mussels simmered in white wine, shallots and herbs, served with a side of delicious crusty bread.

The portion was generous and enough to satisfy two, as the mussels were aplenty and the broth was like a lullaby to the tummy on a cold night. The duck is served on a bed of French beans and braised cabbage and is easily a meal made with no shortcuts, definitely worth the RM The menu stays true to the classics of a European fare and offers simpler meals with a fine selection of Italian staples.

The inclusion of Italian into the menu makes this restaurant an easy place for families with children who may not adapt well to the taste of France. As France is a wine country, what French restaurant is complete without a fine selection of wine?

The owner and manager of Topshelf. Truly the cherry on the cake when the wind is howling and rain is pouring outside. This dinner is an intimate affair, meant to showcase the talent of the leading men of Topshelf as guest patrons around a communal table and watch them dish out elegant meals, true to the European palate. Early reservations are required as seating is limited and for good reason too.

Before Colonel Nick Fury became the brown and cuddly super spy and leader of SHIELD that new Marvel readers have come to know, he was once a grizzled soldier and a totally badass black ops operative. Ennis weaves a tale that gives the classic Nick Fury the proper send-off the character deserves. It opens with Fury sitting alone in a hotel room with nothing but bourbon and a Colt for company — coughing his many confessions into an antique tape recorder that chronicles a legacy of carnage that spans over 50 years.

Readers are taken on a history of 20th century world warfare, as Fury recounts his many battles and off-the-book missions in countless hotspots spanning the globe. From Indochina in to his team up with a young Marine sniper by the name of Frank Castle still in his pre-Punisher days to assassinate a Viet Cong general in Vietnam circa , there is no shortage of brutal violence and the triumph of human element in the face of war.

Readers can also look forward to the appearance and origin story of fan-favourite Punisher villain, Barracuda as he crosses paths with Fury in Nicaragua, And yes, with over 40 years of experience in business, he is more than qualified to offer his two cents on the subject of leadership.

Most of the advice on offer here is the same sort that is offered in so many other books. What differentiates this book though, are the many anecdotes and reallife-tried-and-tested guidelines and wisdom that Branson has to impart. He stresses the importance of being a good listener over being a great talker, as well as the need to break down organisational silos. There are no hard rules here, as this is anything but a conventional book on leadership. Rather, there are secrets of leadership in which Branson has learned along the way from his days at Virgin Records and to his most recent work with The Elders.

The 1 New York Times bestselling novel Divergent by Veronica Roth has been adapted and made into a movie which was released earlier in the year, and this is the official movie companion. Teens and young adults need no introduction to the world of Divergent, and will find this wonderfully illustrated and meticulously prepared page book both a joy to read and to own.

Featured are over fullcolour photos from the movie, including many never before seen shots. Also covered are the producers, writers, directors, actors and countless nameless behind-the-scenes talents who worked hard to transform the pages of a book into an allencompassing audio and visual experience. Read how these collaborators and contributors breathed life into every detail of this dystopian world — creating and realising on film not only breath-taking sets such as the Dauntless Pit, the Erudite HQ and the Abnegation village, but also breathing layered and textured life into its extraordinary inhabitants.

All in all, this is an essential read for all fans of the Divergent series. Samsung NX1 The NX1 digital camera by Samsung, promises best-in-class features and functions, and superb image quality all wrapped up in one dedicated digital camera, to provide photography enthusiasts the best bang for their buck.

The build of the NX1 is surprisingly durable, with its magnesium alloy body that also manages to keep it ergonomic and looking stylish. The NX1 is capable of capturing pictures and video in 4k resolution, giving the user incomparable image and video quality. The introduction of the NX1 also showcases the mm 2.

Visit www. Then on the following day he is stripped, bathed and purified; he is stained with henna like a bridegroom and is dressed in the garb of a pilgrim to Mecca. In this guise he recites prayers to the assembled guests in order to prove the sufficiency of his learning. When the prayers are over he rises and prostrates himself before his teacher in gratitude for past kindnesses.

The parents now come forward with the customary gifts : a suit of clothes, a sum of money and certain articles of food. Then there follows in some parts of Perak a very curious ceremony. The boy is taken to an inner room, where he is stripped and covered with a rich cloth, while his mouth is filled with yellow glutinous rice and his body is sprinkled with the purifying rice-dust.

After this, two coconuts and two small packets of rice are slowly rolled over him from head to foot. This is done to drive away ill-luck. The circum- ciser or mudin then comes forward and gently taps the boy's teeth with a stone. This is also done to avert misfortune. Feasting follows. The boy is dressed again and is carried in procession round the village and down to the river for another ceremonial purification.

There the circumciser makes an appeal to the Spirit of the Waters, deprecating his wrath. The usual purifying rice powder is scattered on the stream and the usual offerings are made— yellow rice, a quid of betel, an egg, seven long packets of cooked rice and seven square packets of cooked rice. When the Water Spirit has been pro- pitiated the boy is washed by his mother and has his long lock of hair solemnly shorn off by the mudin.

The people then return to the house to witness the actual circumcision itself. While this is taking place the boy is made to sit either on a banana trunk or on a sack of rice. It is usual to circumcise a number of boys at one time so as to minimise the cost of the celebrations. In such cases the son of the giver of the feasts is treated as the king for the occasion, while the other boys whose parents contribute nothing play the part of mere attendants upon the central figure.

He appears in the Estimates. In the towns of the Straits Settlements the royal ceremonies are less con- spicuous. More attention is paid there to the religious details, while motor cars, jewellery and brass bands make up for the absence of the regalia and symbolism of the Native States. A Malay girl is taught something of the Koran, though she is not expected to attain to the same standard of proficiency as her brothers.

When her religious education is complete she is dressed like a pilgrim to Mecca and is admitted to the community of Islam by a ceremony much simpler and less public than the circum- cision-rites of boys. Ear-boring is still practised, but the huge, round ear-studs 2 which were assumed after this ceremony and worn by girls as emblems of' their maiden state, are now becoming ceremonial and are only put on for the wedding itself in order that they may be formally discarded a few days afterwards.

This seclusion varies in rigour in different parts of Malaya, being strictest among the " Jawipekan " popu- lation of the towns and least strict in the districts where 1 In Patani this ceremony is performed in infancy. The confine- ment of girls to their houses served to guard them from the dangerous notice of the chiefs and also from the risk of their injuring their matrimonial prospects by any foolish compromising acts.

In the law-abiding Menang- kabau communities of Sumatra a good deal of freedom could be safely allowed, provided that the women kept in parties by themselves and did not indulge in tete-a-tete interviews with fascinating young men. Out of this degree of freedom there grew up a pretty custom that has greatly influenced Malay literature — the practice of holding rhyming contests between the rival parties of the men and the girls.

A girl might be suddenly in- spired to extemporise or quote some pantun or verse that was apposite to the character, history or appearance of some young man who happened to be present. The opportunity was not to be missed. The person chaffed or one of his friends would retort with a second pantun.

The contest would then continue till one or other party was at a loss for a proper reply. The Malay quatrain is a very easy thing to extemporise, owing to the fact that its first two lines are mere jingles put in to rhyme with the last two, and also because every line is sung slowly and is followed by a chorus or refrain that gives time to the other party to think of an appro- priate answer.

At the same time there can be a vast difference in quality between one pantun and another, and there is every scope for skill and wit in these poetic contests, punctuated as they are by the applause or laughter of the audience.

While, therefore, in everyday life the negotiations for a wedding are of a very common- place order, it is quite otherwise in ceremonies and in literature. The diplomacy of a marriage generally commences when the parents or friends of the prospective bride- groom make advances to the girl's family with a view to finding out without exposing themselves to the humilia- tion of a public rebuff whether a proposal of this sort would be likely to be well received.

Enquiries such as these need a good deal of tact. The suitor's party do not wish to take any risks and the girl's parents do not like to show any suspicious eagerness to part with their daughter. Hints are sometimes used. What could be more innocent than the position of the little silver vase containing the sireh that is offered to a visitor?

Yet if this vase is upset and left lying on its side, the quick-eyed enquirer knows that his quest is useless ; the lady's people do not desire the marriage. If his hints become broader and the vase still remains upright he knows that he can proceed to more definite action. Professional marriage- brokers are often employed at this stage; their very presence suggests their errand to the girl's parents.

When it seems likely that the proposal of marriage will be well received the ladies of the young man's family call upon the bride, make much of her and endeavour to appraise her character and charms. The meaning of such overtures can hardly be mistaken ; but it is essential that a real understanding should be arrived at before the marriage can be openly discussed.

A rebuff would be fatal to any friendly relations between the two families ; it would indeed be an insult. Says one proverb. Betrothal — because of the feuds that may spring out of a broken promise — is the one occasion in life when the Malay tolerates no indecision and no evasion.

Let us therefore suppose that the proposal is welcome to both parties and that there are no real difficulties in the way. The main details — the amount of the settlement to be made on the bride, the value of the wedding gifts, the probable duration of the engagement, and other questions of the same sort — are roughly settled by custom and are known to both. All that is left is to have them definitely laid down so that no misunderstandings may arise afterwards.

As these matters are too delicate for direct negotiation between the parties, they are usually referred to the penghulu and elders of the village. At this point secrecy ceases to be possible, even if every one is pledged to it. Both parties submit their case to arbitration, knowing in outline what they have to expect and ready to abide by the decision of their elders if it is unfavourable to them on the minor issues that have to be decided.

It was only drawn up for the guidance of Kathis who have to appraise the mas kahvrin for purposes of divorce in cases where no definite sum was actually agreed upon at the time of the wedding itself. But this scale of settlements shows approximately what the bridegroom expects to have to pay and what the penghulu and his elders are likely to fix. Other matters have also to be arranged. The cost of the wedding festivities has to be paid by the bride's family, but the bridegroom has to contribute to it.

The penghulu has to fix the amount of this contribution of " money to go in smoke. The penghulu has also to fix the approxi- mate date of the marriage, so that neither side may evade its obligations by prolonging the engagement indefinitely. When everything has been arranged in such a manner as to leave no loophole for future disputes the agreement has still to be confirmed by a formal proposal and by its formal acceptance.

Malay etiquette expects the suitor's parents or guardians to proceed on his behalf to the lady's house and, after many apologies and much circumlocution, to enquire usually in verse whether the young man may be permitted to offer himself for acceptance as the lady's slave.

It also insists that the girl's relatives shall declare themselves quite unworthy of the proposed honour. The most that they will admit is that they are like the proverbial expression, "nearly up to but not attaining. Ceremonial gifts of betel- nut are then brought forward in two boxes adorned with palm blossoms and decorations of gilt or coloured paper.

After these rings have been passed round from hand to hand so that everyone may be able afterwards to testify to the occurrence the suitor's mother is invited indoors to see the girl. Of course such a visit is never unexpected. The girl is there, dressed in her best and overcome by self -consciousness as her future mother-in-law comes in, addresses her as "my child," kisses her and gives her the engagement-ring as evidence of her betrothal.

The girl answers by doing obeisance. The ladies of the suitor's party then strike up a verse declaring that they have been attracted from afar by the lodestone of the damsel's beauty. After a few more quatrains of this sort refreshments are handed round and the suitor's relatives go home. The public proposal of marriage and its public acceptance give finality to the contract.

Its nature can no longer be questioned, and it has to be carried out unless one or other contracting party elects to pay damages for its violation. The contract is final: the bystanders have witnessed it, the whole village is invited to testify to it. The rule as to its breach is ianda hnpat puking delapan : " if the engagement rings are worth four dollars, the girl's relatives must return eight.

Nowadays the presents may be worth much more than four dollars, but that sum meant a great deal to the poverty-stricken ryots in the days before British ascendancy. After this settlement the suitor and the girl are looked upon as definitely engaged and are allowed to interchange small complimentary gifts.

They are not, however, supposed to see anything of each other, as any conduct suggesting forwardness on the lady's part would be an offence against the Indonesian rule that forbids " the well to seek the bucket " or " the pestle to seek the mortar.

Some men, intoxicated with love, cannot sleep after this vision; others can. He is entertained to dinner on the verahdah, brings gifts of money, is very obsequious to his future mother-in-law. When the month of Shaaban comes round and the annual fast is imminent, the girl's parents send over to the house of her betrothed a gift of rice-powder, limes, loofah-fibre, perfumes and other cosmetics used in the ceremonial ablutions that precede the Malay Lent. This delicate attention is acknowledged by return-gifts of cakes and small sums of money for spending at the minor feast days that occur about this time.

Similar courtesies are shown once or twice during the Fast itself, but the great festival of the hari raya is not used for any exchange of civilities between the betrothed. In every country it sometimes happens that a man falls desperately in love with a girl already engaged to someone else. In such cases every possible opposition must be made to the new suitor if a feud with the first suitor is to be avoided. On this point all Malay law was explicit. He had to defend himself against the murderous enmity of his injured rival until such time as the authorities could step in and put an end to the quarrel.

Indonesian custom knew by experience that it had to concern itself more with pacifying feuds than with preventing them ; it never hesitated about compounding an offence. If a man's betrothed was seduced or abducted, the law stepped in and made the wrong-doer pay compensation all round and a fine to the Bendahara as well. If he failed to pay, he was sold into slavery for the debt.

If he paid, the matter blew over. Marriage by abduction became a recognised institution, 1 with a special scale of enhanced payments associated with it. In the old wild days of Malay rule these abductions often led to most tragic results.

If a girl was famous for her beauty the report of her engagement was enough to bring about a crisis. Any disappointed suitor — or perhaps some gay Lothario tempted by the spice of danger that attends the plucking of forbidden fruit — might have recourse to the simple expedient of seizing the girl and threatening to drive his heris through her heart if any attempt was made at a rescue. An outrage of this sort was known as panjat angkara and was hazardous in the extreme. Even if the abductor escaped instant death he dared not sleep, lest he should be mur- dered in his sleep ; he dared not eat, lest his food should be drugged ; he had to be constantly on his guard, lest he should be suddenly speared by a treacherous thrust through the thin flooring of a Malay house.

The "Malay Annals' 9 record the case of a Javanese chief who succeeded in winning a Malacca wife by a desperate panjat angkara. Many abductors were less fortunate. The relatives refused. He then forced his way into her house, seized her by the hair, drew his kris and defied everybody.

Eventually he was drugged — probably with his friends' connivance, for he was not slain — and the girl was released and married to one Mat Arshad. But it must not be supposed that this pmjat angkara was a recognised and regular form of marriage like panjat adat. It was far too violent for that ; it was a savage variant of the crime pasdonnel, and had much in common with the amok, which is only the Malay form of suicide. How else can one explain the action of Hang Kasturi, who, when his intrigue was discovered, slew the girl in the most cruel manner, stripped and exposed her mutilated body, and then fought all comers till he was slain?

The average Malay engagement pursued its tranquil uneventful course until the prosaic incident of a rice harvest placed the families of the prospective bride and 1 The Btory is given in the " Malay Annals " and is very famous. In the old days of native rule a bad harvest meant a general curtailment of the wedding-festivities. In the present age of security and peace the beneficent alien money-lender is always ready to make up for the defi- ciencies of the crops.

The marriage-ceremonial has become more elaborate than ever, while the people are sinking more and more into debt. The formalities attending a Malay wedding are so elaborate that a European is apt to lose sight of their essential features in his bewilderment at the quantity of incidental detail.

Indeed, the actual marriage service is a very simple rite that lies outside the customary cele- brations. These celebrations should go on for at least seven days. The first three days are given up to the " henna-staining " festivities ; the fourth day is devoted to the adornment of the happy pair, to their meeting and to their sitting in state; the fifth and sixth days are days of little importance ; the seventh day witnesses the ceremonial lustrations of the married couple.

The fourth day is the most notable. During the first three " henna-staining " days the bride is at home to those of her lady-f riendB who express a wish to assist in painting her fingers with henna. The actual henna-staining is done by a professional expert and the assistance given by the visitors is purely nominal.

The first " henna " night is known as the hinai churi, because the staining is done in private and in a very small way ; the second night is the hinai bgsar, when the fingers, the toes and even the sides of the feet of both bride and groom are painted with henna. Both nights are marked by feasts and dancing.

On one of the two nights a special " henna-dance " is performed; the other dances and amusements are of the regular Malay type and are only given for the amusement of the guests. On one of these two nights also a special wedding-dish of rice 1 is served. These gifts are presented to the sound of much music and gun or cracker firing. The morning of the fourth day is taken up with the ceremonial' shaving 4 of the bride's fringe and with her adornment for the festivities of the evening.

Her hair to the width of a finger's breadth all round the forehead is drawn forward and shaved off, while the band plays special tunes in honour of the event. After this shaving is over, the bride puts on her bridal dress and jewellery. In her hair she fixes a number of artificial flowers of tinsel- work, kept in position with wires; to her ears she attaches the heavy, round ear-studs 1 that are the emblems of virginity. She is also adorned with golden nail-protectors, with hollow anklets, with necklaces, with three heavy crescent-shaped breast ornaments known as dokoh, and, in many cases, with as much additional jewellery as her mother can borrow for the occasion.

He is dressed as a warrior king. He wears the soldier's short coat, 8 made of rich silk with a gold edging. When the procession is ready it starts off with the bridegroom and sometimes with many symbolic gifts to make its way slowly and "circuitously to the house of the bride. It cheers itself upon the way with the sound of much cracker-firing, with shouts, with shots, with the banging of drums, with the clanging of gongs and with as many other noises as the village is capable of produc- ing.

The bridegroom himself is borne in state by the best means of conveyance obtainable, be that conveyance 1 8ubang. As he approaches his destination the noise becomes more and more deafening, and when he stops it is impossible to hear anyone speak. This is the signal for the bride's people to suddenly become awake to the fact that something is happening.

Does he come in peace or in warP" A colloquy ensues. Sometimes the bridegroom's party apologize for his coming : " He comes by no wish of his own ; he is drawn by some magnet of. All this, of course, gives unlimited opportunities for friendly chaff. Or again, they may pretend to resist him and hurl sweetmeats at the advancing host of the bride- groom's supporters. A mimic battle ensues and goes on until some well-meant act of treachery gives the bridegroom admission and prevents the jest from lasting too long.

His followers crowd in after him. It is usual at this stage for the young man to display a timid modesty that accords very ill with his truculent soldier-dress. Everyone hastens to reassure him and to lead him to the bridal dais where his bride is waiting.

There the pair have to be cere- monially seated together with their little fingers inter- locked. The process is like an exercise in physical drill in which the performer is made to sink slowly down into a squatting posture and then to straighten his knees and stand erect. Bride and groom have to go on doing this together till they succeed in seating themselves slowly and exactly at the same moment — as custom requires.

They also sometimes have to exchange vows that they will cherish each other and each other's good name. Once seated they are expected to remain motionless while the eyes of all the guests are fixed upon them. In Perak the guests are allowed to come up in strict order of precedence and lay offerings of silver on a platter before the newly-married pair.

One by one they come up, doing obeisance, first to royalty if present and then to the bride and bride- groom, as king and queen of the evening. The married pair interchange mouthfuls of rice as evidence of their new relation to one another ; the feast begins, and at last the guests are sent off in honour to their homes, the less distinguished being sometimes presented with packets of boiled rice and the more distinguished with the telur joran or coloured eggs stuck on branches.

On or about the seventh day the ceremonial bathing takes place. A temporary bath-house is built on a dais above a flight of seven steps, and is prepared for the reception of the bridal pair. The two march up together into it, either holding a handkerchief or with their little fingers interlocked. They sit side by side on a bench or on a banana stem. The bride's hair is untied. In some cases the water is passed through a cloth filled with flowers and palm-shoots; in some cases coconut-milk, lime-juice and rice powder are used as cosmetics for these ablutions ; in all cases everything possible is done to give a ceremonial character to the whole lustration.

In the south the pipe carrying the water is carved into the shape of a dragon's mouth at its extremity. Both in the north and in the south of the Peninsula the lustration ceremony includes the passing of a curious bridal cord round the necks of the married pair, and it ends with the severance of this cord. But long before this cord is severed the excited matrons who wash the bridal couple have turned the water on each other and the ceremony turns into a general fight, in which syringes are the guns and the missiles are streams of water.

The spectators are splashed and wetted until the signal for the cessation of the fun is given by the breaking of the cord that binds the bride and the bride- groom. At a Patani wedding, observed by Mr. Winstedt, this severance was effected by fire; the flame of the burning ends was blown out by the bridegroom and the soot of the charred extremities was rubbed on the foreheads of both him and his wife.

They see very little of each other and are not permitted to be alone. It is not till three days, or a week, or even a fortnight has elapsed after the " final " fourth day l that the bridegroom is allowed to have tho bride to himself. But the marriage is not considered void 2 and the passing of such a public affront on his wife's family is not likely to conduce to the success of his future life.

It is considered bad taste as well as bad policy to create a quarrel at this stage. Any differences are enquired into and can be amicably settled without the cognizance of all the scandalmongers of the village. What happens is this. The imam or other officiating elder opens the proceedings with a religious appeal, such as, " I exhort you to the fear of Allah.

But as the formula is long, and as it is in Arabic, and as the guardian is usually too illiterate and too flustered to be intelligible in a language that he does not know, he appoints some more learned man to be his attorney l and to make the offer in his name. The offer is then made by the attorney. As soon as it has been made the presiding elder gives a warning tug to the bridegroom's arm by way of telling him that he must now express his acceptance of the offer.

He does so — in Arabic. This formula is short enough to present little difficulty even to an illiterate man, but the nervousness of a bridegroom occasionally makes him use some expression that is not to be found in any Arabic dictionary. Everything has then to be repeated all over again — the offer, the warning tug, and the reply.

At last the bridegroom gets his words right and the marriage is nearly valid. It is made quite valid by the two necessary witnesses being appealed to, and by their replying that they have heard everything that has taken place.

The presiding elder then repeats a prayer 2 more or less to this effect: M Grod, make union between these two as Thou didst make union between the water and the earth. The bride need not be present at all, and if she is a maiden and under age her consent need not be asked.

What is fairly evident from the elaborate wedding ceremonies of the Malays is the fact that the actual religious rite is looked upon as a legalising form like the signing of the register in an English church or the attendance at the Mairie in France. Henna-staining is a custom that prevails in most Muhammadan countries and was probably imported with Islam.

The procession of the armed and mounted bridegroom, the mimic resistance offered to him and the efforts to overcome it either by bribery or battle may be far-away echoes of a time when marriage by capture or marriage by purchase was the recognised rule of the day. Many of the other incidents have no special reference to marriage.

The sitting in state and the ceremonial lustrations, for instance, are not confined to weddings. The shaving of the forehead is hard to explain: certain superstitions are connected with it; inferences regarding the bride's virtue are drawn from the way the hair behaves. In one old romance, the " Hikayat Koris," a distinction is drawn between wives for whom a bridegroom thought it worth his while to shave his own forehead and those to whom he did not pay that compliment.

We can see traces of marriage by purchase in the advances paid at betrothal and in the other customary gifts. We find signs of the matriarchate in the rule that the bridegroom must reside in his wife's house for some considerable time after his wedding. Upon the simple Moslem marriage-rite there is superimposed a whole mass of ancient custom that the Malay refuses to discard. He considers the religious ceremony to be legal but inadequate ; he wants the other things as well. He does not change old customs for new: he adds the new to the old.

In old days high officers of state used to come on painted elephants to their installation. In the Raja Bendahara arrived in a carriage and pair, In the Raja Muda came in a motor-car with carriages and elephants in his train. Last of all will come a faithful retainer, prepared to carry the Chief on his shoulders should our modern contrivances end by leaving his old master in the lurch.

Immediately after his marriage a Malay husband settles down to live in his father-in-law's house. He gives his services to his wife's relatives, helps in their rice-fields, looks after their fruit-trees and repairs the family dwelling. This idyllic state of things may go on for some time, but sooner or later it is apt to be ended by the growth of the new family.

When the old home ceases to be big enough, the young couple desire to set up an establishment of their own. This is not a difficult matter. During some idle month, when rice is not being planted, the husband and his friends clear an acre or two of good dry soil on which to erect a small house and plant a little garden of coconuts and fruit- trees. If the ancestral rice-lands are of small extent, they proceed to extend them by adding a little field or two.

By degrees they build and furnish the new house, and make everything ready for the flitting. The migration would not, however, be reckoned as an incident in Malay life if there were no ceremony attached to it. The villagers assemble ; the old people make a speech enumerating all the articles with which they are endowing the new household; the young people express their complete satisfaction with all that has been done for them, and the flitting is ac- complished.

These formalities are not intended, as a cynic might suggest, to advertise the family reputation for generosity; they are necessary to avoid disputes. Should there subsequently be a quarrel or divorce, every neighbour will be able to testify to the proper distribu- tion of the family property.

When the speeches are over, the neighbours go home enriched by an additional subject of conversation, while the new householders indicate their approval of everything by keeping indoors for three days, so as not to display their radiant faces to any malignant spirit of envy that may be lurking about the village. Possessed of a house, a garden and a rice-field, they are now in a position to earn a comfort- able living.

Of course the above procedure is not invariable. A Malay official cannot afford to live in his wife's house if the Government desires his presence in some other place. Old parents, when their last remaining daughter is married, sometimes move to an annexe or enlarge the house so as to retain their daughter and to save them- selves from the danger of being left alone in their old age.

Moreover, it is not always possible to find unoccupied land in the vicinity of the house of the old people. In such cases the new household is apt to make its home in the new country while the old parents keep to their ancestral village. Krian has been largely populated by this planting-out of young families from Province Wellesley; the coast of Selangor is being settled from Malacca; the whole Peninsula is being helped by a similar tide of migration from Sumatra and Banjermasin.

But Perak itself is not yet over-populated, and the Perak Malay does not leave his native country. Once settled in his new house the young Malay is "king in his own place " ; he can " think of what he pleases and sing when- ever he likes. They also re- cognise that woman's kingdom is the home — a fact which militates against the young husband's perfect freedom.

Apart, however, from what the Malays call "the foe in one's own blanket" the householder is independent enough. He works whenever he likes and takes a holiday as often as he pleases. For a few weeks in the year he is very busy in the rice-fields ; during the remaining ten months he enjoys comparative leisure. He has his meals at irregular times, goes to mosque irregularly, does a little fishing at odd moments — indeed, apart from padi- planting, most Malay work is done at odd moments : it is not the great business of life.

Religion supplies him with a time-table — the lunar calendar of the Muhammadans — with its incidents for each day, week, month and year. It divides up the day with the five daily prayers which he forgets and insists on his attending mosque every Friday, unless he can find some excuse for his habitual absences. It also marks off certain days of the year as great religious festivals.

The Moslem year is a lunar year unconnected with seasonal events. It begins with the month Mnhwrram. The first day of the year is not marked by any fes- tivities nor does the month itself contain any special Sunnite holidays, but Indian Shiite influence shows itself in Fenang in the boria performances and in occasional lamentations over the death of the Prophet's grandson Husain.

A boria is a troupe of strolling minstrels, generally dressed and drilled as soldiers and headed by a Captain and an Army Chaplain. The troupe visits the houses of wealthy or popular Moslems and serenades them till paid to go away.

The songs are sometimes eulogistic and sometimes comic; the tunes are admir- ably suited for their purpose — pleasing at first and monotonous after a time, so that the troupe is gladly welcomed and gladly dismissed. The religious element is entirely absent from the boria performances and there is no apparent reason for their association with the month of Muhwrram. Safar, the second month, is regarded as unlucky : to take up any enterprise in Safar is like beginning a journey on a Friday.

It is the month in which Muham- mad's fatal illness declared itself. The last Wednesday of the month is a religious event, a day of penitence and of ceremonial purification from the sins of the world ; but it has been turned by the light-hearted Malays into a sort of bathing-picnic known as the Mandi Safar. The twelfth day of the third month is the anniver- sary of the Prophet's birth and also of his deaths but the former event is regarded as the.

The day is wholly a day of rejoicing, marked by much good cheer and by the chanting of many mqbulud or Arabic hymns and discourses about the life of Muhammad. In consequence of this great festival the name mavlud is often given to the whole month in preference to the orthodox Arabic description of Rabi'u'-l-awwaL Malays, who do like long Arabic words, sometimes use the ex- pression "the four months with the same name" when speaking of the months Rabi'u-l-awwal, llabi'u-'l-akhir, Jamcbdu-l-awwal and Jawwdu-l-akhir.

The names are not the same, but they seem to possess certain family likenesses and are all equally unpronounceable. The next great Moslem holiday is the 27th day of the seventh month, Rajab, the anniversary of the Prophet's journey to heaven. It is a great occasion for chanting and prayer and it is commemorated by all Malays of piety and learning.

The eighth month,. Shaaban, is rendered dismal by the approach of the ninth, the Fasting Month. The fifteenth night of Shaaban is believed to be the time when the Almighty shakes the Tree of Life causing the fall of leaves that represent the lives of men. Through- out this night in some parts of Arabia the mosques are thronged with agonised suppliants appealing to the Almighty to allow their lives to be prolonged through- out the coming year.

Such scenes are rare in the Peninsula. They represent the days of preparation for the Malay Lent and should be marked by ceremonial ablutions to purify the soul and by much food to fortify the body. They are soon over, and the Great Fast begins. Throughout the month of Ramazcm a Moslem is forbidden between sunrise and sunset to eat, drink, chew, smoke or swallow. It is a time of misery, toiti- gated by the possibility of sleeping all day and feasting all night.

During the whole of this period the Spirits of Evil are believed to be chained up, so that the supersti- tious Malay can and does go about at night without fear of ghostly visitants. As each sunset approaches a faithful few find their way to the mosque and await in prayer and meditation the exact moment when they will be permitted to break their fast. When sunset comes the worshippers share a light meal of rice-gruel kanji buka puasa before returning to their homes.

The whole of the month is treated as a sort of a religious retreat, during which great princes like the Sultan of Perak offer a generous hospitality to the pious poor who flock to the palace-assemblies. All through the night there may be heard the long wailing souud of the Arabic chants with which the devotees beguile the weary hours, At last the dawn approaches, the last long meal is taken, and the exhausted worshipper curls up on the floor in sleep. As the end of the month approaches, the fervour of devotion becomes more intense, the special Arabic chants tarawih become longer, and the strain becomes more cruel.

The 26th night is the " Night of Power " l 1 LailatuH-kadir. It is the culminating point of the Bamazan devotions. After the "Night of Power " the weary worshipper scans the horizon anxiously for a sight of the new moon that is to put an end to his long-drawn troubles.

The new moon comes at last; the Great Fast is followed by the Great Feast. Every Malay dons his finest garments, calls on all his friends, gives his family the best dinner he can afford, sends small gifts of cakes to his European acquaintances and apologizes to his seniors for any offence that he may have committed during the past year.

The rejoicings go on for the first three days of the tenth month, Shaunoal. The next great day is the 10th of the twelfth month, Dzu'l-kijjah. It is the month of the Pilgrimage. On this 10th day the pilgrims at Mecca visit a place called the Mina Bazaar, near Mount Arafat, and offer up a sacrifice to mark the conclusion of the Haj.

The day is known in the Straits as the hari raya haji. It is the anniversary of his pilgrimage. On this day the haji — who is often a humble Javanese gardener working in some Singapore or Penang compound — puts on the gorgeous robes and turban of the Arab, takes a holiday and astonishes his employer by his sudden magnificence. The transformation does not last long. This festival is the last of the Moslem year. The Malay possesses another year, a solar year, with holidays and festivals that have no connection with religion.

It begins with some definite sign — the height of the Pleiades above the horizon or the seasonal ripen- ing of some fruit 1 — telling the ryot that the time for planting is at hand. The true Malay year is a sort of farmer's almanac. Its first festival is marked by the reading of prayers, the burning of incense, and the singing of chants over the mother-seed that is to be used in the rice-nursery.

The calendar is marked by further festivals at every stage of cultivation — at the sowing, the transplanting and the harvesting. It is supplemented by special holidays, when mimic fighting or mock-propitiation is used to get the better of the ghostly denizens of the district who prey upon the crops. This solar calendar is only unsatisfactory because it is unauthorised and uncontrolled by any supreme authority, so that its details vary in every part of the Peninsula.

It is the relic of an old agricultural religion and belongs properly to the province of Folk- lore and Malay Belief. None the less its holidays are observed and its feasts are well attended. The exact day for each event is fixed by the local pawang, but it turns upon the state of the crops and the details of the padi-planting industry. The industry is the subject of a special pamphlet and need not be considered here.

One thing alone must be discussed: how does rice-planting pay? The whole of Malay life turns on this industry and the crucial point in it is one about 1 The ptrah fruit. Hale was appealing for a reduction of taxation, and in his anxiety to forestall any criticism of his figures he made out a strong case against himself. His figures seem too high. In a most interesting experiment was made in Krian by order of the Director of Agriculture.

Eight small pieces of land were marked off and cultivated in different ways in order to test the relative effectiveness of different processes of planting. The bulkiest crop gantang to the acre was obtained from the land cultivated by Banjarese according to their own native methods. Some instruc- tive differences were noticed in the three other fields cultivated by Banjarese on their own lines as modified in some small detail by the Director. The average for the four Banjarese fields was gantang per acre.

A field cultivated by Tamils gave a poorer result. A field treated with bone manure gave a miserable crop gantang to the acre ; selection of local seed by- weight was a failure gantang to the acre , and the importation of special seed from Ceylon resulted in a complete fiasco.

The local ryots, who saw in these ex- periments an attempt to improve on their own methods, summed up the situation with the pithy proverb that it is useless to teach swimming to ducks. The crop of gantang was declared to be a fair crop for the locality. Hale's estimated price of 8 cents per gantang is also rather high. If we set against this sum the tithe taken by the mosque, the cost of buffaloes if used for ploughing , and the money-lender's interest at 24 per cent.

As a matter of fact, it does pay. A loan at 24 per cent, is not a business transaction, nor does a Malay borrow money to open up new land ; indeed, he could not get his loan till he has cultivated his land and secured his title.

He borrows money for some wedding-ceremony or afl security for a friend ; and we ought not to lay at the door of the rice-growing industry the improvidence and recklessness of individual ryots. Rice-growing is not the Malay peasant's sole means of livelihood. He usually has his little holding with its thirty or forty cocount trees round his house. If he resides near the sea he can earn an' appreciable amount by working as a fisherman. If he lives near a forest he may gather and sell rattans and other jungle produce.

In some places he can make great profits by cutting the nipah palms and making house-roofing. If his house is near a high road he may keep a cart or carriage and earn an occasional dollar by letting it out on hire. In many cases he has some special source of income of his own — he may be a mosque-official or a Koran-teacher or a school-master or a smith.

Separately considered these sources of profit amount to very little; collectively they mean a great deal. As it is, the Malay peasant is never likely to furnish a plentiful supply of cheap labour ; he is far too well-off for that. He may take odd jobs and small contracts, but he will not consent to exchange his lot for that of a regular wage-earner on an estate. Why, indeed, should he? His life is varied, pleasant, and healthy ; it supplies him with all that he needs ; it allows him ample leisure and absolute personal freedom.

All that is necessary is the choice of a suitable season — the month after the harvest — when everyone is at leisure and the granaries are full. Agriculture is the soul of Malay life. When a Malay becomes so ill that the ministrations of the local herbalists are of no avail he sends for the pawang. Now the paivang is a very unorthodox person : historically he is the priest of an older religion and theoretically a trafficker with evil spirits and a dabbler in the blackest of black art.

To the pious dignitaries of the mosque the pawang is an abomination, because he represents the accredited agent of the Devil. But the sick man is not likely to stand upon such ceremony ; believing as he does that all sickness comes from the Evil One he will not be deterred by any rules of propriety from entering into negotiations with his tormentor.

He sends for the paivang. The paivang realises the delicacy of the situation and begins with mild measures : he tries to feed the Evil One. He hangs out baskets of food and cakes in the jungle — raw food and cooked food, vegetable food and animal food, dainties to suit all tastes. If the spirit is malicious enough to go on tormenting the poor sick man after such kindness has been shown, the paivang tries a little mild deception. Having built a sacrificial boat, filled it with money and provisions, and induced the evil spirits to step on board, he sets it adrift on the river to float away to its fate in the Great Sea.

It is wicked; but what else is the poor sick man to do? Sir Prank Swettenham has described a berhantu ceremony; 1 so has Mr. But descriptions are of all sorts : one may dwell on the ridiculous aspect of an incident, and another may resolve itself into detailed inventory of the pawang 9 s paraphernalia and a word-for-word record of the formula that he uttered.

Sir Frank's pawang was "a woman in male attire — in ordinary life she was an amusing lady named Raja Ngah, a scion of the reigning house on the female side"; JMt. Skeat's pawang was a man of no special importance. Sir Frank's orchestra consisted of "five or six girls holding native drums " and was headed by the daughter of Raja Ngah ; Mr. Skeat's was only the pawang 's wife, ," an aged woman whose office was to chant the invoca- tion. Skeat's was the plebeian tiger-spirit, the common property of the whole Malay world.

There is a vast difference in the importance of the incidents described; Mr. When Sultan Abdullah was charged with complicity in the assassination of the British Resident, one of the allegations against him was that he had "sent off a boat to Pasir Panjang to fetch down the Raja Kechil Muda and his son, Raja Ahmad, to conduct a main berhantu in his presence," and that the object of the performance was in some way connected with the murder of Mr.

He described it as " a superstitious performance which the Perak people have learnt from the Sakais or wild men of the interior for looking into the future by calling up spirits and questioning them ;. Birch's life. The performances on the first and second nights were merely preliminary introductions to what was to follow, but on the third night Sultan Abdullah, having been possessed by seven spirits in succession, spoke out and declared that Mr.

Birch would be dead in a month. Plunket's interpretation of the incident, though his account is not borne out by the evidence. The perform- ance took place at Batak Rabit on or about the 24th August, There is no doubt from the evidence that the pawanq at this great berhantu were the Raja Kechil Muda and his son, Raja Ahmad. Birch was dead. One of the Sultan's devils declared that the devil which would kill Mr. Birch resided at Kuala Perak. The Sultan agreed to pay this sum. Raja Ahmad said that what the Sultan wanted was being done.

The Sultan said, c Will what I want happen? Birch, but I won't do it properly unless you pay me. Birch out of Bandar Baharu. Birch and that he wanted to kill him by sorcery. Birch's launch off Kuala Perak and drown him in the sea. In the three berhantu performances to which reference has been made we find that the importance of the incident increases with the importance of the pawang, the great- ness of the spirits, and the magnitude of the fee. In their honour four white and crimson umbrellas were hung in the room, presumably for their use when they arrived from their distant homes.

Only the Sultan of the State is entitled to traffic with these distinguished Spirits; when summoned they decline to move unless appealed to with their own special invocations, set to their own peculiar music, sung by at least four singers, and led by a Biduan singer of the royal" family. There are common devils who look after common people ; such as Hantu Songkai, Hanta Melayu and Hantu BPlian ; the last the Tiger-Devil, but out of politeness he is called Bglian to save his feelings. Skeat saw; and even Raja Ngah's familiar, Israng, whose antics are described in "Malay Sketches," was not as aristocratic as the umbrella-using dignitaries of whom Sir Frank speaks.

On one point Sir Frank is in error, though so near the truth that the very subtlety of the distinction has led him off the trail of an interesting fact. There are two Sultans in Perak : one is " the Sultan of the State " and the other is the Sultan " who is entitled to traffic with these distinguished spirits. But it is the law of the State that this spiritual Sultan, prince of the blood-royal though he be, may never succeed to the secular Sultanate of the State.

He knows the exact title by which each Spirit must be addressed and the subtle distinctions of rank between them. These facts may throw some light on a few of the details of the mysterious berhantiu at Batak Eabit that was brought up against Sultan Abdullah at his trial.

They may also explain the following minor inoident in the early history of British intervention in Perak. When the Pangkor Treaty was made and Sir Andrew Clarke's advisers were looking for a Malay title to serve as a dignified equivalent for the English term "ex- Sultan," some one in Singapore unfortunately coined the expression Sultan Muda as suitable for the purpose in view.

With many expressions of goodwill and with the very best intentions this devil-derived dignity was offered by the British Government to the aged and religious Sultan Ismail, a descendant of the Prophet, by way of consoling him for the loss of the throne of Perak. The embarrassed ex-Sultan — not knowing exactly what to think— suggested in a mild way to Mr. Birch that another title, such as Sultan Baginda, would suit him better. Birch suspected that the new title might conceal some deep design and referred the matter to the Singapore adviser on Malay affairs Mr.

Braddell, c. Braddell was completely non- plussed. In the end, it was decided, with some mis- givings, that the ex-Sultan might be allowed to please himself in this matter. Among the regalia of Perak is a set of small cups " resembling Chinese tea-cups but with serrated rims that are used by the Sultan Muda in his incantations. So, too, a very handsome golden bowl, 1 with a cover of gold and a saucer of suasa studded with precious stones, is said to have done service in these bgrhantu ceremonies.

His head would be veiled with a scarf of many colours. Rice-dust was scattered about to avert ill-luck, incense was burnt, and the Sultan Muda, grasping a handful of sambau grass, bowed, folded his arms, and gave the signal for the invocation to begin. The Chief Minstrel 2 — to the accompaniment of an orchestra of drums — then chanted his appeal to the Spirits of the Country, one by one in the strict order of their precedence, to attend the audience of their King.

A strange assembly was this ghostly Court of Perak. It numbered among its aristocrats spirits borrowed from all religions and from every part of the world, souls of orthodox rulers like Ali, Ahmad and Solomon, deities of India like Brahma and Vishnu, nature-gods like the "Supporter of the Heavens" and the "Ruler of the Storm," and divinities of special localities like the Data' of Mount Berhnhun.

Invoked by their proper names and titles — for no mistake was permissible on this point — the Spirits would come in, one by one, announcing their arrival by the flicker of the tapers used in the per- formance. In language that was equally well studied the Singer would reply that all was indeed well, and that the object of the meeting was the convoca- tion of all the Spirits to a great feast to be held on the morrow.

The Singer would then go on to invoke the next Spirit in order of precedence, and, as the Ghosts of Perak are many, the ceremony would drag on far into the night.

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