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All drug compounds displayed lower IC50 values on Day 5 in comparison to Day 3, which would be expected; JQ1 seemed to be the most potent out of all four, going as low as 0. I chose to incubate the cells for 24 hours because that was the time frame the Stratikopoulus et al. I chose to incubate with two-fold serial. However, as mentioned earlier, the lightest band is seen from the FT-TEV lane while the darkest band was from the Beads lane, the opposite of what I would have wanted Figure 2a.
In addition, it is clear that there was overflow in the lanes of the western blot due to my error in loading them, and a repeated effort should load less sample. I expected that increasing concentration of the positive control would lead to decreasing concentration of MAX binding to the SBP-MYC, but this turned out to be harder to prove than anyone had reasonably considered.
There are a couple of reasons that could explain why these western blots were unsuccessful. Another problem could have been that incubating the five samples for 1. A third reason for these difficulties could be due to the binding buffer solution used in incubation steps being a buffer solution from an EMSA kit, potentially causing issues in a co-immunoprecipitation; the choice to use this buffer solution had been made because the original plan was to later perform an.
Either way, I feel that these positive control data are inconclusive as I was ultimately unable to properly replicate results in readable gels. Unfortunately, I was also unable to perform this due to time constraints.
Therefore, I have instead included in this study co-immunoprecipitation experiments that my second mentor Andrew Chen performed with KI-MS to use as a comparison to my experiment Figure 2c. As expected, no bands were seen at all for the flow through or wash lanes, and there was only a light band in the control lane Figure 2c.
I was a bit surprised to see bands for MYC and MAX coming from the control sample incubated with normal IgG rabbit antibody, but this is most likely due to non-specific binding as MYC is known to be a sticky protein Figure 2c. In the years following these experiments the Koehler Lab has also compiled more evidence to support this case.
I recognize that a couple key conditions are different between the two protocol designs and should be addressed, but I do not think any of these distinctions would disqualify the data from being a useful comparison: firstly, my experiment was performed using SBP-MYC purified from E.
Following this first goal, the second goal of my thesis was to characterize the independent IC50s of the four drug compounds in cell viability assays. Given limited time, I chose cell lines different along multiple axes to amplify information gained i. Interestingly, all of the drug compounds seemed to be capable of reducing cell viability in the HCC cell line: JQ1 Figures. As dysregulated transcription factors become increasingly attractive targets for cancer research, developing a small molecule modulator of MYC or MAX function in vivo will only increase in importance as well Darnell, In particular, evidence demonstrating elevated levels of MYC increases tumor recurrence in PIK3CAHR-driven mammary cancers show that MYC is an important oncoprotein that cannot be overlooked even when attempting to study a seemingly unrelated cancer driver Liu et al.
The clinical significance of MYC cannot be underestimated, especially in consideration of the work done by Stratikopoulus et al. These compounds are continually being improved and optimized by the Koehler Lab with the belief that the failures of today will inform the successes of tomorrow.
The main goal is not an immediately translatable treatment, but a solid foundation from which further research and treatments can be built upon. The next day a sample of this was incubated in a mL culture of media at the same temperature and same antibiotic concentration. When the OD of the bacteria was measured to be between 0. Instead, the cell line is known to be negative for expression of Her2- Neu, p53, estrogen receptor ER , progesterone receptor PR.
In the U87MG cell line, it did not seem like any of the drug compounds were particularly effective at all, which combined with the HCC data possibly suggests that there is more of an importance placed on the tissue than the specific mutations than I expected Figures 5 and S5. This compound initially was recorded by Yin et al. I would want to repeat the cell viability assays a few more times in MDA-MB to look for more consistency in IC50 values due to the internal contradictions present between the replicates, but considering the data from the Wang et al.
During this stage I took care to do both three biological and technical replicates in order to be most thorough, and naturally there were plenty of opportunities for error when collecting data. The potential for human error whenever I was plating drugs, or media, or cells into the hundreds and hundreds of wells over the course of the months is a particularly large problem.
A lot of the variation between technical replicates could probably be explained to a deficiency in technique, especially when I was first performing the assays. Performing these experiments with a robotic system would be a good way to avoid this source of error. Additionally, the western blotting to see if there were dose-dependent decreasing concentrations of the MYC and p-AKT proteins as a result of increasing concentrations of the drug compounds also did not work well.
In the future it would be prudent to first determine exactly how concentrated the total protein in the lysate from these cell lines must be to get a detectable band in western blotting. Therefore, the future. After this incubation the flow through was stored, henceforth referred to as FT-Beads. The beads remaining in the tube were then washed twice again with cold PBS. This solution is henceforth referred to as simply binding buffer.
All 5 of these were incubated for 1. Again all 5 of these were incubated for 1. For the last time, the streptavidin agarose beads were washed twice with cold PBS. Volume 10 Issue 2 Fall magnetic stand again to settle the beads, saving the flow through to run on the gel. Cell Viability Assays.
Suspension cells were directly treated with the compounds while adherent cells were first incubated overnight in culture media before being treated with compounds. Each cell line was incubated in compounds or DMSO for both 3 days and 5 days, time points after which a plate would be visualized. Luminescence was recorded using a Tecan Infinite Pro spectrophotometer using an integration time of 0. Figure S4: HCC cell viability assay data, third biological replicate.
Like the second replicate, all drug compounds again displayed lower IC50 values on Day 5 in comparison to Day 3. Figure S5: U87MG cell viability assay data, third biological replicate. Like the second replicate, none of the drug compounds seemed effective. Soucek, L. Evan, G. Modelling MYC inhibition as a cancer therapy. Nature, , Cancer Cell, 27 6 , MYC as a regulator of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis.
Nat Rev Cancer, 10 4 , Vita, M. The MYC oncoprotein as a therapeutic target for human cancer. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 16 4 , Improved low molecular weight MYC-Max inhibitors. Molecular cancer therapeutics, 6 9 , Yin, X.
Low molecular weight inhibitors of MYC-Max interaction and function. Oncogene, 22 40 , Adhikary, S. Transcriptional regulation and transformation by MYC proteins. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6 8 , Arvanitis, C. Conditional transgenic models define how MYC initiates and maintains tumorigenesis. Semin Cancer Biol, 16 4 , Oncogene, 20 40 , A method for the covalent capture and screening of diverse small molecules in a microarray format. Nat Protoc, 1 5 , Schreiber, S.
Small molecules of different origins have distinct distributions of structural complexity that correlate with protein-binding profiles. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 19 1 , Dang, C. MYC on the Path to Cancer. Cell, 1 , Transcription factors as targets for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer, 2 10 , Mitsiades, C. Cell, 6 , Felsher, D. Science, , A global transcriptional regulatory role for MYC in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Zhao, J. Nature medicine, 17 9 , Nijman, S. A chemical-genetic screen reveals a mechanism of resistance to PI3K inhibitors in cancer.
Nat Chem Biol, 7 11 , Eisenman, R. Garraway, L. A small molecule that binds and inhibits the ETV1 transcription factor oncoprotein. Molecular cancer therapeutics, 13 6 , MCT Prochownik, E. Therapeutic Targeting of MYC. Genes Cancer, 1 6 , Stoddart Ed.
Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. This question is at the heart of the public policy debate on immigration. The key to answering this question lies in understanding the age structure of immigrants and their life-cycle fiscal impact. Immigration has greatly increased in the past decades. From there were about 1mil immigrants, had 2.
Along with the increase in immigration has been an increase in public opinion on the best public policy pathway. Skilled workers that would immigrate early and immediately contribute through taxes would likely lead to large positive net fiscal effects, even accounting for the subsequent costs of retirement Kjetil A particular interest of immigration is their impact on the host. From to , though, the share of inflows of immigrants aged 50 to 74 increased from 8.
As can be seen in Figure A, the mean age of immigrants has been steadily rising since the s, with women, on average, older than men. If immigrants are entering the country at a later age, they may be worsening the aging situation. On the other hand, Figure B and C paint a different picture as they show an upward trend in the educational attainment of immigrants. Between and , the foreign-born share of employees in the U.
S with a masters, professional, or doctorate degree rose from 5. They may be coming in later, but if they are more skilled, their impact on the welfare system may also be larger. Although immigration is a hot policy topic, there have only been three major changes in U. The Welfare Reform served to restrict. Additionally, in the annual cap for new H-1B visas was lowered from , to 65, — essentially an attempt to reduce competition between similarlyeducated immigrants and natives Peri What is the best course of action for the government to solve a growing fiscal deficit tied to an aging population problem?
Should the government focus more on changing the level or mix of immigrants Auberbach Oreopoulos ? The goal of this paper is to shed light on the quantitative aspect of this debate. The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. I provide a brief literature review in Section I. Section VII discusses limitations, government policy implications, and concludes.
Immigration has a growing body of literature with two mains sides: 1 the labor market outcomes, and 2 the fiscal impact Borjas Much of the focus has been on the demand side of the labor market impact caused by immigrants. More specifically, attention has been paid to the effects that immigrants have had on native wages. While research has shown immigrants to lower native wages, especially those with less than a college level education, others have argued for the complementary nature of immigrants Ottaviano Peri My paper focuses on the fiscal impact of immigrants therefore I will mainly reference the literature on that front.
Despite the strong implications of immigration for public finance, there is a limited amount of literature addressing the costbenefit life-cycle aspect of immigration Friedburg Hunt However, the related literature is important in formulating hypotheses and making assumptions in my later models. Comparably, human capital accumulation and language proficiency have been determined to be two of the most important characteristics of immigrants at arrival, closely tying in to age of arrival effects Lagakos Intuitively, an immigrant arriving as a young child has a much higher likelihood of assimilating into the culture and surpassing the language barrier than an immigrant in.
My sample consists of pooled microdata, information on individual persons and households, for the years to Data from previous years was not used since the age classification of immigrants could only be constructed from a variable in my time frame. The IPUMS-CPS data source provides variables crucial to my research such as age, year of immigration, gender, education, taxes, benefits received, among others.
The model simulates tax returns for each individual to produce the estimates needed by incorporating information from non-CPS sources such as the Internal Revenue Service's Statistics of Income series, the American Housing Survey, and the State Tax Handbook.
Additionally, immigrants from poor countries will tend to accumulate much less human capital in their birth countries before migrating Lagakos No clear consensus has been reached about the use of welfare by immigrants, however. While some studies have shown that longer time spent in the host country Sweden have led to decreased rates of welfare use, others have shown the exact opposite Hansen Lofstrom Another issue concerning welfare literature has been the lack of separation between welfare usage and welfare eligibility Pekkala Kerr This is especially important to consider due to changes in eligibility over time.
There are two main techniques for evaluating the fiscal impact of immigrants. The second relies mostly on accounting methods and estimating the total cost and benefits that immigrants will have on the economy, which varies greatly by stage of life Pekkala Kerr The accounting method is the type my paper focuses on. As well, I expand on my different lifecycle models to estimate household impacts of migrating families for alternate family structures.
This is defined as their total taxes paid taxtot minus the total benefits received from the government incgov. The compositions are defined below: Since netcontri is central to the remainder of my analysis, it is. I perform a sensitivity analysis in order to determine their viability. Taxtot has relatively little room for error since it already accounts for the three major sources of tax revenue — federal tax, state tax, and FICA. Plotting the average difference between these compositions and the one mentioned above by age, I notice a negligible impact when looking at immigrants only.
I run the same analysis for natives and notice a slightly greater impact past the age of 50 yet it remains insignificant. After constructing my net contribution variables for each observation in my data, the first step in my analysis is to find the average contribution at each age. Plotting the results gives me a first pass look at the impact an immigrant has on the government budget at each age in their life.
From there, the decline begins, which becomes sharp around the. However, when facing the decision to accept a foreigner into the country, other differentiating characteristics mentioned above are observed. Below I provide a contribution analysis based on the main characteristics observed when a foreigner attempts to immigrate to the United States, limited to the ones observed in my data set.
I construct a binary variable college that is defined as 1 if an individual has completed at least a year of college all the way up to doctorate degrees, and 0 for any educational attainment below one year of college. I then find the average contribution per year at each age for both immigrants and natives, with and without a college education. The results for college and non-college educated immigrants and natives are displayed in Figure 2. The stark difference is revealed in their earnings growth and peak earnings.
Said in another way, a college educated immigrant, on average, will have a five times greater positive. Volume 10 Issue 2 Fall impact on the government budget than a non-educated immigrant. Interestingly, non-college educated natives perform much better than non-college educated immigrants.
Figure 2 reveals another comparison between immigrants and natives. We saw that natives are reaching higher peak earnings during their working life and therefore have a higher net contribution. Once retirement age in the early sixties is attained, though, we now see natives have a much higher negative contribution than immigrants.
If not, at what age is the cutoff? This phenomenon motivates the life-cycle model I build later in the paper that can shed light on immigrant and native impacts on the government budget throughout the entirety of their life. It is impossible to tell strictly from the graphs what factors may be causing the discrepancy in earnings between immigrants and natives. Non-educated immigrants most likely suffer from the language barrier, strongly decreasing their already limited employment options.
A non-educated native may be able to benefit from relatively higher earnings based on an ability to be employed in communication-based jobs. Net Yearly Contribution - Gender. Throughout their working life, fifteen to early sixties, they have a net positive effect on the budget each year by paying more in taxes than they are receiving in welfare.
As shown, education and gender play an important role in predicting future earnings. I build two different models to address each problem. The second expands on this model by restricting the sample for each age of arrival, essentially allowing me to elicit the effect that duration in the country has on earnings.
I use the net contribution at each age and sort them negatively, from oldest to youngest. I then sum up every yearly contribution. Figure 4 also indicates the point at which positive contributions during the working life offset negative contributions after retirement. An immigrant arriving at age 39 will break even in terms of lifetime contributions to the government budget.
From a pure government budget standpoint, this indicates that any immigrant over the age of 39 should not be allowed to enter the United States. In Figure 4, we can also observe the lifetime contributions of natives. It is quite interesting to see that natives have the exact same cutoff point, 39 years of age - even though they contribute.
Should the government have the right to discriminate against incoming immigrants depending on their education? Whether or not they should, a lot can be learned by analyzing the differential earnings of men and women. Additionally, these trends prove useful later in understanding the dynamics of the household life-cycle model. Figure 3 illustrates the net contribution gap between male and female immigrants.
It is evident that men have much higher earnings growth throughout their working life. Once retirement is reached, both men and women follow similar net contribution trajectories into the negatives. Figure 3 also allows for the comparison of the effect of gender on the net contributions of both natives and immigrants.
Native men and women, similarly to immigrants, have differential impacts on the government budget at each age before retirement. Unlike immigrants, native women have a slightly smaller negative impact than native men into their seventies and beyond. Using the previously constructed college variable, I separate the data into college educated and less than one year of college education.
Sorting the ages from oldest to youngest, I sum up all observations and plot the resulting data points shown in Figure 5. The results seen in Figure 5 illustrate the drastic impact of education that was not as evidently clear from the yearly contribution model. No matter at what age they arrive to the United States, an immigrant with a high school diploma and less will never have a net positive impact on the government budget.
In other words, they will always take out more from the United States than they will be able to. Volume 10 Issue 2 Fall give back over their entire lifetime. In stark contrast, an immigrant with at least one year of college education and above will be profitable over their entire lifetime so long as they arrive before age Figure 5 reveals another interesting trend that was unapparent in the yearly contribution model when comparing natives and immigrants.
Although college educated immigrants seemed to reach lower peak contributions than natives during their working life, over the course of their entire life they outperform them in net positive contribution. However, it is still possible to draw conclusions about efficiency in impact over a lifetime by noting that it takes an immigrant arriving at age 53 or later to become a net loss while a native must start working at age 49 or before to positively contribute.
Lifecycle Model 1 - Gender Lastly, I expand upon the trends seen in the yearly contribution gender model by looking at the impact gender has on lifetime government budget impact. As mentioned earlier, discriminating due to gender may not be the right policy decision, but understanding the life-cycle paths of both men and women can be useful in forecasting household impacts.
This is especially relevant for a country with an immigration policy like the United States, which places a large emphasis on allowing family members to re-unite through immigration Borjas Figure 6 follows the same method as the education and average lifecycle models, this time separating yearly net contributions based on gender, and summing up each age into a lifetime impact.
Figure 6 demonstrates the lifetime disparity in contributions between immigrant men and women. It is interesting to note the parabolic shape of the lifetime impact curve, which indicates that. Volume 10 Issue 2 Fall the worse age at which an immigrant can arrive is 64 for women and 66 for men. Figure 6 also compares the gender impact between immigrants and natives which allows us to conclude that both native men and women, on average, have a greater lifetime impact, assuming they begin working at age Having seen that, on average, immigrants perform worse than natives, it makes sense that both immigrant men and women perform worse than natives.
Since educated immigrants, on average, perform better than natives, however, then it must mean that one of two things or both could be happening. Either there are less educated immigrants than natives in my sample, pulling the immigrant averages down, or there is an omitted effect, such as the duration of stay. Therefore, the ratio of college educated to non-college educated is irrelative in this context.
Earlier, we explored the age at immigration trends which revealed that, on average, immigrants have started to come in their late twenties, early thirties. Lifecycle Model 2 - Average The basis for my second life-cycle model is very similar to the previous one. The main difference is that I restrict the sample for each age of arrival.
To do this, my first step is constructing the variable ageimmig. For each observation, I take the year at which they immigrated and subtract it from the year in which they responded to the survey. I then build a loop that runs through each age, starting at 0 and ending at Similarly to previous models, my next step is calculating the average yearly contribution at each age.
This time, having a restricted sample means that I am averaging the yearly contributions for only those that immigrated at age x. I then sort my data from oldest to youngest, and sum each age to arrive at a lifetime impact. The lifetime contribution of arriving at age x is the only value that I am interested in since I am calculating that same impact for each different age of arrival.
With this in mind, for each iteration of the loop, I only save that one observation. Running another loop, I append the lifetime contribution for each age of immigration to build my final model. Each observation in. The results are plotted in Figure 7. There are a few different results to focus on from this graph. The most important one, this time more robust than in previous models, is the age of immigration where working life contributions will offset retirement benefits received.
Figure 7 suggests that any immigrant arriving after the age of 34 will, on average, have a total negative impact on the government budget if they remain in the United States throughout the remainder of their life. The second result, which confirms my hypothesis regarding the positive effects of arriving early and having a longer duration of stay, can be observed by looking at the trends of immigrants arriving between age 0 to Since all immigrants arriving in that age range start working at age 15, in theory, if there is no effect of duration of stay or earlier arrival, they should all have the same lifetime impact.
These findings are in line with Schaafsma Sweetman and Hoyt Chin Why is it that immigrants arriving between the ages of 20 and 27 incrementally begin earning more while the overall trend shows that no matter what age you arrive, the older you are, the lower your total impact? My theory is that those arriving between have a higher likelihood of having completed college, are looking for work abroad, and therefore are, on average, more educated than those coming in around 18 years old.
Fourth, as we saw with previous lifetime contribution models, Figure 7 also highlights a parabolic shape to the age of arrival curve. We can see that ignoring the noise spike around age 44 , the curve levels off around age 60 before rising again.
This result makes intuitive sense since 60 is right around the age of retirement. If an immigrant arrives around that age and never contributes, only receiving benefits from the government, the later the immigrant arrives past that point, the smaller his negative impact will be on the government since his life expectancy will decrease.
My belief is that a 35 year old immigrant who arrived at age 1 has a different impact on the government budget than a 35 year old immigrant that arrived at age The topic of many studies, it is continually shown that the earlier an immigrant arrives to the United States, the higher the likelihood that their earnings will surpass those that arrive later in their life.
This phenomenon has been attributed to different factors, with higher cultural assimilation and education attainment two of the most important Sandford Seeborg Hoyt Chin Schaafsma Sweetman RESEARCH Lastly, I want to point out that we are dealing with age of arrival observations across many different years so taking averages mitigates the effects of economic downturns or booms in certain periods.
It is also important to note that Figure 7 has more noise than previous models. This is in part due to the sampling size I am using and having further restricted each data point to observations for that age of immigration only.
The age at immigration trends discussed earlier revealed that immigrants have, over the past five years, been coming in to the United States around age Lifecycle Model 2 - Education I continue to build on variations to my second life-cycle model by evaluating the impact trends due to differing educational attainment. Comparable to my hypothesis regarding the effects of earlier arrival, I also believe that the effect of education will shed more light on the effect of age at arrival.
Once again, I run the same loops as discussed in the previous section, this time separating my sample into those with at least one year of college education and those with less. In Figure 8 we can see that earlier arrival evidently has an impact on lifetime contribution. What could be the reason for not seeing a clear impact of earlier arrival?
This is most likely because they all end up with a college education. The impact of earlier arrival may be increased educational attainment, manifested in the oscillation observed in Figure 8. The homogeneity. Volume 10 Issue 2 Fall in my sample would simultaneously suggest that earlier arrival, age 1 versus age 10, affects future lifetime contribution by affecting the chances of achieving a college education.
Therefore, when looking at a sample of only college educated immigrants, the effect of earlier arrival before working age is non-existent. Around age range , we observe a significant spike most likely due to highly-educated immigrants, those with PhDs, arriving at those ages. I do not have any intuitive theory as to why this takes place, however, my best guess is that older college educated immigrants coming to the United States are most likely wealthier. Instead of coming for work or medical care, they come to settle and retire — creating minimal impact on the government budget.
Additionally, I addressed this data concern in the previous section, and it may have an even stronger impact since my sample has greater restrictions, but my results may be in part due to a lack of enough observational data. This may also explain the increased noise in the college-educated data relative to the non-college educated. For non-college educated immigrants, the earlier arrival effect does take place.
Within that sample of immigrants, arriving at age 1 makes a significant difference from arriving at age Since their educational attainment remains low throughout their life, a potential theory might be the effect that the language barrier has on future earnings — the later they arrive, the stronger the effect. Arriving at age 12 versus arriving at age 13, unlike arriving at age 24 instead of age 25, will not increase your net contribution by an extra year since you may only start working at age This provides even stronger evidence that there must be some significance in arriving at an earlier age, even prior to working age eligibility.
The plausibility of a working age foreigner receiving benefits upon immigration is relatively low, however. Household Lifecycle Model Immigrants who come to the United States are often not alone - they come with families. I test my hypothesis that the impact of a family on the government budget differs from the impact of a sole immigrant through the construction of a household lifecycle model.
This model helps me better approximate the impact of children on a household while varying the different types of household possibilities. I construct four different types of immigrant households: 1 a parent and child, 2 a father, son, and daughter, 3 a mother, son, and daughter, and 4 a father, mother, son, and daughter.
I assume that the parents have children at age 25 and that once the parents die the children keep contributing until their own death. A parent coming in at age 72 can expect to receive welfare until death, while their child at age 47 will contribute less over their working life than when they hit retirement. Past that point, the older households will not receive welfare for as many years and therefore will have less of a negative impact.
Immigration Policy Goals. These revolve around 4 axes: 1 Economic: increase labor supply, especially where skill deficits exist, 2 Humanitarian: reunite families, 3 Cultural: ethnic and racial diversity, 4 Political: allowing or refusing certain political refugees. My results clearly indicate that the United States should actively solicit young, highly-skilled immigrants. Similar to Canada, my results for the average immigrant point to the optimal working ages of , my cutoff point showing age 35 as the beginning of.
More importantly, the answer to this question helps shed light on the optimal immigration policy when considering multi-person households. I plot my results in Figure 9. My results show that a 2-person household will positively impact the government budget over their lifetime if the parent arrives before age Similarly, a 3 and 4-person household will also positively impact the government budget as long as the parents arrive prior to age The shape of the household lifecycle curves reveal that a 3-person male parent household, on average, will have a greater positive contribution on the government budget if the parents arrive prior to age 57, however, the 4-person household will have a greater negative contribution if they arrive past that age.
The 4-person household follows a very similar pattern to the 3-person male parent household, revealing that a female spouse does not seem to have much of an impact on the government budget. In fact, around parent arrival age of the 3-person male parent household shows a stronger positive impact than the 4-person household. The 3-person female parent household and 2-person household both have less positive and negative overall impacts on the government budget.
A 3-person household led by a male shows a stronger positive impact prior to arriving at age 57 than one led by a female, however, past age 57 the magnitudes of their impact are very similar. It is also important to note that around age 47, the 3-person households both begin to have a more positive impact than the 4-person household.
This is likely due to the parents hitting retirement age sooner and with 2 parents rather than 1 in the household, the negative impact is amplified. Interestingly, all curves follow a slight parabolic shape whereby a parent arriving around age 72 will have the worse impact on the government budget than if they came at an earlier or later age.
This may be explained by the amount of time that both the parent and. One of the main limitations of my paper is that it ignores the impact of immigrants on native wages and employment displacement effects, and instead relies purely on estimating their fiscal impact. The argument is usually made that immigrants are displacing native workers when they gain employment, which would mean that the taxes paid for the job displaced does not change whether an immigrant or native holds the position.
Under my model it would seem as if the immigrant is benefitting the government by the total amount of taxes paid. Additionally, while the immigrant may not receive welfare, the now displaced worker may begin receiving welfare from the government, creating a net loss. Another potential limitation in my paper is the lack of a death discount factor, which would better predict lifetime impacts by discounting it based on life expectancy.
These ranges are very similar to where my data cuts off, which mitigates the effects of a large impact on my results. Lastly, this paper does not account for the public cost of education. My results show that the younger an immigrant arrives, the higher the lifetime contribution. However, while an immigrant arriving prior to schooling age is shown to have a greater positive fiscal impact than one that may arrive at age 25, for example, the cost of education could impact the net impact. It makes it extremely difficult to compare such a scenario since other factors such as cultural integration can have a large impact on future success, regardless of whether two immigrants have the same level of education.
The only difference being that they award no points for immigrants below the age of 18, while my results all indicate that the younger the immigrant arrives, the higher the lifetime contribution. Based on the two main metrics observed, age at arrival and education, my results suggest that immigration can be a solution to the aging population and fiscal deficit. If the U. Other potential government interventions could include ways to reform social benefits provided to immigrants through optimal time-dependent structures.
These would ensure that they are making a net positive impact on the system over their lifetime, while also considering their impact on the native population. Final Remarks This paper demonstrates that immigrants have strong quantitative implications for fiscal policy in the United States. In particular, this paper investigates the optimal lifetime contributions based on age at arrival, education, and gender. The findings throughout the paper are illustrated by computing the net fiscal impact, in present value terms, of admitting one additional immigrant to the United States, conditional on education, gender, and age at time of arrival.
The lifetime contributions vary considerably across these three characteristics, with large and positive values for college-educated immigrants arriving in the earlier part of their life. Using a yearly net contribution model, two life-cycle models, and a household contribution model, I demonstrate that the average immigrant arriving past age 34 has a lifetime negative fiscal impact. Additionally, a college educated immigrant arriving prior to age 52 will have a lifetime positive fiscal impact while a noncollege educated immigrant will roughly have a lifetime negative fiscal impact, regardless of age at arrival.
My research has a few avenues for add-on research. Understanding that dynamic might better motivate welfare or tax reform. Second, I focus on the mix of immigrant characteristics, but not on the level of immigration.
Third, while I have data on education, age, and gender, a further analysis could look at the effects of language proficiency, skill, and native country of birth Lagakos Lastly, it is important to note that while these results are based on U.
References Auerbach, Alan J. Immigration: A Generational-Accounting Perspective". Tax Policy and the Economy 14 : Bleakley, Hoyt, and Aimee Chin. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2. Borjas, G. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Borjas, George.
Center for Immigration Studies Robert Warren. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Friedberg, Rachel M, and Jennifer Hunt. Journal of Economic Perspectives 9. Gibson, Campbell, and Emily Lennon. Working Paper no. Census Bureau Hansen, Jorgen, and Magnus Lofstrom. The Journal of Human Resources Klopfenstein, Kristin. Lagakos, David. S Immigrants".
National Bureau of Economic Research : n. The International Migration Review 43 : Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. Journal of the European Economic Association Pekkala Kerr, Sari, and William R. Peri, Giovanni. Sandford, Jeremy, and Michael C. Journal of Economics 29 : Schaafsma, Joseph, and Arthur Sweetman. Canadian journal of Economics : Storesletten, Kjetil.
Journal of Political Economy International Migration Outlook Zhang, Yi. It exerts immense suffering on children and families and imposes an economic burden on society. As suggested by its name, ASD does not manifest in one form or present only a single set of symptoms, but instead contains heterogeneous sets of symptoms, leading to obstacles that obstruct the path to ASD etiology discovery.
Traditionally, researchers have focused on identifying genes that underlie most cases of ASD and have discovered several genes that correspond to a wide range of ASD cases. This approach, however, has limitations as ASD is now understood to have a much more complex set of causes than the known set of genes.
In light of evidences suggesting the complexity of ASD etiology, some researchers have shifted focus from finding a universal cause for all symptoms of ASD to systematically grouping symptoms and comorbidities, and performing genetics studies to discover a set of genetic factors contributing to these groups of symptoms. Other researchers tackle the genotypic heterogeneity by attempting to identify genetic factors underlying phenotypically homogenous subgroups of ASD.
Moreover, some researchers have broadened the scope of ASD etiology investigation to include the investigation of comorbidity etiology. This review elucidates the current strategies in discovering the biological basis of ASD research and highlights some of the most recent advancements in the understanding of ASD etiology.
Comorbidity and Etiology ASD is commonly comorbid with other neurodevelopmental or behavioral disorders. Thus, a focus on one of these disorders may cause a physician to neglect the consideration or diagnosis of another. More specifically, it may result in a failure to diagnose autism. In particular, efforts to subdivide autism and do away with the confounding phenotypic heterogeneity observed in the disorder have become increasingly focused on the presence of ASD comorbidities.
Earlier research has shown that ASD has a large variety of associated comorbidities, including gastrointestinal disorders, sleep disorders, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, and immune disorders. Recently, an attempt to stratify ASD using comorbidity clusters has been made, leading to the idea that ASD with one group of comorbidities should be viewed somewhat differently from ASD with another group of comorbidities.
Today, there are a multitude of mental health disorders that have gained importance in the clinic. One of the more prominent, though not completely understood, mental health disorders is autism spectrum disorder ASD. The term autism spectrum disorders ASD , also known as pervasive developmental disorders PDD , was developed in when the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was released. ASD functions as an umbrella term for developmental disorders involving primarily communication, behavioral, and intellectual issues, such as autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome.
Early signs may start to appear as early as infancy, but many parents are unsure of whether these signs reflect ASD or non-pathological personality development. Though the attempt to find a single underlying gene for ASD has not been determined, research focused on specific DNA segments and proteins has been initiated.
Today, researchers have begun subgrouping ASD based on genotypic uniformity and are trying to understand the etiological heterogeneity on ASD and its comorbidity. They examined clusters of forty-five common comorbidities in around 5, ASD patients, checking in with the ASD patients every six months from birth to age fifteen.
The clusters they identified showed distinct medical trajectories, i. The three focal clusters identified were mainly characterized by seizure, psychiatric disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders, along with other minor comorbidities. The implication is that there might be distinct etiological roots that lead to ASD with seizures, roots that lead to ASD with psychiatric illnesses, and roots that lead to ASD with gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, these clusters can be seen as subgroups of autism with distinct comorbidities and possibly distinct causes.
This approach to subgrouping autism does not rely on previously identified factors, yet it still manages to create homogenous subgroups. Certainly, this approach has great potential in contributing to the search for causative factors of ASD. Moreover, ASD is also commonly associated with delays in language development. Genetic studies show overlap between specific areas of the chromosome that seem to be associated with both the expression of Specific Language Impairment SLI and the communication problems that arise in ASD patients.
These results suggest that the presence of both ADHD and ASD contributes to a lesser quality of life due to a hindered ability to execute skills needed in everyday life. Research suggests that the co-occurrence may be the result of two separate disorders with a common etiology. That is, the two disorders may share a common genetic basis. Pleiotropic genes are defined as one gene affecting multiple phenotypic traits, and SNPs are defined as a variation in a single nucleotide occurring at a specific position on the genome.
Various brain imaging scans have also been conducted, but specialists agree that solely looking at the brain is a simplification of the problem. Studies and experts alike have shown the co-occurrence of ASD and other disorders result in more symptoms and a more complex prognosis. However, oftentimes only one diagnosis is given.
As a result, ASD can go undiagnosed or untreated. Therefore, a better genetic and biological understanding of how ASD and other disorders interact is needed in order to give patients a proper diagnosis of ASD. A series of various studies of cytogenetics and whole-genome linkage of exome sequencing has shown that the etiological component of autism is extremely complex and interwoven, presenting a high degree of pleiotropy and locus heterogeneity.
The information involving biological origins autism and mechanisms continues to be updated and become more extensive with the progression of genetics and more conducted animal model systems. These traits, such as restricted interests, could lead to innovation and have been linked to the maintenance of autism alleles in the gene pool.
Many concurrent genomic mutations have been proved to lead to expression of autism, however each of these individual factors alone is only minutely responsible for ASD in and of itself. Both past and current research has shown that there are a multitude of genetic implications involved in ASD. Due to the complex nature of the etiology of autism, a total of disease genes and 44 genomic loci have been linked with ASD or autistic behavior. Recent research has shown the positive correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and autism.
This is not completely surprising as the immune system has been shown to influence memory formation and learning as well. These changes can overprune synapses in patients with autism. A common comorbidity of ASD is abnormal tactile sensitivity. Recent research shows that the mutation of genes Mecp2, Gabrb3, Shank3, and Fmr1 in mouse cause altered tactile sensitivity. Rescue of Mecp2 null mutant mice specifically in somatosensory neurons with functional Mecp2 during early development restores social interaction deficits and reduces anxiety-like behaviors.
Figure 2. CHD8 protein structure in humans. Diagram of the structure of the CHD8 protein with indications of different domains and motifs. Numbers positioned above and below indicate the amino acid positions. Moreover, this haploinsufficiency was found to be associated with the activation of Re-1 silencing transcription factor REST , in both mice and humans.
Activation of REST leads to suppression of the transcription of many neuronal genes, thereby delaying development. Another protein that was recently studied is the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein. Mutations in the protein were found to be associated with a large group of ASD human patients after a genomic study. In particular, this protein is involved in chromatin regulation and DNA function, and controls gene expression by its role as an epigenetic regulator that modifies chromatin.
In mice, it was found that those with a deletion mutation in the CH1 domain of the protein displayed behaviors similar to that of ASD patients, including hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, abnormal synaptic plasticity, impaired recognition memory, and repetitive behavior, indicating that this CBP protein is likely a high risk factor in autism. Upon deletion of this gene, autism-associated behaviors were exhibited in mice.
Under limited social contact in certain tasks, mice also exhibited memory deficits. Many of the genes and proteins that have been found to be involved in ASD cases are usually found to be involved in other issues and diseases as well, making ASD a difficult disorder to categorize and treat. Subgrouping ASD based on genotypic uniformity One approach that researchers have taken to tackle this apparent genotypic heterogeneity is subgrouping ASD in such a way that each genetic problem corresponds to a phenotypically homogenous subgroup of ASD.
These studies generally attempt to correlate specific genotypes to homogenous phenotypic expressions. One study assumed phenotypic heterogeneity arises from genotypic hetereogeneity of ASD and homogenous genotype causes phenotypic. There is currently no known biomarker or specific genomic sequence that can be linked to ASD as the main causative factor.
However, in a genetic utopia, clinical and laboratory researchers would be able to find a genomic sequence or biomarker common to all ASD patients. For this purpose, researchers have recently explored four particular genes and proteins that are deemed as high risk factors for ASD, although these mutations are not present in all ASD patients. One gene that has been investigated recently is the TSHZ3 gene that encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, which consists of a zinc finger-binding domain that allows it to bind DNA, RNA, and other proteins.
The TSHZ3 gene has been shown to be one of the genes most highly expressed in the developing human neocortex, however, its exact function is not well understood. In recent research, it was found that mice heterozygous for the TSHZ3 gene were affected and displayed a change in function of the synapses that are found between cerebral cortical projection neurons. The protein encoded has been shown to be involved in regulating the p53 pathway and CTNNB1 gene, and it interacts with CHD7 protein, which is involved in many human abnormalities and defects.
They found that the group with the same genotype had a much greater phenotypic homogeneity than that of the mixed group. These results imply that clinical heterogeneity of ASD can be reduced by subgrouping ASD patients based on specific genotypes. However, as studies discover more genes implicated in ASD behaviors, it is important to recognize the limitations of such findings. In another study, the authors highlight how ASD is not a single clinical entity but instead a behavioral manifestation of anywhere from tens to hundreds of genetic and genomic disorders.
Furthermore, autism is often associated with other neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. Indeed, many of these studies indicating genetic mutations leading to ASD were conducted without indication of how formal diagnostic evaluation was performed.
These studies redefine autism as the final common pathway for often co-occurring genetic brain disorders: well-recognized ID-genes, which do not always result in symptomatic ID, as well as some gene mutations characteristic of epilepsy can also correlate to ASD. Volume 10 Issue 2 Fall can be characterized by seizure, psychiatric disorders and gastrointestinal disorders.
Continuing to identify various comorbidities into more individualized and specific subgroups will aid in furthering our understanding of the complexities of autism and exactly what characterizes it. Research into Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD presents a discourse of questions and analysis concerning the biological basis and optimal treatment methods for the disorder. Although this type of research is necessary, it is also imperative to discuss and consider the sociocultural factors that play a role in ASD.
These factors have significant implications for both diagnosis and treatment. When striving to understand the social and cultural basis of ASD, the hope is not to bring attention away from studying the underlying biology; rather, this research seeks to provide further insight into understanding the biology and provide a bridge between the multifaceted components and complexities of this disease.
An overwhelming amount of research makes clear one simple fact: diagnosis of autism requires recognition of autism. The selection is made during the day before the evening show on theFacebook fan page of the programme.
The fans are young and extremely active. They post an average of 60 to You Tube links to music videos every day even on weekends. The page is constantly updated throughout theday. Fans keep on posting at every hour, day and night. It resembles a collective stream of consciousness. Music video posting is the realglue of the RaiTunes community. The listeners of the show are used to music shows, are used to go to concertsand they behave like a concert audience.
The fans who post on the wall demonstrate a wide musical knowledge,perfectly matching the musical choice of the presenter. Before and after the show the fans keep on posting music and making comments about it, but when theshow begins something special happens: they stop posting music and start listening to the programme, leavingthe FB page open on their computers.
During the 80 minutes of the show the FB page is updated almost everyminute with comments and questions about the music played by the DJ. Doing radio in the age of Facebookaverage of 60 to 80 comments on the wall, like a concert audience chatting about what it is listening to. Every daythe same dynamic takes place: when the programme begins, fans stop posting videos it is like when a concertbegins and the audience falls silent : they agree to enter into another dimension, the spectacular one.
The changeof behaviour on the FB fan page marks a ritual passage. Presenter and listeners recognise that they belong to thesame tribe and taking part in the show means celebrating the music they share. Music is the totem around whichpeople gather. Listeners would like to listen to more music, butwhen the show comes to an end, they can only continue to post other music on the FB wall and listen to the musicchosen by their peers.
A few minutes after the end of the show the RaiTunes team publishes a You Tube video playlist on FB, acollection of videos of all the songs played during the episode that has just ended. TwitterTwitter is frequently updated by the production team, to disseminate contents, news and You Tube playlistsavailable on other platforms. Broadcast use only. WebsiteThe website of the programme contains the archive of all the episodes aired so far, available for listening toin streaming.
During the show it is possible to see what is going on in the studio through a mobile webcamsituated on the roof. The webcam frames the presenter and his guests and is remote-controlled by the socialmedia manager, on the other side of the studio. Case history 2: CaterpillarBroadcaster: Radio 2 Rai www.
Conceived as a drive time talk show, it is the most listened-to programme on Italian radio in itstime slot. It provides an independent, tongue-in-cheek take on national and foreign current affairs. Phone talk plays akey role, occupying more than one third of the programme listeners, correspondents, politicians, artists, critics,etc. Tiziano BoniniPodcasts are easy to access from the Rai iPhone applicationSocial media activityBlogThe blog is updated every day with a synopsis of the latest show and videos of the music played.
It is usedas a multimedia archive of the programme. The morning after the show a podcast is available for do wnload also via Facebook. Thepresenters and authors of the programme usually join the conversation and interact directly with their fans. Fanscan also find relevant excerpts of the show a live music show, poetry by the correspondent Marco Ardemagni,satirical videos available on demand on the fan page, extra contents not aired during the show and extra contentnot suitable for radio video interviews from the correspondents, text notes, collection of photos of special events.
TwitterThe Caterpillar Twitter profile page, however, is more institutional and formal. It is only used as a one-tomanymedium, in order to disseminate to "followers" issues and links related to the programme. It looks more likea newspaper-style homepage. Audience participationFacebook fans of the programme post comments both in real time during the show and after. Fanspublish an average of 7 to 15 wall posts every day. Listeners use Facebook not only to show whether they likesomething that has been broadcast or not, but also to publish news and links they find useful, either for theprogramme or for the "Caterpillar community".
The radio show and the Facebook page are both examples of networked media, since they rely heavily onuser generated content and comments. Every day the presenter tells the story of his life as if it was an22 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Doing radio in the age of Facebookaudio diary and shares his experiences with the listeners.
The second part of the programme is based on thephone calls of listeners who want to share their private stories. Fans and friends start to reply to thepresenter's call with comments and long posts, sharing private experiences of everyday life through Facebook. The author of theprogramme has accustomed his Facebook audience to expect one call every morning. He opens the game withthe first post of the day, letting the listeners be the main characters of the play on the Facebook stage.
During theweek of observation, the presenter's calls received between 25 and 80 comments, depending on the popularity ofthe topic. Almost every day the author chooses one story among the best ones appeared on Facebook in the hoursbefore the show. Usually the first phone call of the day comes from a Facebook fan, then the presenter starts to take other livephone calls too. Sometimes fans spontaneously reply to the call of the day by posting an excerpt of a film or asong that reminds them of the topic of the day on the Wall.
The presenter normally edits and uses these contentsembedding them into the radio flow of the episode of the day. One hour before the show the author posts a YouTube link to the video of the song that will be broadcast during his story.
Facebook is conceived as a mine ofrough contents to be chosen, edited and then embedded into the radio production flow. Comments, life stories,links to video or audio contents, are used by the author and his team as material for the production of theforthcoming show.
During the show: fans and friends that are listening to the show through the web post comments about theprogramme on the wall. After the show: fans keep on commenting the show that has just ended and start to post on the wall aphoto shot by them that can represent where they are in that very moment emotionally or geographically. During the observed week fans published an average of 6 to 20 posts per day on the wall of theprogramme, while the programme's team made between 3 and 5 posts per day.
RaiTunes uses the music links suggested by the audience,Caterpillar uses the news links suggested by the audience, Io Sono Qui uses the life stories told by the audienceand its content suggestions photos, video, songs. Tiziano BoniniSocial media Manifesto for radioEven if social media use has entered the production routine of radio only in the last two to three years,turning out to be a crucial tool, but quite often misunderstood and underestimated too, in the case historiesanalysed so far we can note many similar social media practices, which are both effective and innovative.
Thecomparative study reveals that broadcasters have finally started to understand the importance of social media innurturing their relation with audiences, like an umbilical cord connecting listeners to producers while the radio isoff. As a conclusion, we will try to put together the best practices discovered during the research and write a kin do f Social Media Manifesto, or more simply, a bare bones guide to the ideal social media strategy for broadcasters.
Dramaturgic structureSocial media management is an authorial and creative work. It is similar to the work of a theatre directorand has to do with storytelling. And storytelling has its rules. Social media spaces are not virtual at all, they arelively spaces where people attempt to show themselves at their best, making great efforts to perform one of thecharacters they would love to look like in real life.
As people's FB and TW profiles are nothing but storytellingperformances, programmes' profiles have to address issues of performance and storytelling too. The most successful Facebook and Twitter pages analysed so far all share a specific and clearlyrecognisable dramaturgic structure: frequent, cyclical and regular updates, every day. Facebook and Twitterprovide a flood of data, and posts and tweets will quickly flow off followers' screens.
Tweeting frequently will builda bigger following. Radio producers have to show listeners that they are always alive, always present, and theyhave to convince them to visit their page more often during the day. They have to build expectations among theirfollowers. Posting 15 tweets a day, but all in the same half hour, will not do , as most of the followers will not evensee them. Radio producers have to educate the public, making them feel that their page is constantly updatedwith valuable contents.
Second Act - During the show: InterActWe have noticed that successful work and presence on social media generates a continual flow ofcomments and updates from listeners during the show. Third Act — After the show: the show must go onSuccessful programmes are conceived like multimedia projects.
When the radio show comes to an end,the programme continues on the web. Cross media interactionConnect all the platforms and enforce communication flows between them. Doing radio in the age of Facebookin talk shows is to give the same importance to listener feedback, no matter which platform they came from email, phone call, sms, Facebook, Twitter. The debate around the issue of the day starts on social media, thencontinues on air: the presenters keep quoting comments made in real time on social networks.
If people get used to knowing that what happens in the social mediasphere is valuable for the programmetoo, they will participate more. Presenters and authors of the programme have to play at the listeners' level, and to build a fair and straightinteraction with them.
Every time you post something on social media you should provide it with a context for itto be properly understood, and personalise information, adding your personal view or feeling. Every podcast alertyou make has to be accompanied by a quick and personal synopsis of the programme contents, using a catchylanguage, not the cold and standardised language of marketing but the warmer one of true personal engagementwith it. Every post is a little story.
Take advantage of General Intellect and realize Walter Benjamin's dreamSocial media are wonderful tools for nurturing and empowering the General Intellect 2. Thanks to theirnetworked structure, social media seem to be making the dream of Brecht and Benjamin 3 come true: listenersbecoming authors UGC.
Among your listeners lie hundreds of experts in different fields willing to take part incontent production. Caterpillar RAI perfectly outsources some reporting to the listeners and takes advantage ofcitizen journalism: its listeners publish suggestions about topics to be discussed and offer themselves as reportersfrom the place they live in.
Ask listeners to tweet their reports in real time while travelling. The minds of thelisteners, once connected through social media, can be very powerful and fast. Share the loveShare, quote, forward, retweet valuable contents. You need to give in order to get. ReferencesAnderson, Benedict La radio. Au microphone: Dr. Walter Benjamin.
Tiziano BoniniVol. On the Higher Education context many changes are occurring due to the introduction of newlearning paradigms, many of them take advantage of web 2. Social networks are currently being a do pted in many Higher Education communities as platformsto support the interaction among community members, taking advantage of the potential of thosenetworks to foster strong and meaningful relationships and support the awareness andconsolidation of group identity.
This potential is being explored to promote new possibilities forteaching and learning that include new approaches such as the personal learning environments. This article addresses the potential that radio services have for Higher Education communities in aweb 2.
The article explores theperceptions that Aveiro academic members have about webradio potentialities in terms of sense ofbelonging creation and community cohesion. Keywords: webradio, university, community, social networks Radio as a service of a university communityThe incorporation of the radio in the university field, as well as their potential use by the academiccommunity, is not a recent phenomenon.
The first initiative of this kind took place in at the University ofWisconsin Faus, College radio refers to a type of station that operates within an academic community and presentscharacteristics of community radio and educational ones.
These stations can be a global institutional projectinvolving the entire university community or an initiative from a more restricted entity faculty, student union,student-teacher of a specific subject… Sauls, 1. In fact, the phenomenon of college radio has evolved from the first experimental stations and, nowadays,has multiple configurations depending on the technological support broadcast FM, AM, web , audience of aclosed circuit to a wider community of listeners , aims education, outreach, entertainment or managementmodels Sauls, 2.
Characteristics that imply a programming for the college radio, different from commercial ones. This type of stations, to which also belong community radio stations, is characterized by uncommercialobjectives and social vocation. College radio has also a cohesive feature that, combined with the fact that itoperates within an academic community, gives it characteristics of community radio stations.
Indeed the main goal of any college radio is to provide a service to the community, regardless of whetherit is a strictly academic community or a wider community Sauls, 2. The purpose of this paper is to deepen into the perceptions that different audiences in the academiccommunity of Aveiro have about the potential of a college radio for the community cohesion and the promotionof a sense of belonging,.
The underlying conception of the university webradio is here a platform with links tosocial networks, a space to share materials among professors-students or students-students, and other kind ofinteraction tools. Radio transposition to the Internet offers lots of potentialities for the college stations.
In fact, since the early college radio web initiatives that took place in the late 90's, thisphenomenon has been expanding. The radiomorphosis. A new paradigm based on the interactionThe mediamorphosis Fidler, in radio renewed the audio product with the addition of componentsinherent to digital system. Thus, webradio set up a platform where converge multiple features of the conventional media with thosederived from its new multimedia essence like flexibility, ubiquity, synchronous and asynchronous communication,language and interactive multimedia.
The phenomenon of radiomorphosis Prata, was reflected primarily on the genres and on theinteraction. Two connected areas that establish the essence of the Internet medium and alter broadcastingconcept nature Cordeiro, From the perspective of interaction, the transfer from terrestrial radio to the web has strengthenedrelations with the user through new forms of relationship. Interaction that has evolved from participation viaemail, an e-review of wiretapping tradicional model, to other nearish and instantaneous modes like socialnetworks.
This is due to the return of listeners, interacting in relation tobroadcast content and also due to the release profile on portals, directories and virtual communities" Kischinhevsky, Radio 2. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe interaction of these listeners in multiple social networks establishes a relation between them and thepractitioner, a relationship which allows real-time feedback regarding the contents conveyed. This enablesconsolidation of collaborative media based on a single network that combines social networking and various webtools 2.
In this context,prosumer figure rises up as a listener consumer and content producer at once Toffler The multimedia nature of the web allows to push the limits established between the radio and its listeners. A relation marked by the fact that, as Moare stressed inBuffarah Junior, 6 there is no place on the net for passive recipients.
The radio experience at that time,new concepts and gain time previously inaccessible devices " Ahmed, This new potential of Internet radio enables its use in a community college with multiple objectives. The characteristics of this digital natives group can be considered convergent with the web broadcastingpotentiality: "nomadism, individualism, customization and personalization, exhibition and voyeurism, public andprivate space, memory of the generation on demand and a young profile in transformation" Rodrigues da Cunha, This convergence should not be dismissed on college radio.
Metho do logyTo accomplish the aim of assessing the perceptions that Aveiro University members from now on AU have about webradio potential for academic community cohesion, an approach to its main audiences has beencarried out: students and professors. An approach that a do pted different samples, analysis tool and metho do logy.
The selection of both convenience samples was do ne according to different criteria. StudentsAccording to Rose and Lenski and Baker students are configured as the primary recipient of auniversity webradio. This is a circumstance of special interest from the point of view of webradios potential foruniversity community cohesion. A test sample of 78 individuals belonging to three different groups of students in the UA was chosen:communication graduate students masters and do ctorates , students coursing other subjects undergraduate andgraduate and foreign students-researchers in various scientific areas.
The selection of the second group of 18 undergraduate and graduate in other scientific areas was due tothe need for a sample of students from the AU whose media consumption, and ideas regarding the potential ofan university webradio, would not be influencied by their proximity to the field. This sample could offer a differentperspective from communication students.
The third group consisted on 15 foreign students-researchers all of them users of the residence of the UA as a representation of the relevance from this population in Aveiro university community. These three groups of students have in common their status as active users of social networks one ormore. This volume of hits in the sample reveals a prevailing culture of networks that could be transferred to theuniversity community realm.
Transfer that would enable the establishment of horizontal links between equals ,vertical students-professors and even of diagonal type with other audiences AU encouraging the universitycommunity cohesion. Figure 1. Frequency of use of social networks among students in the sampleThe questionnaire was chosen as the tool to understand the precepts that students have about thepotential of webradios for the university community. Data was collected quantitatively and qualitatively throughdifferent types of questions depending on the type of response: open, closed, multiple choice, yes or no, Likertscale or hierarchy scale.
The last part of the questionnaire focused on students preferences and perceptions about webradios andtheir ability to establish relationships with other community members, to strengthen the academic community andto foster a sense of belonging. It also included other issues, regarding the use of social media, as other tools ofweb 2. In order to validate the questionnaire, acontrol group of five individuals belonging to the population under study was used, which allowed theimprovement of the formulation of some questions, as well as the overall coherence and organization of this datacollection tool.
ProfessorsProfessors are the other main public from college radio and, for this reason, it would be interesting to learnabout their perception about college radio possibilities to strengthen of the academic community. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsin the research as a another sample could offer a richer vision of students answers about college radio and itscharacteristics.
This selection is based on the assumption that, given their expertise, these professors would present abroad knowledge of new media and its possibilities, as well as offers a critical perspective of them. In this sense, to get as much information as possible about the idea that professors have over theuniversity webradios, in-depth interview was chosen as a research tool.
An interview of 20 minutes was structured around three blocks of questions: their perception of web radioas a casual user, their perception of the possibilities of this platform for the university community in general, andtheir perception of potentials that this webradio could provide for their specific teaching. The contributions madeby professors during the course of these interviews were recorded in audio format and revised.
This reviewallowed to draw ideas for the next phase of this research. Main resultsThe work developed allowed us to deepen into the precepts that, both students and professors, haveabout the benefits of a webradio implementation for the Aveiro university community. These results werestructured in two blocks according to the sample and metho do logical differences.
StudentsSurveyed students were particularly receptive to a webradio creation in the context of the Aveiro academycommunity. However, students are not so sure that this platform is a good way to establish links between the differentaudiences of university webradio. This increase reflects a balancebetween those who advocate the potential of university webradios to establish relationships with peers and thosewho seem critics.
University webradio platform interaction is a good form to establish relationships with professors32 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe students concept about the webradio platforms potential to meet people or to promote a closerrelationship with classmates is a reflection of their use of social networks. So the fact of coursing the same degree,course or courses, do es not imply the need for online links.
A completely different situation is reflected in relationships with professors. The possibility to establish such relationships between two different audiences from the university sphereallows to foresee the perception of university webradios as a cohesiveness element for this kind of community Figure 5.
University webradio can promote university community cohesionAlthough most of the students do not totally agree with the creation a webradio platform to fosterinterpersonal interaction among peers or among professors, this trend is opposite when they are asked about itschances for community cohesion. University webradio can promote the feeling of university community membershipThe same happens with the feeling of belonging.
Most students think that the creation of the AU webradioincreases the identification of academic community members with the university. A similar percentage of those individuals also raises the possibility that this webradio becometheir favourite station. The sum of these realities would foster a community of loyal listeners that would stillremain at the basis of a constant feedback process: the fact that the radio becomes a favourite station favours anincreases of the pride of belonging, which in turn brings more listeners to the radio, etc.
However, despite their consideration of the university webradio for the cohesion of the academiccommunity and of its high consumption of social networks, only few students would incorporate them into aplatform of university webradio. Only a third of the sample 37 individuals thinks that it would be interesting toinclude a link to the social networks. ProfessorsLikewise students, professors interviewed considered interesting the implementation a webradio universityin Aveiro academic community.
This interest was justified by the need to give visibility to the activities of the university and to the type ofwork do ne by its researchers. Visibility of internal type, as a channel to support the dissemination of daily activitiesbeyond the university web with low reading among students , and external, to engage a broader community inthe events taking place in the academic institution.
Regarding the role of this webradio for the university community cohesion, all professors intervieweddefended its value for the creation of a sense of belonging. In fact, for them, any new form of connection betweenthe various groups of the university improves community cohesion.
A connection powered in webradio by prideof belonging. This pride of belonging is based, as targeted by professors interviewed in: Providing the community with a new channel that gives information about the events developed in theframework of the university quickly and efficiently. Professors indicated that, despite the many events heldat the UA, there is some opacity of information.
Any initiative that promotes the flow of information isoptimal to increase this sense of belonging. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptions Informing society about research, experience or other events taking place in the AU or in collaborationwith it. The disclosure of the activities carried out in the university not only contributes to the creation, orenhancement, of brand image of the AU, but also increases the pride of belonging of its members.
In thissense, one of the professors interviewed referred to a television program of the AU which, despite the earlymorning broadcast, contributed to the identification of members of the community with the university. Fostering collaboration between community members in developing content for this radio. This radiomanager should seek tools to review, create content, collaborate on the development of the grid etc. Thefact that students have a channel to whose contents they could collaborate is an element of interest for anidentification with the institution.
Similarsituation occurs when the voices of leaders are familiar. Also, these professors believe that social networks are an essential element to make horizontal and verticalcommunication easy, and with it, to facilitate the cohesion of the university community. Otherwise, any project is stillborn". In short, professors defend the appropriateness of a webradio university for the academic communitycohesion.
In this defense, some respondents cited the RUM University of Minho radio, Portugal as an example ofa station that encourages pride of belonging among members of the university community. These professors based on webradio cohesive role of a university the possibility of establishing a mediumto a large consumption by different audiences, sensitive to the tastes and interests of its members as well as aunique way of approaching what is happening in this community university.
Both groups believe that the radio platform on the web can be interesting for the cohesion of theacademic community and foster a sense of belonging. But students do not give too much value to this platform asa place to meet people or engage in closer relationships between classmates. Professors identified three issues which can build pride in belonging: to have a new channel of internalcommunication; the dissemination of University activities to the society and its recognition by the latter; and theinvolvement of different groups of the academic community in order to develop content for this radio.
When determining the type of social interaction tools that the webradio must configured, it is remarkablethat, while professors consider a "must" to create a platform strongly connected to social networks, only one thir do f the students consider it appropriate.
In short, for students and professors, the implementation of a webradio university is an important elementto foster the university community both unity and communication a new channel of communication internal orexternal , by the participation in content production and with it, by the development of a sense of belonging. Afeeling summed up in this sentence: "I am an official channel of the university and I have contributed to this".
ReferencesAlbarran, Alan B. Radio Broadcasting Industry. Journal of Radio and Audio Media, Vol. New York: Semiotexte, pp. La Radio. Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Atlantic Journal of Comunication, Vol. Comunicar, Vol. On the Horizont, Vol.
Popular Music and Communication. Newbury Parl: Sage, pp. Joint Meetings of the Popular Culture Association. Studies in Popular Cultura, Vol. Braga: Universidade do Minho , pp. These new stations have emerged into a competitive broadcastingenvironment at a time of great technological change.
New digital broadcasting platforms arebeginning to become established in parallel with Internet and mobile phone network audiodelivery mechanisms and, as a result, the future technical development of the medium as a wholeis in something of a state of flux. At the heart of Community Radio is a range of diverse linkages and interactions with members ofindividual target communities. Within such a diverse broadcasting sector, how has the uptake ofso-called new media technologies developed, not just in terms of linear programme delivery, butalso with respect to podcasting, "listen again" services and the provision of additional text andvideo-based content?
This paper summarises the degree of uptake of new media technologies by the Community Radio sector and examines some of the impacts that may result from their use, both concerning theconsumption and the production of broadcast content. It concludes by suggesting how the futuredevelopment of Community Radio broadcasting in the UK may be influenced by the gradualacceptance of such new delivery platforms and the opportunities that may arise from suchacceptance.
Keywords: radio, community radio, technologyIntroductionOver recent years, the impact of Internet-based and other so-called 'new technologies' on Community Radio services has become increasingly important in a wide variety of ways stretching beyond the obviousprovision of additional programme content delivery opportunities. However, the arrival of the various newtechnologies is also something of a do uble-edged sword, bringing threats as well as opportunities to theCommunity Radio sector around the world.
As the senior electronic medium, broadcast radio has a long history. Evolving over time, radio hasexpanded both in terms of the number of stations broadcast and the nature of such stations. In a Europeancontext, following an early experimental period, most jurisdictions established public service broadcasting as thefoundation of their broadcast radio provision. Later, legislative and regulatory frameworks were adapted and PSBproviders found themselves subject of commercial competition.
Lawrie Hallettregulatory frameworks have gradually begun to change again, this time to accommodate Community Radio , theincreasing variety of broadcast radio services reflecting the growing diversity of the societies in which they arebased. At the same time, however, broadcast media infrastructure is also changing.
Internally, the medium isadapting to the emergence of various digital radio broadcasting platforms, whilst externally, the effectiveness ofso-called new media platforms is also creating opportunities and threats for broadcasters. The result of thiscombination of circumstances is that proponents of Community Radio seeking to establish and cement the sectoras a robust and integral third-tier of radio broadcasting, are do ing so in an atmosphere of regulatory andtechnological uncertainty and flux.
Alongside the development of platforms specifically designed for broadcasting purposes, new mediatechnologies have also been impacting on the operation of broadcast radio. Not only do the Internet the mobilephone networks provide alternative platforms for the delivery of linear radio in real time, but they also provideopportunities for the delivery of radio which is directly linked to other types of media content, and which caninclude 'on-demand' elements that can be both time-shifted and non-linear, such as 'listen again' services andpodcast programmes.
The Role of Community Radio There are some underlying commonalities which define community radio, such as operation on a not forprofit basis, a commitment to accountability and to the involvement of members of the target community in theoperation and management of the service concerned. However, a key feature of the sector as a whole lies in itsdiversity, each station is inevitably "shaped by its environment and the distinct culture, history and reality of thecommunity it serves" Buckley et al.
Put another way, there is no such thing as a typical communityradio service. Fundamentally, Community Radio services exist to serve defined communities, of place, or of interest. Nevertheless, well over such stations have been givenpermission to broadcast since full-time licensing commenced in , and more are currently in the process ofbeing licensed.
As well as stations broadcasting to geographical communities, there are stations serving a varietyof niche and specialist communities, including ethnic and religious minorities, children, retired people, militarygarrisons, universities and the arts. This public do cument, which is made available on-line by theU. To achieve the various social gain, access and accountability objectives effectively, Community Radio services require a high degree of integration with the membership of their target communities.
Such integrationtakes time and effort to develop and sustain. In practical terms, effective and successful Community Radio services require underpinning structures and processes to help establish, sustain and broaden the range oflinkages and opportunities for interaction with their target communities. In the U. A Digital Dilemma? Although the world of radio broadcasting is changing fast, the vast majority of Community Radio servicesstill currently depend on analogue broadcast frequencies in order to deliver their programming to mass audiencesin a cost effective manner.
It is increasingly the case that other non-broadcast delivery methods, such as webstreamingand pod-casting, are also able to attract listeners. However, despite their ability to deliver both linearand non-linear content, as yet, such platforms can only be considered supplementary to the use of traditionalbroadcast technologies and they are certainly not yet universally available in the same way that content deliveryvia the analogue broadcasting do main has been for many years.
In parallel, the arrival of digital radio broadcasting, in all its various forms, has resulted in politicians andregulators attempting to drive forward a process of technological transition. A key problem for theCommunity Radio sector is that the various proposals put forward by European policy makers, have tended tofocus pre do minantly on the requirements of the commercial and PSB sectors, thereby leaving Community Radio broadcasters on the periphery with a variety of resultant problems and risks for the future.
Ask politicians or regulators about Community Radio and they won't always know what you are talkingabout. Ask the same people about PSB or commercial radio and not only will they know what you are talkingabout but, almost certainly, they will also have some pretty firm opinions on the subject, perhaps dictated by theirpolitical affiliations rather than by any deep interest and understanding of the specific issues involved! Thecomparatively limited profile of Community Radio is, in part, due to the sector's relatively small-scale bothnumerically in terms of stations broadcasting, and in relation to the often deliberately limited geographical focusof such stations.
However, it is also due to the fact that, in most jurisdictions, the sector is comparatively youngand therefore inevitably lacking in terms of track-record. It is a simple fact that, in addition to requiring a greatdeal of effort, relationships with politicians, regulators, funding bodies and partner organisations take aconsiderable length of time to establish and solidify.
The historical tendency of European policy-makers to prioritise the requirements of larger PSB andcommercial broadcasters is perhaps not surprising, given the far greater scale of these sectors in comparison toCommunity Radio broadcasting. The difficult for community broadcasters is that, in practice, this approach hasresulted in the promotion of multiplex digital platforms, such as DAB, which are simply not designed to cater forsmaller-scale local commercial and 'non-profit' Community Radio services, each with its own defined geographicalcoverage requirements.
Furthermore the current existence of a variety of jurisdiction-specific approaches to the'digital migration' of radio services in Europe creates uncertainty as to the eventual shape of the emergingtechnical and policy environment.
Such political and regulatory involvement in the promotion of digital radio broadcasting, is in completecontrast to the virtual lack of such engagement with the various emerging non-broadcast delivery methods for'radio' programming content, using mobile phone networks and the Internet.
Historically, the digitalisationdiscourse as it relates to radio broadcasting has typically been characterised by considerable optimism on the partof those developing the various systems involved. Encouraged by such optimism, and by the promise ofadditional broadcasting capacity, politicians and regulators in many jurisdictions have driven forward theintroduction of new transmission platforms.
However, despite such official support, broadcasters and the publicECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Halletttend to remain somewhat wary of investing in the technology and conversely remain largely supportive oftraditional FM broadcasting in particular. In short, the problem with digital radio platforms is that they offer toofew advantages over the older, established, analogue technologies.
In the eyes of the general public, theperipheral advantages offered, including additional channel capacity and enhanced radio-text etc. With various digital transmission platforms now either operational or nearing launch, it remains impossibleto predict which option or options will eventually emerge as the accepted standards in the longer term.
Thisprocess of change is being further complicated by the increasing impacts of other, non-broadcast, audio deliveryplatforms. However, what is clear is that some digital radio broadcasting platforms are more flexible than othersand that some are best suited only to particular types of radio broadcasting. As they exist today, none of thedigital broadcast radio platforms currently operating are able to provide a completely compatible alternative toanalogue radio broadcasting in all its various forms.
Despite pressure for the 'digital migration' of many radio services, given the ubiquitous and flexible natureof FM broadcasting, it also seems likely that, in the majority of jurisdictions at least, its continued use forbroadcasting remains secure for the foreseeable future. The 'opportunity cost' associated with continuing to useBand II FM for small-scale broadcasting services, even after larger stations have moved to alternative platforms,is minimal because the frequencies involved have wavelengths which make their use for telecommunicationsservices less than ideal.
In addition, as both the AM and FM bands are internationally allocated for broadcasting and are likely to remain so for many years to come , there are limits as to what other uses they may be put to. Recent suggestions by Ed Richards, the Chief Executive of Ofcom, that Band II could be used for so-called 'whitespace'devices Ofcom, may have some validity in the medium term, but, even if this proves to be the case,such devices could be interleaved to operate alongside traditional analogue broadcasting transmitters.
Although the advent of digital radio transmission platforms offers at least the potential to help reduce theimbalance between supply and demand in terms of broadcast frequency availability, such developments certainly do not herald a complete end to frequency scarcity. Inevitably therefore, competition for access to broadcastingspectrum rights will remain a barrier to entry for the foreseeable future and for many years to come.
Assuming anongoing requirement for access to the airwaves, the question for Community Radio broadcasters is how best canthey obtain usage rights to a higher percentage of total available radio-broadcasting frequencies than is presentlythe case? If the sector is to be successful in such endeavours, it needs to continue to build up its circle of friends. It will need to convince politicians and regulators of the strength of its case, something which may be easier saidthan do ne in the context of the strong, well organised lobbying capacity available to competing PSB andcommercial operators.
In part because of such frequency scarcity issues, but also because of the various additional advantageswhich such technologies offer. Community Radio has been quick to embrace a variety of Internet-based andmobile phone network technologies in order to enhance the delivery of their various services.
However, when itcomes to the alternative of delivery of content via the Internet and other communications networks, the economicand operational models are somewhat different, for both broadcaster and listener alike. For the purposes of thispaper, mobile phone networks can be considered a sub-set of Internet delivery, adding not only long-rangewireless connectivity and the delivery of web-based and other applications to portable devices, but also providingtheir own specific additional facilities such as text and picture messaging.
In light of such developments and as new forms of mobile devices, such assmart-phones and 3G connected net-books, laptops and the tablet form PC, become increasingly prevalent, thedivide between the fixed line Internet and mobile telephony networks is becoming increasingly blurred. Dealing with the broadcaster first, in some respects, the Internet provides additional opportunities that are,quite simply, beyond the capability of traditional broadcasting platforms.
Staying with tools for broadcasters themselves, a further advantage of the Internet is its ability to deliverstreams of a station's live output. In other words, a copy of the station's traditional broadcast output can bedelivered in real-time to listeners who might be outside the coverage service area of the station's AM or FMtransmissions, or who might, for example, prefer to access such a stream while they work at an office computerterminal or from a laptop.
Because of the streaming nature of such services, their consumption requires that each listeneraccessing them has ongoing connectivity to the Internet for the duration of listening. Most flexible in terms of options for its consumption is the podcast. Those provided by radio broadcasterscan be regarded as being similar to those from other sources, although, because of their expertise and experiencein the sound medium, podcasts produced by radio professionals often have higher than average productionvalues.
The main advantage of the podcast over streaming is that it frees the user from the need for a constantconnection to the Internet. Typically, in a matter of a few seconds these can be do wnloaded to a computer, MP3player or mobile phone for later consumption and this process can be automated such that series programmingcontent is not missed by accident.
Once do wnloaded, not only can they be listened to at any time, but also, theycan then be easily archived and stored indefinitely by the user, for repeated listening at a later date. Copyrightissues aside, being typically provided in MP3 format, they can, at least in practical terms, also be copied foronward distribution to other potential listeners.
The key point regarding these Internet delivery options is that, to a greater or lesser extent, each providesadditional flexibility in relation to the consumption of broadcast content. Not only are the temporal constraints ofscheduling removed, but also, because content can be accessed outside the broadcast transmission service area ofthe station concerned, so too are geographical constraints on reception.
Moreover, because, unlike traditionalbroadcasting, the Internet is fundamentally a bi-directional medium, it intrinsically enhances opportunities forinteraction between broadcasters and their audiences generally, and specifically in relation to the focus of thispaper, between Community Radio services and members of their target communities. With a little effort,community-based broadcasters can learn a great deal about their target community through a simple analysis ofwho is listening to what and where on-line.
Whilst on-line consumption of content cannot be assumed toECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Hallettduplicate that carried out via traditional broadcasting platforms, it can at least provide some useful qualitativedata for programme makers and station management.
The Limits of New TechnologiesAlthough the use of such non-broadcast platforms can provide broadcasters with additional flexibility, for avariety of reasons, they do not yet constitute a replacement for traditional broadcast platforms.
To begin with,rather than being one-to-many broadcasting platforms, both the Internet as currently constituted for audiocontent and the mobile phone are primarily designed as one-to-one communications platforms. At present,mobile phone and mobile Internet platforms, lack universality and tend towards end-user cost models whichdiscourage the consumption of large amounts of data. In addition, the take-up of such platforms can be lower inareas of relative socio-economic deprivation, which are often the focus of Community Radio services.
However, itis quite clear that, as the carrying capacity of mobile phone networks expands and as improved methods ofmobile Internet delivery, such as WiMax, are implemented, this situation will change for the better. In somejurisdictions "all-you-can-eat" data tariffs are already becoming available at a relatively reasonable cost althoughconnectivity and capacity both remain potential stumbling blocks to reliable portable operation.
Despite variouslimitations, convergence between broadcasting and communications platforms is already happening and, as aresult, after a long period of relative inertia, radio broadcasting is currently being exposed to the challenges of aperiod of considerable ongoing change. Despite its various advantages and benefits for broadcasters, whatever else it may be, the Internet is mostdefinitely not a broadcast medium, that is to say, it is not a one-to-many medium, free at the point ofconsumption.
At least in technical terms, once a content stream has been made available,where in the world it is consumed becomes largely irrelevant although, for some forms of content at least, theremay be financial implications related to copyright issues.
While it may be technically possible for individualjurisdictions to block or otherwise make unavailable specific types of content or particular web addresses, suchtechniques are rarely applied to anything other than overtly sexually explicit materials and, in some moreauthoritarian regimes, particular types of political content.
The benefits of increased geographical reach, do however come at a price. Broadcasters using the Internetare faced with a marginal cost per each additional listener to the data-stream concerned. In other words, becausecosts to the broadcaster are directly related to the total amount of data being delivered by it, the greater theaverage number of listeners, and the longer they listen, the greater the total cost to the broadcaster.
Morespecifically, it is the concurrent total number of listeners which can have the greatest impact upon streamingcosts. Here it is the cost of overall capacity provision rather than the actual cost of data delivery which is the issue. The greater the potential number of concurrent streams that provision is made for, the greater the cost to thebroadcaster. Thus, in a financial sense at least, popular Internet broadcasters really can become victims of theirown success!
The issue of limitations within the network structure and the transmission protocols of the Internet an do ther IP-based networks is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is worth noting that although there areways to ameliorate the marginal cost per additional listener for example though the use of multi-cast protocolswhere available, or by employing torrent-like streams , for smaller broadcasters, and for reasons of economies ofscale, such approaches are likely to be impractical, or at best yield only marginally beneficial economic gains.
A potential problem for small-scale broadcasters in some jurisdictions is the issue of net-neutrality. Inthose countries where telecommunications companies and Internet service providers have been allowed to give44 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Inareas where network infrastructure is well-developed, this issue may not be too serious a problem, as even highquality audio streams occupy a relatively small amount of bandwidth when compared to either standard or highdefinition video streams.
However, where network capacity is limited, Community Radio services could find theirstreams disrupted by parallel demand for priority traffic. A further issue confronting broadcasters when using the Internet as a delivery platform is its lack ofuniversality when compared to traditional broadcasting. To begin with, the required broad-band Internetconnection is by no means universal, especially within less economically prosperous communities.
Even where abroad-band connection is present, listening to audio streams on a computer is one thing, but delivering thatstream to elsewhere in the home or office is quite another. Even more difficult is the delivery of live streaming content tomobile and portable devices. Although it is theoretically possible to receive such material via 3G and other highcapacitymobile phone data networks, at present such networks lack robust capacity, and are particularly bad atdelivering linear content to a device on the move.
Extrapolating from recent history, there seems very little do ubt that the capacity of fixed and mobilenetworks will continue to increase and that, conversely, the associated costs of such distribution are likely todecrease. However, for the present, although the Internet is already expanding the delivery options forCommunity Radio services, specifically in relation to streamed audio many of the theoretical advantages it offersare currently somewhat hampered by technical and capacity network infrastructure limitations and, for mobileusers, the similar content capacity limitations found in associated mobile phone networks.
ConclusionsDigital delivery methods are already impacting on the activities of Community Radio broadcasters, but notin the way that might have been supposed a decade or so ago. In the United King do m at least, the sector'sinterest in taking up digital radio broadcasting opportunities has been almost non-existent, but, conversely, thevast majority of community stations have already embraced considerable use of web-based digital deliveryopportunities to supplement their traditional analogue broadcasting output.
On the broadcast radio front, recognising the various benefits of FM, the community radio sector islobbying for greater access to Band II spectrum, if and when other PSB and commercial broadcasters arepersuaded to give up simulcasting and switch their broadcasting output to digital platforms.
The UK broadcastregulator, Ofcom has long since accepted that an increase in Community Radio provision on FM could be oneoutcome of any move of larger services to alternative digital platforms, such as DAB:In time, it is possible that changes such as an end to simulcasting of existing radio services on analogue anddigital platforms could free-up spectrum that will create more space for new community radio stations. Ofcom, 28 There is however an element of risk associated with such an approach to the long-term expansion ofCommunity Radio provision.
Specifically, there remains no guarantee that digital migration will be implementedand without it access to additional FM spectrum cannot be provided. On the other hand, should digital migrationbe achieved for the majority of radio stations, then community broadcasters remaining on FM could findthemselves in what has by then become an 'analogue backwater' which the majority of potential listeners are nolonger inclined to explore.
Lawrie HallettNevertheless, given the largely inappropriate nature of existing operaional digital radio broadcastingplatforms for community radio services, it is difficult to envisage how else the sector might currently approach thisissue. That said, the current limitations of digital radio broadcasting are, to a large extent, technology specific andemerging second generation platforms, such as Digital Radio Mondiale DRM and the more advanced DRM Plusstandard, have at least the potential to be more relevant to the needs of community broadcasters, assuming thatthey do eventually become an integral part of the radio broadcasting landscape.
In practical terms, the potential emergence of digital radio platforms suitable for use by independentsmall-scale remains, at best, some years off. Whilst it would be prudent for community broadcasters not todismiss the future potential of such systems, continuing to exploit technologies which provide immediate benefitshas to remain the priority. The approach of utilising web-based digital delivery methods, accessible throughcomputers and mobile devices, is already providing increased flexibility and the ability to reach out to communitydiasporas which are not within the coverage of traditional analogue broadcasts.
The Internet and associated new technologies certainly offer some clear benefits for both Community Radio broadcasters and for members of their target communities. For Community Radio , in addition toopportunities for increased operational efficiency and flexibility, the fundamental impacts of the variousdevelopments set out in this paper are three-fold.
In addition, such networks providenumerous opportunities for interaction, which traditional broadcast platforms simply cannot provide. Finally, andperhaps more profoundly, by removing the limitations of broadcast coverage, not only are individual listeners ableto access a wider range of content, but also, as a result, the very nature of target communities is altered.
However, new technologies also have their limits, lacking the universality of traditional broadcast platformsand reaching only those who are sufficiently motivated, resourced and media literate enough to engage with thevarious opportunities available through them. As yet therefore, and despite all their obvious additional benefits,they cannot be considered as replacement technologies for traditional radio broadcasting.
That said, given thevarious opportunities for enhanced interactivity and flexibility which they offer, and given the underlyingimportance of such interactivity, it is perhaps not surprising that many Community Radio services have alreadyembraced such technologies as part of their wider approach to building relationships with their targetcommunities.
However, for the foreseeable future at least, traditional analogue broadcasting willcontinue to be unique in its ability to provide locally focused, universal availability at minimal cost to bothCommunity Radio broadcasters and listeners alike. Community radio broadcasters are typically, both by nature and necessity, pragmatists, seeking to servetheir target communities in the most effective and cost effective ways possible.
Digital radio platforms may notbe suitable today and whilst they may just become so in future, by that time it may well be the case that othernon-broadcast solutions will have begun to do minate what today we call radio. In fact, the most likely future for Community Radio is probably an increasingly hybrid model combining,analogue radio and digital radio platforms with Internet and mobile phone network delivery systems.
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