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PAN-based activated fibers can be woven into yarn, thread or cloth. This highly absorbent fabric can be used in a variety of ways, including in disposable respirators, medical protective garments that guard against virus transmission, protective gear for nuclear and biochemical attacks, as well as filters for air and drinking water. Melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, is caused by uncontrolled growth in pigment-producing skin cells.
Highly curable in the early stages, melanoma can often be surgically removed. However, the disease is more likely than other skin cancers to metastasize, or spread to other parts of the body, making treatment more difficult. In the late stages of metastatic melanoma, the average survival rate is just six months.
According to the American Cancer Society ACS , melanoma accounts for less than 5 percent of all skin cancer cases, but the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. The ACS estimates that in , 76, Americans will be diagnosed with melanoma, and 9, will die from the disease. In a healthy immune system, foreign bacteria and viruses as well as transformed cancer cells bear molecular structures called antigens that identify them to the immune system as dangerous.
However, T-cells attack antigen-bearing targets only when given a green light to do so. To prevent the body from attacking its own normal cells, the immune system has a series of checkpoints that operate like traffic lights, sending signals that either activate or inhibit T-cells. As a professor in the Division of Immunology and director of the Cancer Research Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley UCB , Allison devoted himself to studying the immune response to cancer — and how the disease proliferates by selectively suppressing T-cell activation.
In , he showed that a checkpoint molecule called cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 CTLA-4 puts the brakes on T-cell responses. Block CTLA-4, theorized Allison, and the immune system could be activated, unleashing a robust antitumor response. In preclinical experiments, he successfully demonstrated that he could bind a special type of protein called a monoclonal antibody to CTLA-4, preventing it from interfering with T-cell activation. It turned out to be a long and winding road to commercialization.
Allison convinced us that we had a world-changing opportunity. The technology was originally licensed to NeXstar Pharmaceuticals, which merged with the biopharmaceutical company, Gilead Sciences Inc. Gilead sublicensed the rights to Medarex, which developed a human monoclonal antibody and began testing in partnership with Bristol-Myers Squibb. Bristol-Myers Squibb acquired Medarex in In clinical trials, the antibody — named ipilimumab — added months to the survival rates of patients with advanced melanoma, something no other drug had been able to achieve.
Based on the results of a randomized, double-blind Phase III study, the drug was fast-tracked and approved from the U. Food and Drug Administration in March of To date, more than 10, cancer patients have received Yervoy in clinical trials to treat advanced melanoma and other types of cancer, either alone or in combination with other drugs. Immunotherapy is a key area of focus at Bristol-Myers Squibb, which is also testing the use of Yervoy to treat specific prostate cancers and both small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer.
Clinical trials are now under way for prostate, breast, lung and other cancers. Allison says that unlike other drug therapies, which have short half-lives, T-cells, once activated, stay in the body for decades or maybe even a lifetime. Over the years, Allison has had the opportunity to meet several patients who, thanks to Yervoy, have survived much longer than expected. Mimura and Allison say the success of Yervoy underscores the importance of conducting and funding basic research.
The university directed funds toward a myriad of scientific research needs, from faculty retention, new biology teaching labs and equipment for the cancer research lab to a new building devoted to stem cell research. Today, Allison is chair of the Immunology Program at the Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York City, where he is working side by side with physicians to increase the number of patients who respond to Yervoy by combining it with other cancer treatments.
It might not look like it to peer at the large blades of a wind turbine, but if one vane is misaligned by just five degrees, the resulting energy could blow away millions of dollars. This problem often makes the production of clean electricity still more expensive than producing fossil-fuel energy. Adjusting the pressure in the lens changes the level of magnification without having to rely on moving, mechanical parts the way standard cameras do.
Funding for the research, which has been ongoing for five years, is provided by the U. Air Force, the University of Central Florida, and the private sector. Unlike conventional cameras that use mechanical controls to adjust focus, the Adaptive Liquid Crystal Lens uses liquid crystal technology to provide the focus and zoom capability, without the need for moving mechanical parts. The excitation of the liquid crystal through electrical current works like a LCD monitor in that the electrical current decides the shape of the lens, thus producing the effect of zooming or focusing.
Mechanical compression of the fluid causes the membrane surface to bulge, thereby changing its curvature and the focal length of the lens. The liquid crystal and fluidic lenses are ideal for cell phone cameras and other image-capturing systems, including surveillance equipment for the military. Medical applications are also of interest, such as implantable lenses for eyes, or replacement lenses, that are made from biocompatible materials.
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia PSVT can best be described as an abnormally rapid series of heartbeats that can last anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours. It typically surfaces for the first time in childhood or early adulthood, although the first episode may manifest itself at any age, and it is not indicative of an abnormal heart condition. While the number of people affected by this heart disturbance is not known, its consequences can be serious.
It was developed by the late Robert M. Berne, M. Diagnostic Potentials Ltd. It looks like an elaborate hairnet, or a strange wig of wires, and those who place it on their heads work at a computer terminal. While it sounds like the setup for some kind of virtual reality game, in fact it is not. Diagnostic Potentials, located in Glasgow, Scotland, is on track to develop the missing diagnostic tool. With the completion of the first clinical trial to evaluate its leading technology — the ADEPT system — the founders of Diagnostic Potentials are optimistic.
ADEPT uses EEG electroencephalogram to measure the electrical activity of the brain while an individual performs a set of computerized cognitive tasks designed to assess intellectual function. In the latter case, memory function becomes impaired and can be measured through changes in EEG patterns.
The EEG array sensor net is designed like a spongy hairnet and patients undergoing the test simply place it on their heads. The critical difference between the sensor net used with ADEPT and conventional EEG nets is the number of sensors used to measure brain activity — rather than This provides a tremendous advantage because by covering most of the upper brain, the dense array produces higher resolution maps of electrical fields on the scalp and can better capture brain function.
Alan Hughes, M. Technically speaking, Dr. The transfer of the ADEPT technology from a psychology laboratory at the University of Glasgow initially presented some intellectual and financial challenges according to Professor Kilborn. Commercialization support from the Scottish Biomedical Research Trust and the Department of Trade and Industry for commercial, legal and intellectual property work were the critical components in the launch of Diagnostic Potentials.
They reached their goal and filed for a patent by Although buoyed by this breakthrough, the company faced an uphill battle over the next few years. Kevin Cullen, Ph. With a second round of funding secured, Professor Kilborn and his colleagues focused on designing a full-scale clinical trial — one that necessitated rebuilding the ADEPT technology and software from the ground up.
In the last several years they launched and completed the first multi-site clinical trial involving patients at four different centers across the United Kingdom. Publication of the results is pending, and Professor Kilborn hints that they are promising.
A process can go no faster than the slowest step in that process. In urine culture testing, one of the slowest steps takes up to two days to deliver results. Disclosed in , the "QuikiCult Rapid UTI Detection System" detects urinary tract infections much faster by identifying high concentrations of infectious bacteria using light spectrophotometry and automated computer-driven analysis.
The research was funded by the university and the private sector. By operating the system at the point of collection, fresh samples can be tested quickly and provide more accurate results. The technology was licensed in to Maryland-based Macrobionetics, which supplies customized testing equipment for industrial companies and government agencies.
The company is selling the QuikiCult System under the name "CultureStat" to health care facilities and reference laboratories across the United States and Canada. Aeroseal, now a division of Carrier Corp. Move over duct tape, a new competitor on the market is getting the job done faster and with more energy savings. Long thought to be the right solution for stopping leaks around hot or cold air ducts, fabric-backed duct tape fails to seal leaks in ducts and pipes, according to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, Calif.
Instead, Aeroseal duct-sealing technology, invented and developed by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is making waves for its ability to seal more leakage because of its unconventional method of getting at inaccessible leaks. The new technology stops the leaks from the inside of the ducts by coating the leaks with tiny sealant particles. The discovery can benefit virtually anyone with a heating and cooling system by offering increased energy savings and comfort.
Mark Modera, Ph. Modera used his skills as a research scientist to gain information about duct sealing. In , the technology was licensed for use in the residential market as well as for small commercial buildings. The logical next step was to create a business so the technology could reach customers who needed it. By , Dr. Modera began spending about half of his time in the lab so that he could devote enough time to starting the company. The marketing of Aeroseal, which is the name of the company as well as the product, was initially done through franchises primarily sold to heating and cooling dealers.
In , the business was sold to Carrier Corp. Two years later the company obtained a license from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for improved nozzles and was able to offer the same product and service to the non-residential market. When originally constructed, this ductwork was enclosed in a shaft and after the leakage was revealed, the duct was inaccessible for sealing.
The first steps involved Modera taking measurements and sealing off the existing exhaust grills, and a sealant was injected from the inside of the ducts. The technology can block off existing exhaust openings that range from a quarter inch to a half inch in size. The time varies from a few hours to a few days depending on the characteristics of individual heating and cooling systems.
The engineering firm is so satisfied with the technology, it has specified Carrier Aeroseal to seal 21 ducts in another significant Cleveland building. Between and Carrier Aeroseal sealed 20 large buildings ranging from offices to hospitals. The company intends to focus on promoting the technology via a larger launch into commercial markets during and In the world of academic technology transfer, one contact often leads to another, ultimately resulting in new discoveries that enter the marketplace.
The result is creating a buzz in the computer graphics community because the technology can be used in a variety of applications. They range from making strikingly accurate digital images in motion pictures, videos and computer games to improving renderings by interior, fashion, architectural and industrial designers.
The Virginia-based company now sells equipment and services and will eventually add software and a library of illumination data to its products. Appropriately, one of the meanings of Aguru in the Sanskrit language is light. Steve Gray, the chief technical officer and executive producer of Vykarian, a Shanghai-based game developer, says Aguru has made a great leap forward.
It uses five million polygons, which is essentially more resolution than can be rendered back with film. It is a larger type of scanner that captures flat object reflection, the different colors of shine and the surface bumpiness, among other features. The technologies work together well, Gray says, because the USC dome recreates the subtleties of 3-D shapes and textures for really difficult objects and materials, like the human face, while the NYU and USC scanners capture the properties of countless other materials.
Back then, Orbach knew little about computer graphics, kaleidoscopic technologies, properly illuminating textured surfaces or getting the light right when scenes with real actors are meshed with virtual backgrounds. Nor did he know that the quest for truly photorealistic digital images had long been the holy grail of the three-dimensional computer graphics industry. So I looked at a lot of things. Fechter introduced him to Ken Perlin, a computer science professor, and Jeff Han, a research scientist at Courant.
They showed Orbach a variety of computer graphics projects they were working on. But Ken had come up with a simple, brilliant device with no moving parts that was quick and easy to operate. Then you could look them up from his database. His device could capture all those angles in 15 seconds. Learning about that was what started it all. It was so wildly successful that it became the symbol of science and progress. It was the iPod or computer of its time. Prior to this invention, in order to see a surface from multiple points of view you either needed an array of cameras or to mechanically move a single camera to different locations.
As part of his due diligence, Orbach says he learned everything he could about the industry and the difficulty of getting realistic lighting on computer generated images. Debevec, who most recently led the development of a Light Stage dome that measures 26 feet in diameter, says his research began in and is funded by movie studios and digital imaging corporations.
Aguru is going to take proven technologies, make them more robust, more economical and will adapt and evolve them to better meet the specific needs of the industry. And that will inspire our group to work on the next generation of these technologies. NYU licensed its technology to Aguru in exchange for equity and revenue. USC negotiated a similar deal. And after that, who knows? The groundbreaking intelligent tutoring system developed at the University of California, Irvine, equalizes educational opportunities because it knows exactly what the student knows and what the student is ready to learn.
The revolutionary artificial intelligence technology, now used by hundreds of thousands of students in more than 1, schools, was developed by Jean Claude Falmagne, Ph. Using his home computer, Alan started getting excited about learning. Everyone learns differently. Its origin goes back to the early s when Falmagne, along with Dr. The technology can be used for independent learning — students can get ahead on their own by accessing ALEKS from any computer or the software can be used for specific courses as well as in school computer labs.
On top of failing grades, he says behavioral issues created a nightmare atmosphere for both students and teachers. The student has to know how to solve a problem. He willingly made the long drive from the mountains where he lives to teach the algebra recovery classes on weekends and during the summer in addition to after school classes, which are now math support classes.
Lampros notes that ALEKS was not developed around the idea of using technology to maximize high-end graphics. Students fall in love with ALEKS not because of its visuals, but because using it enables them to learn and excel. They love seeing where their knowledge is growing. Harold Baker, Ph.
ALEKS breaks the cycle of repeated failure. ALEKS offers another classroom benefit. It frees up teacher time and allows teachers to spend more time with individual students or small groups and do more creative things. The company will launch an elementary chemistry program in early Recently, a study by researchers at the University of Memphis, showing how an ALEKS statistics program can eliminate racial disparities, was accepted by the American Educational Research Association for presentation at its annual meeting.
The brimstone butterfly adorns the business cards of Edward C. Taylor, Ph. Alimta is currently approved in the United States to treat recurrent, or second-line, non-small cell lung cancer, the most common form of lung cancer. It is also approved in combination with another drug called cisplatin for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma, a cancer often associated with exposure to asbestos. The development of Alimta dates back to when Taylor, now a retired distinguished professor and organic chemist at Princeton University in Princeton, N.
He came across an article describing the discovery of a compound found in human liver that, bizarrely, possessed a structure of which a portion was identical to the structure of pigments in the wings of butterflies. The compound from the liver was later determined to be folic acid, a vitamin that plays an essential role in making cell division possible.
It was then he saw the potential for an anticancer agent. Like all cells, tumor cells need folic acid, or folates, to divide and multiply, allowing the tumor to grow. People tried for years, but no one succeeded. In the s Taylor resumed work on an antifolic agent that might selectively target tumor cells.
But he knew his work could only be carried so far at Princeton, and he needed help. Taylor enlisted the help of Eli Lilly and Co. At the time, Taylor had already been consulting with Lilly for years, and had established close relationships with the company, so in the early s he sent DDATHF to them. Knowing they might be on the brink of a major breakthrough, Taylor through Princeton and Lilly in the mids set up a collaborative effort to explore the potential of what appeared to be an extremely promising new area of cancer research.
During the following four years, approximately new drug candidates were synthesized and evaluated through this collaboration. As a pharmaceutical company, Lilly focused on understanding how the compounds behaved in humans. That turned out to be a crucial element. Although the majority of patients in the trials responded well, some experienced serious, life threatening side effects. Clet Niyikiza, Ph. Scouring the clinical data to find the common thread among patients who experienced the side effects, Niyikiza, determined that the patients who experienced side effects had a pre-existing folic acid deficiency.
Researchers had not anticipated this problem, since they were attempting to inhibit folic acid activity. But this strategy also means that the patient is subject to the combined toxicities of each component of this cocktail. Since its approval in the U. Unlike most chemotherapy treatments for cancer, Alimta is easy to administer, requiring only a minute infusion every three weeks.
It was the willingness of Lilly to perform extensive biological testing that made Alimta possible. Shih views the development of Alimta as a model of how a pharmaceutical company and a university can work together. These institutions help us to identify interesting discoveries that can lead to new drugs. Lilly is working with many institutions worldwide in the research and development of drugs for oncology, diabetes and neuroscience. Today, Allegra is one of the most popular antihistamines in the world, restoring an otherwise unattainable quality of life for serious allergy sufferers.
Worldwide, about 30 million people require a prosthetic device to walk, yet only 10 percent of those individuals have access to the devices. Inventor Jan Andrysek, Ph. The All-Terrain Knee is an innovative, mechanical prosthetic knee joint that is stable, durable and waterproof.
The invention includes a proprietary stance-phase control mechanism the AutoLock and a swing-phase control mechanism that allows the knee to securely lock itself without impeding natural movement. The prosthetic knee is easy to fit and maintain, and can be used in harsh environments. Andrysek established partnerships with rehabilitation centres to develop fitting procedures and teamed with the International Committee of the Red Cross to conduct clinical studies with the All-Terrain Knee.
The inventor says the study results provide strong empirical evidence that the device provides users with a greater feeling of security and a reduction in falls. In , the technology was licensed to LegWorks Inc. Today, the company offers four versions of the All-Terrain Knee with various features appropriate for different users, from sedentary to more athletic patients.
LegWorks has reached patients in 28 countries, tiering its pricing to help reach underserved patient populations. Severe blood loss is one of the leading causes of death in traumatic injury cases. Despite the abundant research that exists on ways to stop surface bleeding hemostasis , little work has been done to develop special materials that can be applied to wounds to staunch bleeding.
This is especially critical in combat casualty care, where control of non-compressible bleeding is one of the biggest unmet needs in military emergency medicine. Blood loss through gauze dressings is a major factor in the death of wounded soldiers on the battlefield.
The fabric is soft, strong, and absorbent, can be cut to any needed size or shape, is temperature-stable, and may be used to support other hemorrhage-control methods. This technology was licensed to Entegrion, a University of North Carolina startup company. The product has demonstrated the ability to reduce blood loss as compared with gauze by improving rates of clot formation. Entegrion is developing other wound-dressing products for military and commercial markets in the United States.
Imagine waking up one morning with a sudden and unexplained twitch in your little finger. Too persistent to ignore, you go to your general practitioner where you learn that you may have some kind of movement disorder. The twitches, tremors and shakes may not go away — in fact they may get worse. Even scarier, there is a good chance that your condition will be misdiagnosed, and the treatment you really need is not necessarily the one that will be prescribed. Welcome to the frustrating world of movement disorders.
Doctors who treat patients with these symptoms face this conundrum every day. Because there is no cure for the disease, all that is available to patients and their families is a plan for managing the symptoms — and even this phase is relatively short. Madras fortuitously discovered that a certain molecule, by virtue of selectively binding to a protein — the dopamine transporter — could accurately differentiate between particular cells in the brain.
A somewhat simple concept, but the information it revealed was quite powerful. I immediately realized the impact of these results, and it sent off a cascade of ideas in my mind. The clinical application of this discovery involved joining forces with a team of chemists who specialize in modifying molecules to make them imaging agents, or proteins that become detectable by nuclear medicine tests such as positron emission tomography, or PET, scans.
Collaboration with fellow Harvard scientist, chemist and inventor David Elmelah, Ph. They enlisted the expertise of Peter Meltzer, Ph. SPECT imaging is more widely available and less expensive than conventional PET scans, making it accessible to most hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. That goal has been the Holy Grail in PD research for quite some time. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is another highly prevalent medical problem characterized by abnormal levels of dopamine transporter-producing neurons in the brain.
In the case of ADHD however, dopamine transporters levels are elevated, not reduced. ADHD, which affects more than 5 million children in the United States and as many as 2 to 4 percent of adults, has been a controversial medical issue because of inconsistencies in the clinical diagnosis and concern about the reported abuse of behavior-modifying medications for the disorder. Each year, more than 3 million children around the world die of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal ailments, primarily in developing countries.
Scientists at the University of Virginia U. The story begins in , when Dr. William Petri, a trombone-playing researcher at U. With the help of colleague and longtime friend, Dr. Barbara Mann, they were able to successfully clone the surface protein so it could be used to develop antibodies that would result in an accurate diagnostic test. This test, which has been cleared by the U.
It was licensed by the U. Patent Foundation to TechLab in The company is now collaborating with Petri to develop a low-cost dipstick-like device similar to a home pregnancy test that changes color when used to analyze infected fecal matter. But it will deliver it in a simpler form, Petri says. Providing such a low-cost kit would allow the most impoverished nations to have greater access to the technology, thereby allowing for proper diagnosis and treatment of dysentery.
Petri says he believes FDA clearance of the dipstick test may occur by the end of The current form of the test is a bit more complicated, but can also be used in the field, he says. Debi Hudgens, a licensing associate at the U. It was founded by microbiologists Tracy Wilkins and David Lyerly, whose work had focused on Clostridium difficile, a bacteria that can also cause gastrointestinal illnesses.
The company now has 72 employees and more than 15 products on the market, including the E. Lyerly said TechLab is always trying to push basic research to improve its products. Petri and Wilkins crossed paths in when Petri made a presentation at an American Society of Microbiology chapter meeting held at Virginia Tech.
There still is no other diagnostic test specifically for E. Since then, it has gone through three generations of FDA approval, with each one better than the last generation. Petri says the importance of the collaboration goes well beyond simply having a good diagnostic test.
And malnutrition in turn is the most common cause of death in children in the developing world. Before there was a good diagnostic test for amebiasis, Petri says no one knew how common it was or if those who had it were resistant to being reinfected. All this was made possible by the TechLab test. Petri and his colleagues in Bangladesh learned that amebiasis is quite common in the children they are following.
So if you are malnourished, you are four times more likely to become infected. Petri and his team learned that when the body creates antibodies against this parasite, reinfection is less likely. In other words, they discovered that these intestinal antibodies can lead to immunity to the infection. Without that, none of this work would have gone forward. This has been the perfect collaboration where both parties benefit equally.
This has been win-win from the very beginning. Petri said his current work with TechLab is being supported by the National Institutes of Health through cooperative research agreements that are part of the Vaccine Initiative and with Small Business Technology Transfer program funding. What we have discovered so far from this work is the contribution of cryptosporidiosis, amebiasis and giardiasis to malnutrition. Having a better way of diagnosing means you have a better way of treating it to try to help prevent malnutrition.
Gerardine Botte, an associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Ohio. University in Athens, became familiar with it from her studies and while working in her native Venezuela. The two ended up putting their heads together after attending a Denver meeting of the Electrochemical Society in December The result — less than two years later — was a collaborative private sector-university partnership to develop inexpensive hydrogen from ammonia, while also producing clean wastewater in the process.
This partnership led to the establishment of a new company, American Hydrogen Corp. Schafer, a computer engineer, was scouting for a cheap source of hydrogen to power small electric generators made by the Hydra Fuel Cell Corp.
Fast forward 30 years to the conference in Denver. Schafer encountered Botte and the two sat down for lunch. It was an auspicious meeting. In a nutshell, Botte had developed a patent-pending ammonia catalytic electrolyzer ACE technology to efficiently convert ammonia into hydrogen.
And now it has become a company. And a kilo of hydrogen, he notes, is the equivalent of one gallon of gas. But on the drive back from the Columbus conference in to her Ohio University campus in Athens, she says she had an epiphany. Besides the obvious environmental benefits of removing ammonia from wastewater, there are great benefits for companies that have to dispose of ammonia they use or produce as a byproduct in their manufacturing processes.
In some cases, this disposal can be costly, and can require additional time and resources. Instead of spending money on ammonia disposal, these companies could potentially use the ammonia catalytic electrolyzer to remove ammonia and resell it to companies that can use it to produce hydrogen, or they might even convert it to hydrogen themselves and resell it. Bottom line, it amounts to transforming a costly waste item into a profitable commodity. Botte says the ACE technology dovetailed with other work she had been doing in her lab during the past several years, such as hydrogen storage.
Schafer, who likes to move fast, visited Ohio University not long after the Denver conference. As a result, the university had a substantial license package, including up-front payment, minimum annual licensee payments, running royalties for fuel cells and hydrogen production, and a sizable equity stake in ASRC for the Ohio University Foundation. Robert Malott, associate director for technology commercialization at the university, says gaining equity in ASRC was a key to the deal.
ASRC may also make more acquisitions in the energy field, he said. Botte, a consultant for American Hydrogen, is pleased, too. Not only is her future research being solidly funded, but her graduate students are finding work at the fledgling company. Some 40 years after he began looking for a way to alter the underlying molecular mechanism of SCD, the compound Abraham discovered at Virginia Commonwealth University VCU , is now a drug candidate being evaluated in clinical trials.
But since my postdoctoral days in , my great desire was to use structural biology to discover a drug. Structural biology, or structure-based drug design, uses X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to obtain information on a three-dimensional structure — the drug target — to aid in the search for a small molecule to bind to the target in a way that achieves a therapeutic benefit.
The molecular structure of hemoglobin, a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body, was the first protein to be decoded — along with a genetic mutation found in people with SCD. These sickle cells stick to each other and to blood vessel walls, causing anemia, organ damage and overwhelming pain. In , despite a lack of funding and support for SCD research, Abraham launched what would become a decades-long search for a molecule — the missing puzzle piece — to bind to sickle hemoglobin and prevent the polymerization process and the consequent sickling action.
Pursuing a rare or orphan disease meant Abraham would lose his funding from the National Institutes of Health NIH and his research team. But a chance meeting with a professional baseball player fundraising for SCD research led to new funding sources and, eventually, the opportunity to collaborate with Max Perutz at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, who had won a Nobel Prize for his work unraveling hemoglobin. The common flavoring agent vanillin proved promising at first but metabolized too quickly in the body, leaving Abraham and his researchers at a dead end.
Fate intervened once more when Abraham and his wife were on a train trip across Italy and shared a train cabin with a British food chemist. In , Abraham, Martin K. Safo, Ph. When that company failed, a second startup based in Newton, Mass. SCD was first described in , and more than years later, there is still no drug to treat it except an anticancer drug that has side effects and compliance issues. Within a year, AesRx was able to apply to the Food and Drug Administration for an investigational new drug application and move into early stage clinical trials, which showed that patients who took one dose of Aes experienced significantly less pain.
A phase II trial designed to test dosing and efficacy began in London in We had good partners. In July , the biopharmaceutical company Baxter International acquired Aes and is continuing clinical development activities required for regulatory approval and commercialization, including completing Phase II and III trials. If Aes is able to improve the lives of SCD patients, it will not only provide a storybook ending for Abraham, it could a start a new chapter for other rare and underfunded diseases.
Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in America skin cancers excluded affecting one in six men. In fact, more than , men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year, according to the Prostate Cancer Foundation. Prostate cancer can cause pain, difficulty in urinating, erectile dysfunction and other symptoms. Now, a team of researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, offer a promising weapon in the fight against prostate cancer.
Angela Brodie, Ph. Njar, Ph. These inhibitors block the interaction between androgen, a steroid made by the body, and its receptors. Androgen receptors are thought to play a critical role in prostate cancer growth. Tokai Pharmaceuticals, Inc. An infection sepsis , allergic reaction, or severe accident can decrease blood flow to the brain, heart, and other vital organs.
Hormones that target different blood pressure regulation pathways have been in use for years but are not effective for many patients. Chawla found that angiotensin II effectively narrowed blood vessels to increase dangerously low blood pressure in patients with septic shock.
Because Dr. It also provided Priority Review, meaning the FDA intends to act on a New Drug Application within just six months, so a treatment can reach patients sooner than usual. LJPC in They started with an option agreement and negotiated the exclusive license that followed.
GW TCO also managed the royalty monetization process, utilizing a well-known royalty monetization structuring agent. Also in , GW struck a deal with financial services firm Barings LLC to sell a portion of its US royalty rights, a common practice for high-value drugs.
GW plans to reinvest this game-changing cash infusion into strategic priorities. Our impact on society will only continue to grow. Patent Number s : 9,,; 9,,; 10,,; 10,,; 10,,; 10,,; 9,,; 10,,; 10,, Because dummies are not human, the crash-test data that automobile manufacturers rely on to make design decisions is not as relevant to human safety as it could be. Professor King H. Yang, Ph. In the early s Yang, along with professor Albert I. King, Ph. The technology was disclosed in and licensed in to Toyota Motor Co.
ANSIR is a software program that uses computerized models to demonstrate the detailed effects of car crashes on the human body. The models are based on tests using cadavers and reveal how various crash angles, velocities and car sizes affect the human body, especially internal organs. ANSIR presents far more detailed and accurate information compared to data derived from crash tests with dummies. Toyota is currently developing its own variation of ANSIR and requires first-tier suppliers to use human models to check the safety performance of the parts they supply.
ANSIR technology has been licensed around the world and is expected to save millions of dollars in crash-testing vehicles, improve vehicle safety, and reduce injuries. The software also has applications for designing sports and military helmets, body armor, and for pre-neurosurgical planning.
Jude Children's Research Hospital. For over years, antibiotics have been used to fight bacterial infection and disease. However, bacteria are increasingly developing resistance to front line antibiotics,and new therapies are needed to treat these bacterial strains.
Richard Lee, Ph. Jude Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, is developing two new classes of compounds to be effective in treating strains that are no longer effectively treated with current therapies. One compound is an adaptation of an old antibiotic- Spectinomycin, which is modified using structure based drug design. The other compound is designed to treat chronic infections and biofilms caused by persister cells that have become tolerant of existing antibiotics.
Both compound classes are described below:. Infections are a growing problem in health care settings. According to the Centers for Disease Control, there are 4. From to Shanta Modak, M. The coating consists of a polymeric matrix containing antimicrobial silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine. Columbia University licensed this technology to Daltex Medical Sciences in , which later sublicensed it to Arrow International.
Arrow International has sold more than five million central venous catheters that utilize this technology. Current research also indicates a lower risk of microorganisms developing resistance to antimicrobialcoated surfaces compared to non-coated implanted medical devices, making them a better long-term solution for patients.
Industrial crane operators typically manipulate the independent motions of trolley, hoisting and traverse when they are moving payloads. This, however, can result in an uncontrolled swaying motion, which slows down the construction process because extra time is required to let the swaying motion come to a stop. Uncontrolled swaying is also a safety issue that can result in serious injury. The differential equations are solved in real time, using sensory measurement of the cable length and its time derivative.
The software takes into account the acceleration, velocity, and span limits of the drive system of the crane to ensure the anti-sway control is not compromised when these limits are reached. Healthcare facilities in the developing world lack many resources, including access to expensive surgical equipment. As a result, some 5 billion people lack access to safe surgery because surgeons do not have access to the right medical equipment. Working with surgeons from Canada and Uganda, graduate students in biomedical engineering at the University of British Columbia UBC created a third and more appealing option — a reusable drill cover that transforms a drill purchased at a hardware store into a sterile surgical instrument.
UBC assigned the patented drill cover to Arbutus Medical. Arbutus Medical named the company after the Arbutus tree, an evergreen tree native to the southwest coast of British Columbia that thrives in harsh environments. Like its namesake, the company is working with surgeons around the world to develop safe, affordable and appropriate medical equipment for low-resource environments. In industrialized countries, a milk cooler is where shoppers grab a gallon of milk at the grocery store.
A nutcracker is something people use to pry open a pecan. But in developing countries, those two devices can look quite different. A nutcracker is a person with a rock. Thanks to William Kisaalita, Ph. The milk cooler and nutcracker he developed give an economic boost to those who struggle to make a living. And though the innovations may be made of metal, a lot of heart goes into the invention process.
The professor, who grew up just outside Kampala, Uganda, is now a U. He and his wife, an accountant, have four children who are healthy and successful. His current surroundings are a stark contrast to the place where he grew up: a house made of reeds and mud, lit by kerosene and heated with wood. After asking himself what he could do to help people like those he had grown up with, he set up a program in which engineering students can go overseas and design products to help the poor.
The first product they came up with was a milk cooler about the size of a dishwasher. That region is home to more than 2. Most farmers have between two and five cows. Farmers milk the cows, which produce an average of 50 liters of milk a day, in the morning and evening. During the day, farmers sell the milk to local vendors who transport the milk to cooling stations.
But those markets are closed in the evening. So, in the past, farmers had no way to cool the milk produced in the evening. So Kisaalita and 15 of his undergraduate students came up with a power-independent cooler for short-term milk storage.
The cooler uses a vacuum system and a mineral called zeolite to help keep the milk cold. National Science Foundation, U. Department of Agriculture and U. Environmental Protection Agency. After some redesign, Cool-System produced a cooler called CoolChurn. The keglike cooler chills15 liters of milk within three or four hours, and keeps it cold for a full day. So when a colleague approached him in on behalf of people in rural Morocco, Kisaalita took up the challenge.
The professor and his students were determined to crack the mystery of how to help the Moroccans. Women and children in Morocco used rocks to manually open argan nuts, which contain oil-rich seeds. When cracked open, those seeds yield argan oil, which gourmands around the world use as a cooking ingredient. The oil also serves as a rich source of vitamin E for cosmetics. Cracking those nuts using rocks was not only labor-intensive, it was unsafe. Workers engaged in this work sometimes broke fingers.
Sustaining such an injury meant women and children faced periods of inactivity and lost income from one of the few economic activities available to them. Given the lack of proper medical care, those broken fingers often resulted in poorly healed bones.
That could lead to hand or finger deformity — even permanent injury. So Kisaalita and students Max Neu, Meghan Samberg, Jonathan Dunn and Phillip Jones designed a simple metal-and-wood structure that cracks one nut at a time and is three times faster than cracking with rocks. The device is much sturdier than a nutcracker a consumer in the United States might use for something like an almond because argan nuts are incredibly hard to crack.
Someone who lives in an industrialized country may not always think about where the food comes from before it arrives on a dinner plate. The fake cattle are impregnated with insecticides that kill the tsetse attracted to them. The cows were introduced to Zimbabwe in the mids, when thousands of cattle were infected with nagana the equivalent to human sleeping sickness , transmitted by tsetse. The fake cows also act as an effective barrier to stop tsetse re-invading areas cleared of flies.
Not only are artificial cows highly successful in controlling tsetse, but their use also results in a dramatic reduction in the amount of insecticide necessary to control the pest. With only four artificial cows needed per square kilometre to ensure effective pest control, the use of insecticide is far more targeted than conventional widespread aerial and ground spraying, resulting in a greatly reduced environmental impact.
A year-old woman with chronic emphysema was admitted to a hospital in India earlier this year. Normally doctors would put such a patient on a mechanical ventilator, which would mean sedating her so they could insert a breathing tube down her throat. Instead, her doctors decided she was the ideal person to be enrolled as the first patient in a study of a new artificial lung initially developed by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, called the Hemolung.
The device is connected to a patient by a catheter. ALung is hoping to finish its first clinical trial on patients in Europe and. India early next year and then apply for approval in the United States. The goal is to be able to help the , people in this country and millions more worldwide avoid temporary hookup to a ventilator, thus granting them a shorter and more comfortable stay in the hospital.
The external device now known as the Hemolung has changed shape considerably, having started as an internal device. Professors Brack Hattler, M. COPD patients, who often have emphysema, have trouble breathing deeply because the airways in their lungs are restricted, having grown stiff or swollen over the years. The artificial lung is a temporary device needed to get them through that period of acute need, usually three to four days.
The research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, the U. Department of Defense and the U. By , they were presenting their idea at scientific conferences and had started generating enthusiasm for an actual catheter-based device, Federspiel says. But first they needed to negotiate a one year licensing option with the university, explains Maria Vanegas, OTM technology licensing associate.
The office generally grants options to startups because this strategy is a simpler and less expensive way to investigate whether there really is a market for the product. Startups can use that year to perform due diligence on the technology and to start fundraising, she says. They also brought in an outside chief executive officer for the first time, choosing Kuhn who switched to COO in , a veteran of other medical device companies.
Kuhn worked at raising money, while Hattler and Federspiel toiled in the lab to make the catheter as small as possible. After the one-year option was up, the company fully licensed the technology. In , they found that the miniaturization of the catheter device topped out at about 1 centimeter in diameter. While it worked well in animal studies, the scientific advisory board assembled by Kuhn opined that such a large a catheter would be unappealing to many medical professionals.
After much deliberation, they decided to scrap the Hattler catheter and turned to a related innovation — the one that eventually became the Hemolung. Federspiel had been working on another iteration of the technology that used the same fiber bundle but positioned it outside the body. There was a precedent for an external artificial lung.
Unhealthy habits. All, it seems, may be classified as mental derangement, and treated as such. And the sets of symptoms described by the DSM are often common. It is this overdiagnosis and overtreatment that is the chief criticism of the DSM—or, rather, of the power it wields in the profession of psychiatry. That power, however, may be waning.
DSM categories have long been used in research. That is changing. Other areas of medicine, cancer in particular, have been transformed by better understanding of the biological drivers of disease. The NIMH seeks to use genetics, imaging and cognitive science to create new diagnostic criteria.
Abiding by DSM categories may prevent scientists from understanding the underlying causes of sickness. Still, objective laboratory measures for mental illness are a long way off. No problem. You can still dunk in the dark.
Super Bowl TV commercials are the Broadway spectaculars of the marketing world, broadcast to millions. The blackout banter is more like improv, created on the fly for a select audience. Marketers these days must master both. It is not easy. Yet some have never felt perkier. With new digital tools marketers can reach the likeliest customers when they are most in the mood to buy.
When the weather cooled Kleenex, a brand of tissues, used Google search terms and health-service data to target ad spending to areas likely to suffer the most sneezes. A glowing map shows where social-media buzz is liveliest. A screen records that Kit Kat bars were the subject of , recent posts on Twitter, Facebook and the like.
Though it is hard to imagine why anyone would complain about chocolate. This helps explain why marketers are feeling both potent and panicky. And that is tricky. Most middle-class consumers will be Asian within a couple of decades. Pop culture can pop up as easily in Gangnam as in Harlem.
Technology keeps giving marketers new ways to reach consumers and learn about them. The ensuing flood of data may drown creativity, some fear. The biggest shock, say marketers, is the schooling in humility that comes with round-the-clock conversation. Consumers are in charge. They can comparison-shop from their couches or badmouth brands via Facebook.
They will not tolerate shoddy quality or sloppy ethics. Now it is at pains to be orang-utan-friendly. British snackers can scan a QR code on some Kit Kat packets to assure themselves that the cocoa is harmlessly sourced. But deference is double-edged. Brands want deeper and more profitable relationships with consumers in exchange for the trust they hope to inspire.
Marketers are stretching their notions of what brands stand for and smudging the distinction between advertising and entertainment. The lines between marketing and other disciplines within a firm are fading.
Brands want to be antidotes to cynicism. Did you think Special K was a breakfast cereal? It is so much more. MySpecialK, a website, will advise you on diet, exercise and overall well-being. Do you pay attention to Nike only when your running shoes wear out? If brands are to rise in the world, so must advertising. A medium that traditionally earned its keep through interruption now aspires to be sought out and shared.
Or it could be a televised chronicle of the travels of Alexander Walker II of the Johnnie Walker whisky dynasty, which drew an audience of m. If only marketers could follow their customers as easily. Technology complicates this. To chase consumers around, CMOs are pinching marketing techniques from other industries. Customer-relationship management CRM is used mainly by companies with enduring ties to consumers, such as banks and telephone companies.
Although makers of packaged goods such as nappies and toothpaste will still deal with consumers mainly through retailers, they can now establish direct relationships. The more marketers learn, the more they will tailor their come-ons to what they think shoppers want.
It is getting harder to tell where puffery ends and providing a service begins. Or faster. Los Angeles-based MarketShare no relation to Mindshare is one company that claims to be cracking this hoary problem. Actually, marketers are not as clueless about that as they are said to be. Digital advertising made that easier in some ways advertisers could pay per click but added bewildering complexity.
Now marketers are beginning to get to grips with it by measuring how various media affect each other. This is good news for CMOs. MarketShare reckons that companies spend too little on marketing overall and that the right answer is not always to put more money into digital. Sometimes the algorithms counsel investment in print and television, which is heartening to marketers wedded to the storytelling side of their craft. But to stride in jauntily they will have to change the way they work.
With the shift in emphasis from set-piece campaigns to rapid responses, CMOs need more people working directly for them. Some companies are pulling marketers off the sidelines and onto the pitch. Land Rover, which like many engineering firms had a tradition of connecting with customers only sporadically, signalled a change in approach not long ago by hiring a new marketing chief, Patrick Jubb, from Vodafone.
His brief is to cultivate relationships with owners and potential owners of luxury SUVs every bit as intimate as those between a mobile-phone network and its subscribers. After dropping to less than two years in the mids, the average tenure of a CMO at a big-spending American firm has climbed back to 45 months, says Spencer Stuart. That suggests a recovery in jauntiness. Still, a gap yawns between what CMOs could do and what they actually do. But CMOs are learning. DigitasLBi teaches its clients that not every utterance about a brand needs to be vetted by lawyers.
Next time the floodlights fail, more marketers will know what to do. NAMES, wedding dates and declarations of love cover the Luchtsingel, a new pedestrian walkway straddling a busy main road in central Rotterdam, a Dutch city.
Within three months do-gooders had stumped up a third of the cash needed to build its full metre span a government award has since topped that up. Civic-minded citizens have long propped up ventures that authorities covet but cannot afford. In cash from more than , Americans helped New York build the pedestal for the Statue of Liberty Joseph Pulitzer, a newspaperman, led the whip-round. Now, as cash-strapped councils slash their budgets, locals are again relying on private gifts to spruce up parks, playgrounds and public loos.
Web start-ups inspired by Kickstarter, a crowdfunding site which helps artists, game-designers and gadget-makers find patrons, are helping locals raise cash for improvements to their neighbourhoods. Spacehive, a British site for urban projects, is one of the busiest of these.
Donors are charged only when the project reaches its funding target. Spacehive then takes a small cut from the money raised. Most patrons receive no return on their pledge, though Neighbor. Ventures need careful vetting. Plans to create a park on a vacant lot will stall if neighbours or officials disapprove. Spacehive asks project leaders to seek backing from a charity or trade association to verify that their venture is beneficial and achievable they earn a fee for their assistance if the money is raised.
Citizinvestor promotes only projects put forward by councils. It has worked with four American cities and is talking to 40 more, says Jordan Raynor, a co-founder. Projects listed on crowdfunding sites do often rely on big gifts from businesses and foundations to reach their funding targets. But that does not undermine the model: enthusiasm from dozens of small contributors can spur generosity from big ones. Jase Wilson, the founder of Neighbor. A meaty catalogue of worthy causes could connect global firms with cheap but important projects in unglamorous places.
Corporate support may also save crowdfunding sites from having to take cash from successful projects in the form of fees to stay in business. As online crowdfunding matures, its advocates are becoming more ambitious. Critics point out that crowds are easily excited by such novel installations.
Boring but functional infrastructure that could most improve an area, such as roads and parking places, will be a harder sell. A deeper worry is that money from crowdfunders will prompt councils to cut spending on public spaces. That will hurt particularly poor neighbourhoods, which mostly lack the spare cash, know-how or time to get involved. Enthusiasts counter that such sites will improve local government, not just help fund it. Boosters think pioneering councils might one day allow citizens to use crowdfunding sites to allocate a portion of their own tax dollars to causes that they support.
Advocates also want to shake up dusty processes. He hopes crowdfunding will not only help residents plan small developments, but also finance the surveys and audits to persuade governments to consider bigger ones. Urban ventures are still only a sliver of that. But if grumblers accuse the internet of destroying trade on the high street and of blunting interest in local issues, crowdfunding schemes are doing the opposite.
An idea to buy into. By Andrei Lankov. Buy from Amazon. But he succeeded in what counts. He lived a long time, died peacefully in late and passed power on to his son. It may be a triumph of hope over experience. Andrei Lankov is an arch-realist. For all its self-imposed isolation, North Korea since its inception as a Soviet creation in has depended for survival on a small, shifting, group of nations, which it has shaken down with consummate skill.
Most aid these days is hoarded by the elites. But, as Mr Lankov explains, the regime did not set out to oppress its people. That appealed to a poor, agrarian people. Even today, after so much disillusionment, the ceaseless propaganda depicting the Kim dynasty as parents-in-chief, protecting a vulnerable nation from American and Japanese wolves, works to a remarkable degree.
The efficacy of songbun as a tool of state control lies in it being forward-looking as well as regressive. Until recently, at least, not only did those suspected of disloyalty face official discrimination; so did their children and grandchildren. Whole families were thrown in the gulag. As for outside pressure, policy towards North Korea has oscillated between soft and hard. Both approaches are doomed, Mr Lankov argues. The soft line—treat the North gently, reward it with concessions, and it will give up its nukes—flies in the face of repeated provocations, including yet another nuclear test in February.
It requires outsiders to turn a blind eye to grotesque abuses of human rights. And it assumes that the regime can be persuaded to undertake Chinese-style economic reforms. But it cannot do this without collapsing, since the North is in ideological competition with South Korea, whose economic model, the regime knows, wins hands down. The hardline version is no better.
Any threat of military retaliation against the North is simply not credible. Greater Seoul, with 24m people, is within range of pieces of North Korean artillery. Neither South Korea nor the United States will ever start a war unless seriously provoked, and there is little risk of that. But it cannot ignore the North Korean regime nor leave it alone; the Kim family will not let it.
The Kims are playing a long game, but one day their dynasty will collapse, brought low by the widening income gap with South Korea which will be impossible to conceal. The post-Kim era risks being a dramatic and brutal upheaval. Even the promise of reunification with the South will bring disillusion.
Poor North Koreans will be exploited by South Korean employers and tricked by financial scammers. Members of the former regime, their criminal skills already honed, will seize chunks of the economy and even prey on hitherto safe South Korean cities. And what fate awaits educated North Koreans? Doctors can make drips out of beer bottles, but know nothing of the modern pharmacopoeia.
One intelligent move would be to re-examine how the West undermined the Soviet Union and the Communist bloc, and start doing the same. Sponsoring radio stations that broadcast into North Korea and offering scholarships for refugees would be a good start. Both these would cost relatively little and would help North Koreans when they face the coming calamity.
Unfortunately, for the moment Western politicians prefer grandstanding. Far from shrinking, banking across the rich world expanded prodigiously between and the financial crisis in By almost any measure it generated remarkable returns for shareholders and paid vast sums to its employees. Pay soared, too, not just for bankers but for most employees across the industry.
Dylan Grice at Edelweiss, a fund manager, notes that last year 12 of the 50 richest Americans listed by Forbes magazine were financiers, asset managers or investors. In not one person on the list worked in finance. Since the crisis, returns have collapsed.
Views about growth and profitability in the financial sector are polarising. We always believed that the changes would be far-reaching and permanent. As things have developed, more and more have realised that things are not going back to the old ways. In countries with large international banking sectors, such as Britain, bank assets swelled to about five times GDP. Balance-sheets expanded ever faster ahead of the financial crisis.
Andy Haldane, the man in charge of financial stability at the Bank of England, notes that during the century up to bank assets in 14 big economies grew at a rather stately pace: on average just 0. Yet after the ratio of assets to GDP increased by about 3 percentage points a year, doubling within a few decades. Most of the reasons for this unusual growth were positive ones. As large companies started doing business in ever more countries, they needed large banks that could follow them across borders, financing factories, paying employees and hedging their exposure to currency movements or interest-rate changes.
Deregulation of banks and markets and financial innovation played a part too. New ways of financing homes through the use of mortgage-backed securities lowered the cost of borrowing for millions of households in rich-world economies. Large sections of the population that had been unable to borrow found they could buy homes for the first time. But there was excess, too. Of the millions of homes being financed, a worrying proportion was bought by people who had no hope or intention of repaying their loans.
Loose monetary policy in rich economies encouraged risk-taking and pushed up leverage. Perhaps the most pernicious influence came from an unexpected quarter: the elegant framework of capital rules known as Basel 2. Widely considered the pinnacle of effective bank regulation, these had aimed to calibrate precisely the amount of capital that banks had to hold against the probability of each loan defaulting.
Most of the finance the expanding banks provided, and the innovations they fostered, spurred economic growth, but a good chunk of it just inflated the size of the financial sector as banks created ever more securities to buy and sell from one another. In an IMF paper published in June , Jean-Louis Arcand, Enrico Berkes and Ugo Panizza find strong evidence for the conventional view that the expansion of bank balance-sheets and private borrowing in general helps drive economic growth.
Another paper, by Stephen Cecchetti and Enisse Kharroubi at the Bank for International Settlements, reaches strikingly similar conclusions. Most bankers bristle when asked whether the finance industry is already big enough whether measured by the size of its balance-sheet or by the amount of business it does and the fees it generates in relation to the rest of the economy.
However, it has remained depressed since and has had a weak start in the first quarter of this year, a season when banks usually make about a third of their annual revenues. Bankers who think that the finance industry will continue to grow at least as fast as the underlying economy, or faster, argue that increasing wealth in both rich and developing countries will create more financial assets that can be bought and sold.
They also point out that increasing banking penetration and debt in developing countries as legal and financial systems mature will allow people to borrow against the value of their homes or land, and companies to sell bonds and shares to expand. Glenn Schorr, an analyst at Nomura in New York, neatly summarises much of the thinking among senior investment bankers. He notes that financial-services revenues have generally been closely correlated with world GDP, and thus ought to do at least as well as that in the future.
Michael Poulos of Oliver Wyman, a consulting firm, thinks that financial services are luxury goods, with demand growing faster as countries become richer. Ranged against these positive factors, though, are powerful forces that could hold back both the growth of the industry and its profitability. The first is the disappointing economic growth across much of the rich world. This is cyclical and will change in time, but the downturn is proving more protracted than most bankers expected.
Record low interest rates across much of the rich world are also taking their toll, depressing returns on most assets and dampening the volatility that generates profits in many trading businesses. More enduring structural forces are also at work. The most immediate of these is a raft of regulation that will fundamentally change the business of investment banking.
Higher capital standards that have already been agreed to but are not yet fully in place will force banks to shrink their balance-sheets and will make many of their businesses far less profitable. Regulations that are still largely on the drawing board will make investment banks easier to break up, less able to use cheap retail deposits to fund their trading business and to take risks and, as a consequence, less profitable if safer.
Another threat facing banks is the march of progress. Just as competition has made cars, flights and computers cheaper and better over time, banking too is under pressure to offer more and charge less. Thanks to new technologies such as algorithmic trading systems, many of the jobs formerly done by bankers are now carried out by computers that do not up sticks to join rival firms or demand large bonuses.
These days, he says, they can be traded and their prices discovered electronically down to three decimal places. Commissions and spreads, the revenues that banks can make from trading, have already been relentlessly compressed in the simpler parts of their business such as trading shares or exchanging currencies.
The squeeze on margins is now spreading to more complex businesses such as bond trading and derivatives. This environment will create both winners and losers. The main beneficiaries are likely to be a handful of very big, global banks that, in the main, are able to reap the benefits of scale and combine investment banking and trading with corporate banking.
Geography will favour banks with big home markets and friendly regulators. Among those that seem likely to do well will almost certainly be JPMorgan, which has managed to dominate most big capital markets.
Skip to main content. Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Yellow Submarine, Nicosia. See all restaurants in Nicosia. Yellow Submarine Unclaimed. All photos 1. Ratings and reviews 4. There aren't enough food, service, value or atmosphere ratings for Yellow Submarine, Cyprus yet. Be one of the first to write a review! Location and contact Theofanous Theodotou 18, Nicosia Cyprus.
Is this restaurant appropriate for Kids? Yes No Unsure. Is this restaurant family-friendly? Is this restaurant good for brunch? Can a vegetarian person get a good meal at this restaurant? Is this restaurant wheelchair accessible? Does this restaurant offer delivery? Is this a place where you pay before receiving your order? Is this a place where you buy ingredients to cook your own food?
Is this restaurant good for local cuisine? Is this restaurant romantic? Thanks for helping! Share another experience before you go. Reviews 8. Write a review. Filter reviews. Traveler rating. Excellent 3. Very good 2. Average 1. Poor 0. Terrible 1. Traveler type. Time of year. Language English. All languages. English 7. Greek 1. See what travelers are saying:. Selected filters.
Updating list Date of visit: August Boniface J. Try it - you will not be disappointed. If you visit Nicosia and if you don't know what to eat and you have to eat hurriedly, then Yellow Submarine is the best choice. Excellent submarines and nice decoration. I remember going there any day and any time especially after clubbing hours. Has a good variety of delicious submarine sandwiches and french fries, freshly made when ordered.
Service is fast even in rush times. Bit pricey but will be returning there for many years yet :. Own or manage this property? Claim your listing for free to respond to reviews, update your profile and much more. Skip to main content. Log in to get trip updates and message other travellers. Probably the best "sub" sandwich in Review of Yellow Submarine.
Yellow Submarine. Improve this listing. Ranked of 1, Restaurants in Nicosia. Cuisines: Fast food. Restaurant details. Achilleas G. Reviewed 24 October Probably the best "sub" sandwich in Nicosia. Date of visit: September Ask Achilleas G about Yellow Submarine. Thank Achilleas G. Write a review Reviews 8. Traveller rating. See what travellers are saying:.
Claim your listing for free to respond quick stop submarine nicosia betting reviews, update fries, freshly made when ordered. Write a review Reviews 8. PARAGRAPHIs this restaurant appropriate for. Date of visit: September Ask you buy ingredients to cook. Has a good variety of delicious submarine sandwiches and french your profile and much more. Can a vegetarian person get a good meal at this. Service is fast even in. Own or manage this property. Is this restaurant wheelchair accessible. Log in to get trip day and any time especially.bus stop on Monmouth St. near. Broad St., making some miracle of the sea — for the nuclear submarine Thresher and its men, quick change for street wear.., nothing to carry back and forth. But I'm betting Benedict R. Nicosia. EDGE Development, National Betting Authority - Εθνική Αρχή Στοιχημάτων, Quick Stop Submarines, GoodLife, LivestudioMike, Christodoulos Krinaios, Law. mariiles and then they stopped and they went into have and keep their submarine force about level. breech bet-ween the pa)tly's nation al chairman. Nicosia, Cyprus, Feb. 8 Iff)— and corrte in'^yourselt: Especially easy terms tor this.