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Febi Belvis. Tok Mie. Podocytes are kidney cells with specialized morphology that is required for glomerular filtration. Diseases, such as diabetes, or drug exposure that causes disruption of the podocyte foot process morphology results in kidney pathophysiology. Proteomic analysis of glomeruli isolated from rats with puromycin-induced kidney disease and control rats indicated that protein kinase A PKA , which is activated by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate cAMP , is a key regulator of podocyte morphology and function.
In podocytes, cAMP signaling activates cAMP response element-binding protein CREB to enhance expression of the gene encoding a differentiation marker, synaptopodin, a protein that associates with actin and promotes its bundling. To determine how the motifs interacted to regulate gene expression, we mapped multicompartment dynamical models, including information about protein subcellular localization, onto the network topology using Petri net formalisms.
These computational analyses indicated that the juxtaposition of multiple feedback and feedforward motifs enabled the prolonged CREB activation necessary for synaptopodin expression and actin bundling. Drug-induced modulation of these motifs in diseased rats led to recovery of normal morphology and physiological function in vivo. Thus, analysis of regulatory motifs using network dynamics can provide insights into pathophysiology that enable predictions for drug intervention strategies to treat kidney disease.
Azeloglu, Evren U. In podocytes, cAMP signaling activates cAMP response element—binding protein CREB to enhance expression of the gene encoding a differentiation marker, synaptopodin, a protein that associates with actin and promotes its bundling. Rules for the recognition of dilysine retrieval motifs by coatomer. Dilysine motif recognition involves lysine side-chain interactions with two acidic patches. Surprisingly, however, KKxx and KxKxx motifs bind differently, with their lysine residues transposed at the binding patches.
We derive rules for retrieval motif recognition from key structural features: the reversed binding modes, the recognition of the C-terminal carboxylate group which enforces lysine positional context, and the tolerance of the acidic patches for non-lysine residues. ProMotE: an efficient algorithm for counting independent motifs in uncertain network topologies.
Identifying motifs in biological networks is essential in uncovering key functions served by these networks. Finding non-overlapping motif instances is however a computationally challenging task. The fact that biological interactions are uncertain events further complicates the problem, as it makes the existence of an embedding of a given motif an uncertain event as well. In this paper, we develop a novel method, ProMotE Probabilistic Motif Embedding , to count non-overlapping embeddings of a given motif in probabilistic networks.
We utilize a polynomial model to capture the uncertainty. We develop three strategies to scale our algorithm to large networks. Our experiments demonstrate that our method scales to large networks in practical time with high accuracy where existing methods fail. Moreover, our experiments on cancer and degenerative disease networks show that our method helps in uncovering key functional characteristics of biological networks.
The Thiamin Pyrophosphate- Motif. Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate TPP - motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits, two catalytic centers, common amino acid sequence, and specific contacts to provide a flip-flop, or alternate site, mechanism of action.
This TPP- motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits and two catalytic centers. Core signalling motif displaying multistability through multi-state enzymes. Bistability, and more generally multistability, is a key system dynamics feature enabling decision-making and memory in cells. Deciphering the molecular determinants of multistability is thus crucial for a better understanding of cellular pathways and their re engineering in synthetic biology.
Here, we show that a key motif found predominantly in eukaryotic signalling systems, namely a futile signalling cycle, can display bistability when featuring a two-state kinase. We provide necessary and sufficient mathematical conditions on the kinetic parameters of this motif that guarantee the existence of multiple steady states. These conditions foster the intuition that bistability arises as a consequence of competition between the two states of the kinase.
Extending from this result, we find that increasing the number of kinase states linearly translates into an increase in the number of steady states in the system. These findings reveal, to our knowledge, a new mechanism for the generation of bistability and multistability in cellular signalling systems.
Further the futile cycle featuring a two-state kinase is among the smallest bistable signalling motifs. We show that multi-state kinases and the described competition-based motif are part of several natural signalling systems and thereby could enable them to implement complex information processing through multistability.
These results indicate that multi-state kinases in signalling systems are readily exploited by natural evolution and could equally be used by synthetic approaches for the generation of multistable information processing systems at the cellular level. Nursing clients of Greek ethnicity at home. The home healthcare nurse who cares for persons with Greek ancestry should be aware of their unique cultural heritage.
The nurse should also be aware that Greek people throughout the world are proud and independent, valuing their religious faith and practices, good health, education, and success. Care should be designed to include appreciation of traditions and customs that these clients may have.
The nurse should make a special effort to develop trust with the Greek client and family members in order to effectively implement culturally competent healthcare. Material Culture of Greek and Roman Astronomy. In the Greek and Roman worlds, astronomy had a rich material culture.
Many objects had practical applications to timekeeping or liberal education or astrological prediction, but many others were meant to express philosophical, religious, or political values. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities. Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs.
The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required.
Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest.
For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.
This was chosen above other choices of ethical and psychic qualities, such as. I- motif DNA structures are formed in the nuclei of human cells. Zeraati, Mahdi; Langley, David B. Human genome function is underpinned by the primary storage of genetic information in canonical B-form DNA, with a second layer of DNA structure providing regulatory control. I- motif structures are thought to form in cytosine-rich regions of the genome and to have regulatory functions; however, in vivo evidence for the existence of such structures has so far remained elusive.
Here we report the generation and characterization of an antibody fragment iMab that recognizes i- motif structures with high selectivity and affinity, enabling the detection of i- motifs in the nuclei of human cells. We demonstrate that the in vivo formation of such structures is cell-cycle and pH dependent. Furthermore, we provide evidence that i- motif structures are formed in regulatory regions of the human genome, including promoters and telomeric regions.
Our results support the notion that i- motif structures provide key regulatory roles in the genome. The Thiamine-Pyrophosphate- Motif. Thiamin pyrophosphate TPP , a derivative of vitamin B1, is a cofactor for enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production including the well known decarboxylation of a-keto acid dehydrogenases followed by transketolation. TPP-dependent enzymes constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group exhibiting multimeric subunit organization, multiple domains and two chemically equivalent catalytic centers.
Annotation of functional TPP-dependcnt enzymes, therefore, has not been trivial due to low sequence similarity related to this complex organization. Our approach to analysis of structures of known TPP-dependent enzymes reveals for the first time features common to this group, which we have termed the TPP- motif. The TPP- motif consists of specific spatial arrangements of structural elements and their specific contacts to provide for a flip-flop, or alternate site, enzymatic mechanism of action.
Analysis of structural elements entrained in the flip-flop action displayed by TPP-dependent enzymes reveals a novel definition of the common amino acid sequences. These sequences allow for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes, thus advancing functional proteomics. Further details of three-dimensional structures of TPP-dependent enzymes will be discussed.
Students' Programmed Text - Level Alpha. This is a students' programmed text for Level Alpha of a humanistic approach to the instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: 1 the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; 2 the…. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us. Teacher's Guide - Level Beta.
This is a teacher's guide for Level Beta of a humanistic approach to instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: 1 the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; 2 the similarities and….
Students' Programmed Text-Level Beta. This is a student's programmed text for Level Beta of a humanistic approach to instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. Bayes Motif : de novo protein sorting motif discovery from impure datasets.
Protein sorting is the process that newly synthesized proteins are transported to their target locations within or outside of the cell. This process is precisely regulated by protein sorting signals in different forms.
A major category of sorting signals are amino acid sub-sequences usually located at the N-terminals or C-terminals of protein sequences. Genome-wide experimental identification of protein sorting signals is extremely time-consuming and costly. Effective computational algorithms for de novo discovery of protein sorting signals is needed to improve the understanding of protein sorting mechanisms.
We formulated the protein sorting motif discovery problem as a classification problem and proposed a Bayesian classifier based algorithm Bayes Motif for de novo identification of a common type of protein sorting motifs in which a highly conserved anchor is present along with a less conserved motif regions. A false positive removal procedure is developed to iteratively remove sequences that are unlikely to contain true motifs so that the algorithm can identify motifs from impure input sequences.
Experiments on both implanted motif datasets and real-world datasets showed that the enhanced Bayes Motif algorithm can identify anchored sorting motifs from pure or impure protein sequence dataset. We proposed Bayes Motif , a novel Bayesian classification based algorithm for de novo discovery of a special category of anchored protein sorting motifs from impure datasets. Compared to conventional motif discovery algorithms such as MEME, our algorithm can find less-conserved motifs with short highly conserved anchors.
Our algorithm also has the advantage of easy incorporation of additional meta-sequence features such as hydrophobicity or charge of the motifs which may help to overcome the limitations of. Discriminative motif optimization based on perceptron training. Motivation: Generating accurate transcription factor TF binding site motifs from data generated using the next-generation sequencing, especially ChIP-seq, is challenging.
The challenge arises because a typical experiment reports a large number of sequences bound by a TF, and the length of each sequence is relatively long. Most traditional motif finders are slow in handling such enormous amount of data.
To overcome this limitation, tools have been developed that compromise accuracy with speed by using heuristic discrete search strategies or limited optimization of identified seed motifs. However, such strategies may not fully use the information in input sequences to generate motifs. Such motifs often form good seeds and can be further improved with appropriate scoring functions and rapid optimization.
Results: We report a tool named discriminative motif optimizer DiMO. DiMO takes a seed motif along with a positive and a negative database and improves the motif based on a discriminative strategy. We use area under receiver-operating characteristic curve AUC as a measure of discriminating power of motifs and a strategy based on perceptron training that maximizes AUC rapidly in a discriminative manner. Using DiMO, on a large test set of 87 TFs from human, drosophila and yeast, we show that it is possible to significantly improve motifs identified by nine motif finders.
The health meanings and practices of older Greek -Canadian widows. Folk health and illness beliefs and practices were abstracted from a large-scale study of older Greek -Canadian widows conceptualized within Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality using ethnographic, ethnonursing, and life health-care history methods.
Data were collected using observation-participation and interviews in three Greek -Canadian communities with 12 widowed key informants and 30 general informants. Interview inquiry guides, Leininger's Life History Health Care Protocol, and field journal recordings assisted data collection. Data were analysed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data.
A major health theme which was abstracted from the raw data and patterns was: health for Greek -Canadian widows meant a state of well-being, ability to perform daily role activities, and avoidance of pain and illness. The findings, which also included folk health care and illness beliefs and practices, will stimulate future nursing research related to health and nursing care of people of diverse cultures.
The history of the education of Montreal's Greek population is traced in this report, which is partly intended to act as a stimulus for future planning and development. Six chapters contain, respectively: 1 a history of Greek day education in and around Montreal, from its origin in with the founding of the "Plato" school to its…. Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period.
In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…. Characteristics of Greek Adolescents in Sydney. This report discusses variations in background of Greek -Australian high school students in Sydney, Australia, and examines and describes the pattern of individual responses to the social context.
Literature on the ethnic background of Greeks in Australia is briefly reviewed, and previous findings are presented to articulate some of the issues…. Assessment of composite motif discovery methods. Computational discovery of regulatory elements is an important area of bioinformatics research and more than a hundred motif discovery methods have been published.
Traditionally, most of these methods have addressed the problem of single motif discovery - discovering binding motifs for individual transcription factors. In higher organisms, however, transcription factors usually act in combination with nearby bound factors to induce specific regulatory behaviours. Hence, recent focus has shifted from single motifs to the discovery of sets of motifs bound by multiple cooperating transcription factors, so called composite motifs or cis-regulatory modules.
Given the large number and diversity of methods available, independent assessment of methods becomes important. Although there have been several benchmark studies of single motif discovery, no similar studies have previously been conducted concerning composite motif discovery. We have developed a benchmarking framework for composite motif discovery and used it to evaluate the performance of eight published module discovery tools. Benchmark datasets were constructed based on real genomic sequences containing experimentally verified regulatory modules, and the module discovery programs were asked to predict both the locations of these modules and to specify the single motifs involved.
To aid the programs in their search, we provided position weight matrices corresponding to the binding motifs of the transcription factors involved. In addition, selections of decoy matrices were mixed with the genuine matrices on one dataset to test the response of programs to varying levels of noise.
Although some of the methods tested tended to score somewhat better than others overall, there were still large variations between individual datasets and no single method performed consistently better than the rest in all situations. The variation in performance on individual datasets also shows that the new benchmark datasets represents a.
DLocal Motif : a discriminative approach for discovering local motifs in protein sequences. Local motifs are patterns of DNA or protein sequences that occur within a sequence interval relative to a biologically defined anchor or landmark. Current protein motif discovery methods do not adequately consider such constraints to identify biologically significant motifs that are only weakly over-represented but spatially confined.
Using negatives, i. This article introduces the method DLocal Motif that makes use of positional information and negative data for local motif discovery in protein sequences. DLocal Motif combines three scoring functions, measuring degrees of motif over-representation, entropy and spatial confinement, specifically designed to discriminatively exploit the availability of negative data. The method is shown to outperform current methods that use only a subset of these motif characteristics. We apply the method to several biological datasets.
The analysis of peroxisomal targeting signals uncovers several novel motifs that occur immediately upstream of the dominant peroxisomal targeting signal-1 signal. The analysis of proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signals uncovers multiple novel motifs that overlap with C2H2 zinc finger domains.
We also evaluate the method on classical nuclear localization signals and endoplasmic reticulum retention signals and find that DLocal Motif successfully recovers biologically relevant sequence properties. Rapid motif compliance scoring with match weight sets.
Most current implementations of motif matching in biological sequences have sacrificed the generality of weight matrix scoring for shorter runtimes. The program MOTIF incorporates a weight matrix and a rapid, backtracking tree-search algorithm to score motif compliance with greatly enhanced performance while placing no constraints on the motif. In addition, any positions within a motif can be marked as 'inviolate', thereby requiring an exact match. MOTIF allows a choice of regular expression formats and can use both motif and sequence libraries as either targets or queries.
Nucleic acid sequences can optionally be translated by MOTIF in any frame s and used against peptide motifs. The language of modern medicine: it's all Greek to me. The Greek language has shaped and formed the lexicon of modern medicine. Although medical terminology may seem complex and difficult to master, the clarity and functionality of this language owe a great debt to the tongue of the classical Greeks.
The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky health behaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a student's risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations.
Results show Greek members engaged in more risky health behaviors e. Greek and non- Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed. Greek -English Word Processing on the Macintosh. Discusses the complete Greek -English word processing system of the Apple Macintosh computer. Describes the features of its operating system, shows how the Greek fonts look and work, and enumerates both the advantages and drawbacks of the Macintosh.
The aim of this study was to clarify mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of these anaerobic genes by identifying motifs shared by their promoter regions. The selected motifs were common for the majority of analysed promoters. Using several negative control data sets, it was tested whether the motifs found were specific to the anaerobic group. Known functional motifs were detected, such as GT and GC motifs , but also other motifs shared by most of the genes examined.
Five motifs detected have not been found in plants hitherto but are present in the promoters of animal genes with various functions. This proposal now requires experimental verification. As a key mechanism of gene regulation, transcription factors TFs bind to DNA by recognizing specific short sequence patterns that are called DNA-binding motifs. A single TF can accept ambiguity within its DNA-binding motifs , which comprise both canonical typical and non-canonical motifs.
Clarification of such DNA-binding motif ambiguity is crucial for revealing gene regulatory networks and evaluating mutations in cis-regulatory elements. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing ChIP-seq now provides abundant data on the genomic sequences to which a given TF binds, existing motif discovery methods are unable to directly answer whether a given TF can bind to a specific DNA-binding motif.
Furthermore, users are not required to provide numerous parameters or background genomic sequence models that are typically unavailable. By complementing existing motif -discovery software, MOCCS will contribute to the basic understanding of how the genome controls diverse cellular processes via DNA-protein interactions.
The bioactive acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptide. In this article, we discuss the considerable progress made in understanding the role of ASARM as a bioactive peptide. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils. Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality.
The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids.
The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in the Greek population. The APOE gene is located on chromosome 19, and the three common alleles are designated epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4.
The epsilon4 allele is associated with increased plasma cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and decreased longevity. The APOE allele frequencies were epsilon2: 5. The epsilon4 allele frequency of 6. Greek women and broken nerves in Montreal. In this paper, I examine the importance of class, ethnicity and gender in the causation and meaning of somatization for Greek women in Montreal.
I argue that nevra--a form of psychosocial distress experienced by many of the women--is a phenomenon of the poor working conditions, low wages and gender relations in the Greek community. Data is based on interviews with Greek families in Montreal and 45 patients in two different clinical settings.
Comparing results with material on nervios and nerves from Latin America and the United States, I concur with Low that nerves should be viewed as a 'culturally-interpreted symptom' rather than a 'culture bound syndrome'. It is further suggested that the importance of social and material conditions and gender relations in mediating the cultural interpretation must be stressed. Failure to do so often results in the medicalization of nevra and the creation of a chronic sick role for the patient.
Motif Net: a web-server for network motif analysis. Network motifs are small topological patterns that recur in a network significantly more often than expected by chance. Their identification emerged as a powerful approach for uncovering the design principles underlying complex networks. However, available tools for network motif analysis typically require download and execution of computationally intensive software on a local computer.
We present Motif Net, the first open-access web-server for network motif analysis. Motif Net allows researchers to analyze integrated networks, where nodes and edges may be labeled, and to search for motifs of up to eight nodes.
The output motifs are presented graphically and the user can interactively filter them by their significance, number of instances, node and edge labels, and node identities, and view their instances. Motif Net also allows the user to distinguish between motifs that are centered on specific nodes and motifs that recur in distinct parts of the network. The website was implemented using ReactJs and supports all major browsers.
Classical Greek is taught as an elective to over students in seven secondary schools of the School District of Philadelphia. In the past decade the restoration of Greek studies to the classical curriculum was called for, and in a Greek Curriculum Committee was established in Philadelphia to develop a program and instructional materials.
Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…. The genome protection pathway that is defective in patients with Fanconi anemia FA is controlled by at least eight genes, including BRCA2.
By using a homology search strategy comparing the human FANCG protein sequence with its ortholog sequences in Oryzias latipes Japanese rice fish and Danio rerio zebrafish we identified at least seven tetratricopeptide repeat motifs TPRs covering a major part of this protein. TPRs are degenerate amino acid repeat motifs which function as scaffolds mediating protein-protein interactions, often found in multiprotein complexes.
A Greek physician's portrait in Windsor Castle. To the visitor to Windsor Castle, the Thomas Lawrence portraits in the Waterloo Chamber represent the most important contributors to the military defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, by British, Prussian, Russian and Austrian forces at the Battle of Waterloo.
Nevertheless, only few individuals realise that a Greek physician, Count Ioannis Capodistrias, a native of the island of Corfu, stands among these leading personalities as a diplomat, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, who contributed remarkably to European unity in the early nineteenth century and as a statesman 'Governor' of Greece with a tragic end to his life, after establishing a Greek State practically from ruins.
Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.
The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples. Albanians in the Greek informal economy. This article also delineates the current situation of Albanian immigrants, who constitute the largest group amongst all immigrants in Greece and who are largely undocumented.
It examines the controversial issue of Albanian criminality, and the social construction of negative stereotypes through prejudicial representations of Albanians by the Greek media. Motif mismatches in microsatellites: insights from genome-wide investigation among 20 insect species. We present a detailed genome-wide comparative study of motif mismatches of microsatellites among 20 insect species representing five taxonomic orders.
It was observed that the genomic abundance of imperfect repeats is significantly associated with the length and number of motif mismatches of microsatellites. Furthermore, microsatellites with a higher number of mismatches tend to have lower abundance in the genome, suggesting that sequence heterogeneity of repeat motifs is a key determinant of genomic abundance of microsatellites.
This relationship seems to be a general feature of microsatellites even in unrelated species such as yeast, roundworm, mouse and human. We provide a mechanistic explanation of the evolutionary link between motif heterogeneity and genomic abundance of microsatellites by examining the patterns of motif mismatches and allele sequences of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified within microsatellite loci. Using Drosophila Reference Genetic Panel data, we further show that pattern of allelic variation modulates motif heterogeneity of microsatellites, and provide estimates of allele age of specific imperfect microsatellites found within protein-coding genes.
The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional 3D structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson—Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence.
To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files.
Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases.
The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary 1st to 6th grade school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them.
Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status….
Gender Discrimination in the Greek Labour Market. Documents changes in the discrimination-over-time component and compares results with earlier studies. Gender productivity differences are minimal. Greek Alcohol Survey: Results and Analysis. Alcohol use among members of Greek fraternities and sororities at the University of North Dakota was surveyed. The survey instrument, which was an adaptation of a questionnaire developed by Michael A. Looney, was directed to frequency of use, amounts consumed, type of beverage, attitudes, and demographic information.
It was found that…. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology. The aim of the Quinmester course " Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…. This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them.
A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…. Women's Participation in the Greek Educational System. The evolution of women's participation in the Greek educational system during the last 20 years is considered, with emphasis on present developments.
The pattern of this evolution along with educational policy measures and reforms are also discussed. Factors related to women's achievement patterns and mobility between educational levels are also…. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin. A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text.
Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek , and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. In general, Greek children prefer extroverted to introverted styles and organized…. The self-image of Greek , Greek -migrant and German adolescents. This paper provides an empirical perspective on the relationship between immigration and self-image in a sample of German and Greek adolescents.
The Offer Self-image Questionnaire OISQ was used as a multidimensional measure of psychological, social and sexual self, and family relations. Comparisons were made between the mean scores of the three national groups on subscales of the OSIQ. Greek migrants had quite distinct self-image profiles that were intermediate between non-migrating Greeks and native Germans. Gender and age differences in self-image were pronounced in sub-scales of the OSIQ.
Migrants were more emotional than non-migrants, less introverted, more liberal in their sexual attitudes and displayed superior adjustment. Compared with their German counterparts, migrants emerged as more impulsive and emotional, with an inferior body image, higher achievement motivation, lower mental ill-health but with higher adjustment.
The results showed that when both Greek samples non-migrants and migrants were taken together and compared to Germans then differences emerged and indicated small but significant cross-cultural differences in personality. An efficient scheme based on structural motifs is proposed for the crystal structure prediction of materials. Both features make the present scheme a very efficient method for predicting desired materials.
Numerous new structures of LiFePO 4 have been found, compared to those currently available, available, demonstrating the reliability of the present methodology and illustrating the promise of the concept of structural motifs. A private DNA motif finding algorithm. With the increasing availability of genomic sequence data, numerous methods have been proposed for finding DNA motifs.
The discovery of DNA motifs serves a critical step in many biological applications. However, the privacy implication of DNA analysis is normally neglected in the existing methods. It provides provable privacy guarantees that are independent of adversaries' background knowledge.
Our algorithm makes use of the n-gram model and is optimized for processing large-scale DNA sequences. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm over real-life genomic data and demonstrate the promise of integrating privacy into DNA motif finding. Deciphering functional glycosaminoglycan motifs in development. GAGs are essential components of the extracellular space in metazoans. Extensive modifications of the glycans such as sulfation, deacetylation and epimerization create structural GAG motifs.
These motifs regulate protein-protein interactions and are thereby repsonsible for many of the essential functions of GAGs. This review focusses on recent genetic approaches to characterize GAG motifs and their function in defined signaling pathways during development. We discuss a coding approach for GAGs that would enable computational analyses of GAG sequences such as alignments and the computation of position weight matrices to describe GAG motifs.
Motif discovery and motif finding from genome-mapped DNase footprint data. Footprint data is an important source of information on transcription factor recognition motifs. However, a footprinting fragment can contain no sequences similar to known protein recognition sites. Inspection of genome fragments nearby can help to identify missing site positions.
Genome fragments containing footprints were supplied to a pipeline that constructed a position weight matrix PWM for different motif lengths and selected the optimal PWM. Adding only 2 bp on both sides of a footprinting fragment recovered most hits. We automatically constructed motifs for 41 Drosophila factors. New motifs can recognize footprints with a greater sensitivity at the same false positive rate than existing models. Also we discuss possible overfitting of constructed motifs.
Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins. The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs , we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity rmsd motifs whose structural features can be understood in terms of simple principles of helix-helix packing.
Thus, the universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins. Cultural care of older Greek Canadian widows within Leininger's theory of culture care.
Cultural care themes were abstracted from a large scale study of older Greek Canadian widows conceptualized within Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Ethnonursing, ethnographic, and life health-care history methods were used. Data were collected using observation-participation and interviews in three Greek Canadian communities with 12 widowed key informants and 30 general informants.
Data were analyzed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. The two major cultural care themes which were abstracted from the raw data and patterns were: 1 Cultural care for Greek Canadian widows meant responsibility for, reciprocation, concern, love, companionship, family protection, hospitality, and helping, primarily derived from their kinship, religious, and cultural beliefs, and values, and 2 Cultural care continuity diminished the spousal care void and contributed to the health of Greek Canadian widows.
These findings will stimulate future nursing research related to cultural care of diverse populations and guide nursing practice to provide culturally congruent care which will assist widows to reduce their spousal care void. The author thanks Dr. Madeleine Leininger, Dr. Judith Floyd, Dr. Marjorie Isenberg, and Dr. Bernice Kaplan for their guidance in completing the large scale study on which this article is based.
Several studies have shown that the accuracy of motif discovery can be significantly improved by using multiple de novo motif discovery programs and using randomized control calculations to identify the most significant motifs or by using Bayesian approaches. Using a single submission form, users can run several motif discovery programs and score, cluster and visualize the results.
In addition, the Bayesian motif discovery program THEME can be used to determine the class of transcription factors that is most likely to regulate a set of sequences. Input can be provided as a list of gene or probe identifiers. Characteristic motifs for families of allergenic proteins.
The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity.
Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only of total Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens.
We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. Modeling gene regulatory network motifs using statecharts. Background Gene regulatory networks are widely used by biologists to describe the interactions among genes, proteins and other components at the intra-cellular level.
Recently, a great effort has been devoted to give gene regulatory networks a formal semantics based on existing computational frameworks. For this purpose, we consider Statecharts, which are a modular, hierarchical and executable formal model widely used to represent software systems. We use Statecharts for modeling small and recurring patterns of interactions in gene regulatory networks, called motifs.
Results We present an improved method for modeling gene regulatory network motifs using Statecharts and we describe the successful modeling of several motifs , including those which could not be modeled or whose models could not be distinguished using the method of a previous proposal.
We model motifs in an easy and intuitive way by taking advantage of the visual features of Statecharts. Our modeling approach is able to simulate some interesting temporal properties of gene regulatory network motifs : the delay in the activation and the deactivation of the "output" gene in the coherent type-1 feedforward loop, the pulse in the incoherent type-1 feedforward loop, the bistability nature of double positive and double negative feedback loops, the oscillatory behavior of the negative feedback loop, and the "lock-in" effect of positive autoregulation.
Conclusions We present a Statecharts-based approach for the modeling of gene regulatory network motifs in biological systems. The basic motifs used to build more complex networks that is, simple regulation, reciprocal regulation, feedback loop, feedforward loop, and autoregulation can be faithfully described and their temporal dynamics can be analyzed.
Teacher's Guide-Level Alpha. A humanistic approach to the study of classical Greek and Greek culture at the secondary school level is detailed in this guide. References to the student programed text and other multisensory instructional materials used in the system focus on instructional objectives geared to students who are not necessarily college-bound. The standard Attic…. The author "explains that the Greek philosophy and scientific thought developed elements of what is known today as population policies.
These include roles and gender relationships, the population volume, the family, sexuality, birth control, eugenics, abortion and [quality of life] The first part of the article reviews issues on family and women's roles. The second part is related to aspects associated with sexuality and Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology. The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire.
It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice. Bhattacharya, Sudin; Conolly, Rory B. Background: Increasingly, there is a move toward using in vitro toxicity testing to assess human health risk due to chemical exposure. As with in vivo toxicity testing, an important question for in vitro results is whether there are thresholds for adverse cellular responses.
Empirical evaluations may show consistency with thresholds, but the main evidence has to come from mechanistic considerations. Objectives: Cellular response behaviors depend on the molecular pathway and circuitry in the cell and the manner in which chemicals perturb these circuits. Understanding circuit structures that are inherently capable of resisting small perturbations and producing threshold responses is an important step towards mechanistically interpreting in vitro testing data.
Methods: Here we have examined dose—response characteristics for several biochemical network motifs. These network motifs are basic building blocks of molecular circuits underpinning a variety of cellular functions, including adaptation, homeostasis, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. For each motif , we present biological examples and models to illustrate how thresholds arise from specific network structures. Discussion and Conclusion: Integral feedback, feedforward, and transcritical bifurcation motifs can generate thresholds.
Other motifs e. Feedforward control may lead to nonmonotonic or hormetic responses. We conclude that network motifs provide a basis for understanding thresholds for cellular responses. Computational pathway modeling of these motifs and their combinations occurring in molecular signaling networks will be a key element in new risk assessment approaches based on in vitro cellular assays.
Molecular signaling network motifs provide a. Devastating epidemics in recent ages Greek populations. In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions. In , plague appeared in Patras refugees who were expelled by the Turks from Smyrna and Asia Minor.
Inoculation against smallpox was first performed in Thessaly by the Greek women, and the Greek doctors Emmanouel Timonis , Oxford and Jakovos Pylarinos , Venice made relevant scientific publications. The first leper colony opened in Chios Island. In Crete, Spinalonga was transformed into a leper island, which following the Independence War against Turkish occupation and the unification of Crete with Greece in , was classified as an International Leper Hospital.
Cholera struck Greece in brought by the French troops during the Crimean War, and again during the Balkan Wars when the Bulgarian troops brought cholera to northern Greece.
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