Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium and californium were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution.
Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5. The solution absorption spectra of Cm III and Cf III in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution.
Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed. Development of analytical methods for the separation of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples. In this work, separation methods have been developed for the analysis of anthropogenic transuranium elements plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples contaminated by global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident.
The analytical methods utilized in this study are based on extraction chromatography. Highly varying atmospheric plutonium isotope concentrations and activity ratios were found at both Kurchatov Kazakhstan , near the former Semipalatinsk test site, and Sodankylae Finland.
The origin of plutonium is almost impossible to identify at Kurchatov, since hundreds of nuclear tests were performed at the Semipalatinsk test site. The variation in americium, curium and neptunium concentrations was great as well in peat samples collected in southern and central Finland in immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The main source of transuranium contamination in peats was from global nuclear test fallout, although there are wide regional differences in the fraction of Chernobyl-originated activity of the total activity for americium, curium and neptunium.
The separation methods developed in this study yielded good chemical recovery for the elements investigated and adequately pure fractions for radiometric activity determination. The extraction chromatographic methods were faster compared to older methods based on ion exchange chromatography. In addition, extraction chromatography is a more environmentally friendly separation method than ion exchange, because less acidic waste solutions are produced during the analytical procedures.
Nutrition education Curium is closely associated with americium in irradiated fuels because of their chemical similarity with regard to potential separation requirements, and because americium also requires special shielding and handling requirements due to its gamma radiation emission. For these reasons, curium management is challenging. Countries that are now engaged in or planning future fuel recycle operations, are considering methods to manage the curium produced and minimise the shielding and handling requirements, as well as the reprocessing requirements for separation of curium from americium France, Japan, and the USA have begun curium management studies.
Curium management methods under consideration include 1 separation of curium from americium and storage of curium for several decades to allow Cm to decay substantially to Pu, while moving ahead to recycle americium; 2 recycling of americium and curium without separation; and 3 waiting several decades to reprocess used nuclear fuels, allowing decay minimisation of curium emissions and the requirement for separation of curium from americium, and allowing an alteration of the subsequent transmutation path to reduce the production of curium in recycled used fuels.
The French studies included scenarios that compared the recycle of ail minor actinides neptunium, americium, and curium with the recycle of only neptunium and americium in radial blankets of sodium-cooled fast reactors SFR. In the latter scenario, curium is separated from americium during used fuel reprocessing and stored for years to allow Cm to decay to Pu which is then recycled.
Even though. This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium in the Building facility at ORNL in January Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees.
Management systems evaluated include 1 training of employees performing lab analyses, 2 adherence to procedures, and 3 response to unusual circumstances. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium. At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium , and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions.
The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0. Cleanex was used on the liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products.
Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank Tank The Am and Cm and associated lanthanide fission products are currently in nitric acid solution. Research was performed to determine if the Tank Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc.
Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. The food packages are as follows: 1 Food Package I—Infants birth ID VHK The use of curium neutrons to verify plutonium in spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. For safeguards verification of spent fuel, leached hulls, and reprocessing wastes, it is necessary to determine the plutonium content in these items.
Neutron multiplicity counting of the singles, doubles, and triples neutrons has been evaluated for measuring Pu, Cm, and Cf. We have proposed a method to establish the plutonium to curium ratio using the hybrid k-edge densitometer x-ray fluorescence instrument plus a neutron coincidence counter for the reprocessing dissolver solution. This report presents the concepts, experimental results, and error estimates for typical spent fuel applications.
Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials. Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content.
The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls.
In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay NDA technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium.
The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium , so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium.
This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed.
The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system. Cm III interaction with calcite was investigated in the trace concentration range. The first Cm III sorption species consists of a curium ion that is bonded onto the calcite surface. An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented.
A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.
Moll, H. The new SRB strain Desulfovibrio aespoeensis could be isolated. Results describing the basic interaction mechanisms of uranium, curium , and plutonium with cells of D. The interaction experiments with the actinides showed that the cells are able to remove all three actinides from the surrounding solution. The amount of removed actinide and the interaction mechanism varied among the different actinides.
The main U VI removal occurred after the first 24 h. The presence of uranium caused a damaging of the cell membranes. TEM revealed an accumulation of U inside the bacterial cell. A complex interaction mechanism takes place consisting of biosorption, bioreduction and bioaccumulation. Most of the formed Pu V dissolves from the cell envelope back to the aqueous solution due to the weak complexing properties of this plutonium oxidation state.
To summarize, the strength of the interaction of D. Preparation of curium -americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading. Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material about 2.
The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation.
The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment. Raison, P. It is DoD policy that: a The U. This part: a Establishes policy Information copies of the audit Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots.
For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from to -have been evaluated.
As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination.
There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated.
The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits.
The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. Exudates from C. The halophilic microorganisms Halomonas sp. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu III on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones.
Ozaki, T. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the americium and curium nuclides. The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Behavior of americium, curium , and certain fission products in fluoride melts in the presence of s olid extraction agents. The authors consider the behavior of americium, curium , and certain fission products europium, cerium, yttrium, and strontium in fluoride and chlode-fluoride melts in the presence of nonisomorphous solid phases: calcium fluoride and lanthanum and zirconium oxides.
It is shown that the trace components enter the solid calcium fluoride in a regular fashion only in the presence of an adequate amount of oxygen in the melt. The effect of oxygen on the coprecipitation with calcium fluoride occurs because oxygen compounds of the elements must be formed in the melt, and these are then coprecipitated with the calcium fluoride.
The effect of temperature on the sorption of technetium, uranium, neptunium and curium on bentonite, tuff and granodiorite. A study of the sorption of the radioelements technetium; uranium; neptunium; and curium onto geological materials has been carried out as part of the PNC program to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan.
Batch sorption experiments have been performed in order to study the sorption of the radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water under strongly-reducing conditions at both room temperature and at 60 C. Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis. While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions.
In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium. The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary.
As prescribed in This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of The purpose of the Program is to The State agency shall maintain a financial management system which provides accurate, current and complete Electrochemistry of oxygen-free curium compounds in fused NaCl-2CsCl eutectic.
Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism of curium ions up to the metal. The diffusion coefficient of [CmCl 6 ] 3- complex ions was determined by cyclic voltammetry at different temperatures by applying the Berzins-Delahay equation.
The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified and the activation energy for diffusion was found to be The thermodynamic properties of curium trichloride have also been calculated. Experimental and in situ investigations on americium, curium and plutonium behaviour in marine benthic species: transfer from water or sediments.
The tranfer of transuranic elements -americium, curium and plutonium- from the sediments containing them to some marine benthic species endofauna and epifauna was studied with a twofold approach - laboratory and in-situ investigation. The experimental investigations, divided into three parts, made it possible to specify concentration factors F. The result were refined by an in-situ study that brought new data on the marine distribution of the transuranic elements released by the La Hague plant.
Finally, the localization of americium and plutonium in the tissues and cells of these species was determined by autoradiography [fr. Frozen processed foods. The selection criteria cited in Venhart, M. Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions in the presence of curium Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions is studied under the action of intensive internal alpha-irradiation conditioned by curium nuclides.
Effective constants of neptunium 4 oxidation rates and neptuniumi 6 reduction rates are not dependent on neptunium ion in1tial concentration and increase with a growth of a dose rate of alpha-irradiation of solution. In more concentrated solutions equilibrium between sexa-, penta- and tetravalent neptunium forms is established. Equilibrium concentrations of neptunium valent forms are not dependent on neptunium initial oxidation state under the same initial conditions dose rate, neptunium concentration and acidity.
It is shown form experimental data that under the action of alpha-irradiation neptunium 5 both is oxidated to neptunium 6 and is reduced to neptunium 4. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes.
Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides RDM. The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming.
The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost.
The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers.
Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal.
Co was historically produced in the SRS reactors. Cobalt slugs were irradiated in the early s. Post-production, remaining cobalt slugs including slab form were consolidated for storage. There are approximately nine hundred cobalt slugs currently stored awaiting final disposition. These slugs had historically incomplete documentation for activity rates; therefore, assaying was required in order to determine their activity levels.
Since the gamma dose rate from these slugs is extremely high, the most cost effective way to shield a source of this magnitude from personnel and the radiation detector was to use the basin water in which the slugs are stored as the shield. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that slug was at least eight feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water.
Using a sodium iodide detector and multichannel analyzer system and an underwater collimator assembly, Co concentrations we re determined for Disassembly Basin cobalt slugs and slabs and 18 curium sampler slugs. The total activity of all of the assayed slugs summed to 31, curies. From the Co concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu, , , , ; Am, ; and Cm, produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu irradiated.
Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: 1 Amount. For oral use in dogs Transportation to market may be Provisions and Clauses As prescribed in Noncomplex Nature. Clauses Complex Nature. As used in this Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional Contract In vitro efficacy of ST against smallpox and monkeypox. Since the eradication of smallpox and the cessation of routine childhood vaccination for smallpox, the proportion of the world's population susceptible to infection with orthopoxviruses, such as variola virus the causative agent of smallpox and monkeypox virus, has grown substantially.
Unfortunately, a substantial number of people cannot receive live virus vaccines due to contraindications. Furthermore, no antiviral drugs have been fully approved by the FDA for the prevention or treatment of orthopoxvirus infection. Here, we show the inhibitory effect of one new antiviral compound, ST- , on the in vitro growth properties of six variola virus strains and seven monkeypox virus strains.
We performed multiple assays to monitor the cytopathic effect and to evaluate the reduction of viral progeny production and release in the presence of the compound. The formation of sulfate complexes of Curium in aqueous solutions is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy TRLFS at 25 C. The complex Cm SO 4 3- 3 is found to be stable only at very high sulfate concentrations above 1 molal and therefore not considered for further evaluation.
Spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the complexation of trivalent curium with inorganic ligands at increased temperatures; Spektroskopische und thermodynamische Untersuchungen zur Komplexierung von trivalentem Curium mit anorganischen Liganden bei erhoehten Temperaturen. The subject of the present investigation is the complexation of trivalent actinides at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work is to broaden the comprehension of the geochemical processes relevant for the migration of radionuclides in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository.
Depending on the disposed nuclear waste, the temperature in the direct vicinity of a nuclear waste repository may reach up to C. The result is a distinct change of the geochemistry of the actinides. Many of these processes have already been studied in detail at room temperature. Yet, data at elevated temperature are rare. However, a comprehensive long term safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository requires the precise thermodynamic description of the relevant geochemical processes at room as well as at elevated temperatures.
The present work is focused on the investigation of the complexation of trivalent curium Cm III with different inorganic ligands at elevated temperatures. Due to its outstanding spectroscopic properties, Cm III is chosen as a representative for trivalent actinides.
The experiments with nitrate, sulphate and chloride were carried out in a custom-built high temperature cell, enabling spectroscopic studies at temperatures up to C. The Cm III -fluoride-system was studied in a cuvette quartz glass in the temperature range from 20 to 90 C.
The results of the TRLFS studies show a general shift of the chemical equilibrium towards the complexed species with increasing temperature. For instance. Interaction of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol with high carbon iron filings: Reaction and sorption mechanisms. However, reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6 -TCP was negligible. No transformation of 2-CP or 4-CP to phenol was observed. We observed this object in and The analysis of the light curves indicates complex and variable temporal spectra.
Using wavelet analysis we have found evidences for changes on time scales of hours in the dataset. The temporal spectra obtained during are quite different from the results of the previous year. The modulations in the light curve are more noticeable and the temporal spectra present a higher number of modulation frequencies. One peculiar characteristic is the presence of a variable harmonic structure related to one of these modulation frequencies. This complex photometric behaviour may be explained by a more complicated unresolved combination of modulation frequencies, but more likely due to a combination of pulsations of the star plus modulations related to interaction with a close companion, maybe indicating a disc.
However, these characteristics cannot be confirmed from single site observations. The complex and variable behaviour of NGC needs the WET co-operation in order to completely resolve its light curve. Computational investigation on 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene crystal. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP level were performed on crystalline 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene.
The carbon, oxygen, and chlorine atoms make up the narrow lower energy bands, while the nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms make up the higher energy bands. Besides, the contributions of these atomic orbitals to the frontier bands are somewhat well-proportioned. An anisotropic impact on the bulk makes the electron transfer from chlorine to its neighbor carbon atom and from nitrogen atoms to oxygen atoms.
The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be Abstract Copyright , Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store. The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period.
As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements.
Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, curium intake by shredder operator at Building Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report. On July 2, at approximately A. A third operator Worker 3 provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area hot area from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area cold area.
At Approximately A. Sometime between A. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges.
An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately A. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium Organization and Management Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation.
Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels. Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, Np, Am and Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium.
However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples.
So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method. In this study Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha gamma spectrometry using Np as a spike, and Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code.
Electric resistivity of americium and curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of americium metal after self-irradiation. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk Am metal were measured between and 4. The room temperature resistivity was found to be The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity. The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons.
The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4.
A saturation resistivity of After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and K. The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested. The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium , which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at Comparison with theoretical models were made. Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants.
Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid. The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column. Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of Am, Cm and 24 3 , Cm isotopes is possible using the Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest ROI in the alpha spectrum.
In this work it was used tracers, Pu, Am, Cm and U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium, americium and curium During the past 10 years about glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe.
A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves.
Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of Am, Am and Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize.
Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided.
For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. In addition, 2,4,6 - trichlorophenol may form during the treatment of phenol containing industrial wastewater with hypochlorite or during the disinfection of drinking-water sources.
The removal of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol is significant because of its high toxicity, carcinogenic properties and persistence . In this study, the adsorption of 2,4,6 -tr Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Cm, Cm, and Cm. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs are widely detected in human tissues.
However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol 2,4,6 -TBP in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6 -TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants.
Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. Industrial waters in coal pyrolysis process, synthetic chemicals and oil and gas process contain phenol derivatives that are dangerous to the environment and needs to be removed, one of them is 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol. Optimal graphene loading of 0. Test results showed that addition of 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol would subsequently increased 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol conversion and enhanced hydrogen production linearly.
The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values K 0 of 1. The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6 -TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2.
In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine. All rights reserved. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides. The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of CmP and CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.
The fcc NaCl-type samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms. Alekseev, A.
This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for U, m Am, Cm, Cm, Cm and Cm done at this spectrometer. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA and JIA reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian.
Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions.
Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR- for 4 days. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density.
These effects of APR- were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR- also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR- suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.
In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have Complete dissipation of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting. We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an.
Environmental concentrations and toxicology of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol TBP. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view. We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical. Moreover, it is used as a pesticide but also occurs as a natural product of some aquatic organisms.
Due to its many sources, 2,4,6 -tribromophenol is ubiquitously found in the environment. Nevertheless, not much is known about its toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. It is also unclear which role the structural isomer 2,4,5-tribromophenol and several degradation products such as 2,4-dibromophenol play in the environment.
Due to new flame retardants that enter the market and can degrade to 2,4,6 -tribromophenol, this compound will remain relevant in future years - not only in aquatic matrices, but also in house dust and foodstuff, which are an important exposure route for humans.
If Tribal construction standards are consistent with or Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene. The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene DATB or 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 ,-trinitrobenzene TATB by: a reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0.
TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN levansucrase Y S immobilized on chitosan beads. LsRN-Y S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2. A maximum of 8. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish Danio rerio to 2,4,6 -tribromophenol affects reproduction. The bromophenol 2,4,6 -tribromophenol TBP is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms.
Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health Structural and spectroscopic parameters of 2,4,6 -trimethylbenzamide, using DFT method. Conformational analysis of 2,4,6 -Trimethylbenzamide was carried out.
The geometric parameters bond length, bond angle and tortion angle of the most stable conformer were calculated and the Infrared and Raman frequencies of fundamental modes were determined. Calculated values were compared with the experimental ones. All calculations were carried out with the Gaussian03 and GaussView3. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene, TATB.
A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives. Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated, yet it remains as one of the highest priority pathogens due to its potential as a biological weapon.
The majority of the US population would be vulnerable in a smallpox outbreak. Additionally, SIGA has conducted Phase I and II clinical trials to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ST- , bringing us to our current late stage of clinical development. This article reviews the need for a smallpox therapeutic and our experience in developing ST- , and provides perspective on the role of a smallpox antiviral during a smallpox public health emergency.
Contribution of filamentous fungi to the musty odorant 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in water supply reservoirs and associated drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the distribution of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in two water supply reservoirs and four associated drinking water treatment plants DWTPs were investigated. The 2,4,6 -TCA concentrations were in the range of 1. To determine the contribution of filamentous fungi to 2,4,6 -TCA in a full-scale treatment process, the concentrations of 2,4,6 -TCA in raw water, settled water, post-filtration water, and finished water were measured.
The results showed that 2,4,6 -TCA levels continuously increased until chlorination, suggesting that 2,4,6 -TCA could form without a chlorination reaction and fungi might be the major contributor to the 2,4,6 -TCA formation.
Meanwhile, twenty-nine fungal strains were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular biological methods. Of the seventeen isolated fungal species, eleven showed the capability to convert 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP to 2,4,6 -TCA. There was a significant variation in the capability of different species to generate 2,4,6 -TCA.
The results from the proportions of cell-free, cell-attached, and cell-bound 2,4,6 -TCA suggested that 2,4,6 -TCA generated by fungi was mainly distributed in their extracellular environment. In addition to 2,4,6 -TCA, five putative volatile by-products were also identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These findings increase our understanding on the mechanisms involved in the formation of 2,4,6 -TCA and provide insights into managing and controlling 2,4,6 -TCA-related problems in drinking water.
In this study, we showed that administration of the antiviral compound ST- to rabbits by oral gavage, once daily for 14 days beginning 1h postexposure p. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos. In vitro susceptibility to ST- and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades.
The susceptibility of these strains to both drugs was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, extracellular virus's quantification in the presence of ST- and one-step growth curve in cells treated with CDV. ST- strongly inhibits the production of extracellular virus for all isolates in concentrations as low as 0. Impedance spectroscopy of tripolar concentric ring electrodes with Ten20 and TD pastes.
Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper, we measured the impedance on both tripolar concentric ring electrodes and standard cup electrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS using both Ten20 and TD electrode paste.
Furthermore, we applied the model to prove that the model can predict the performance of the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes TCRE that are used to record brain signals.
Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. TCA entsteht durch mikrobielle Umsetzung von Chlorphenolen. The aryl groups at the 2- and 6-positions are derived from ketones, while benzyl amine plays the dual role of providing an aryl functionality at the 4-position of pyridine as well as being a nitrogen donor. Synthesis of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenyl hydrazones and their inhibitory potential against glycation of protein. This study thus identified a novel series of antiglycation agents.
A structure-activity relationship has been studied, and all the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe. In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information.
The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices. In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is totally necessary and our traditional workspace it is now being asked how reproducible patient to patient, device to device are the delivered doses new tasking? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort.
Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use. These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in cork bark. Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants.
During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods years. Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal.
However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation EC No. We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. Furthermore, their formation as unintentional by-products during the laboratory synthesis of BTBPE from 2,4,6 -TBP and 1,2-dibromoethane in the presence of sodium carbonate has also been investigated.
Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications.
Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups.
Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components.
The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry. Adsorption of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene on carboxylated porous polystyrene microspheres. Large-pore-size nm polystyrene PSt microspheres were carboxylated with phthalic anhydride PA through Friedel-Crafts acetylation to study the adsorption of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT on this material from aqueous solution.
The scanning electron microscope SEM images and mercury porosimetry measurements MPM of the microspheres showed that the pore structure was unchanged during the reaction. High adsorption capacity As shown by the adsorption isotherm, the adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation, indicating heterogeneous adsorption process. Towards the island of superheavy stability - Prompt spectroscopy of Fm and Rf nuclei.
It therefore provides the ultimate anchor points for nuclear models. This region also lies on the path of the alpha-decay chains of the super-heavy elements. This region represents the limit of today's spectroscopic capabilities. Spectrochemical analysis of powder using nm Nd-YAG laser-induced low-pressure plasma. The applicability of spectrochemical analysis of minute amounts of powder samples was investigated using an ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser nm and low-pressure ambient air.
A large variety of chemical powder samples of different composition were employed in the experiment. These included a mixture of copper II sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfide, and chromium III sulfate n-hydrate powders , baby powder , cosmetic powders , gold films, zinc supplement tablet, and muds and soils from different areas.
The powder samples were prepared by pulverizing the original samples to an average size of around 30 microm in order to trap them in the tiny micro holes created on the surface of the quartz subtarget. It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with low background, free from undesirable contamination by the subtarget elements and featuring ppm sensitivity. A further measurement revealed a linear calibration curve with zero intercept.
These results clearly show the potential application of this technique for practical qualitative and quantitative spectrochemical analysis of powder samples in various fields of study and investigation. Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications. The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications.
In addition, the calcium oxide CaO phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase.
Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta- analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products.
To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta- analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment.
We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples. Bloodstain pattern analysis --casework experience.
The morphology of bloodstain distribution patterns at the crime scene carries vital information for a reconstruction of the events. Contrary to experimental work, case reports where the reconstruction has been verified have rarely been published. This is the reason why a series of four illustrative cases is presented where bloodstain pattern analysis at the crime scene made a reconstruction of the events possible and where this reconstruction was later verified by a confession of the offender.
The cases include various types of bloodstains such as contact and smear stains, drop stains, arterial blood spatter and splash stains from both impact and cast-off pattern. Problems frequently encountered in practical casework are addressed, such as unfavourable environmental conditions or combinations of different bloodstain patterns.
It is also demonstrated that the analysis of bloodstain morphology can support individualisation of stains by directing the selection of a limited number of stains from a complex pattern for DNA analysis. The complexity of real situations suggests a step-by-step approach starting with a comprehensive view of the overall picture. This is followed by a differentiation and analysis of single bloodstain patterns and a search for informative details.
Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia. Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample.
The second sample, designated NSR-F, was also a depleted uranium powder. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of U and U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium NU fueled Pu production.
These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources. Quantitative analysis of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets by pattern -fitting procedure using X-ray diffraction pattern. A pattern -fitting procedure using an X-ray diffraction pattern was applied to the quantitative analysis of binary system of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets.
Tablets were prepared under various compression pressures using a direct compression method with various compositions of INH and MAN. Assuming that X-ray diffraction pattern of INH-MAN system consists of diffraction intensities from respective crystals, observed diffraction intensities were fitted to analytic expression based on X-ray diffraction theory and separated into two intensities from INH and MAN crystals by a nonlinear least-squares procedure.
The correction parameter including all the factors that are beyond experimental control was required for quantitative analysis without calibration curve. Further, certain characteristics of the crystals in the tablets, such as the preferred orientation, size of crystallite, and lattice disorder were determined simultaneously. This method can be adopted to analyze compounds whose crystal structures are known. It is a potentially powerful tool for the quantitative phase analysis and characterization of crystals in tablets and powders using X-ray diffraction patterns.
Copyright Elsevier B. Understanding deformation mechanisms during powder compaction using principal component analysis of compression data. Principal component analysis PCA was applied to pharmaceutical powder compaction. Multivariate analysis of the compression data was carried out using PCA. The first principal component PC1 showed loadings for the solid fraction and work values that agreed with changes in the relative significance of plastic deformation to consolidation at different pressures.
The PC1 scores showed the same rank order as the relative plasticity ranking derived from the literature for common pharmaceutical materials. The utility of PC1 in understanding deformation was extended to binary mixtures using a subset of the original materials. Combinations of brittle and plastic materials were characterized using the PCA method. The relationships between PC1 scores and the weight fractions of the mixtures were typically linear showing ideal mixing in their deformation behaviors.
The mixture consisting of two plastic materials was the only combination to show a consistent positive deviation from ideality. The application of PCA to solid fraction and mechanical work data appears to be an effective means of predicting deformation behavior during compaction of simple powder mixtures.
Because Y takes time to diffuse to the particle surfaces, the apparent melting point of this new phase appears at higher temperatures in initial DTA scans than in subsequent scans. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form. We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment].
To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features.
The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials. Thermal analysis of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and methylcellulose: powders , gels and matrix tablets.
This review focuses on the thermal analysis of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose HPMC and methylcellulose. Differential scanning calorimetry DSC of their powders is used to determine temperatures of moisture loss in conjunction with thermogravimetric analysis and glass transition temperatures.
However, sample preparation and encapsulation affect the values obtained. The interaction of these cellulose ethers with water is evaluated by DSC. Water is added to the powder directly in DSC pans or preformed gels can be evaluated. Data quality depends on previous thermal history but estimates of the quantity of water bound to the polymers may be made.
Water uptake by cellulose ethers may be evaluated by the use of polymeric wafers and by following loss of free water, over a series of timed curves, into wafers in contact with water. Cloud points, which assess the reduction of polymer solubility with increase of temperature, may be assessed spectrophotometrically.
DSC and rheometric studies are used to follow thermogelation, a process involving hydrophobic interaction between partly hydrated polymeric chains. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methodologies are highlighted. Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis on nano- powder pellets and applications to granite bulk rock analysis.
Granites are a ubiquitous component of the continental crust and knowing their precise trace element signatures is essential in understanding the origins and evolution of the continental crust. ICP-MS bulk analysis of granite is generally conducted on solution after acid-digestion.
The development of a nano- powder pellet technique by using wet milling procedure, and its combination with laser ablation ICP-MS has been proposed to overcome these problems. In this study, we produced nano- powders from a series of granite rock standards by wet milling in agate using a high power planetary ball mill instrument.
The procedure was tested and optimized by modifying parameters ball to powder ratio, water to powder ratio, milling power etc. Characterization of nano- powders was conducted by various techniques including electron microprobe EMP , secondary electron imaging, polarizing microscope, and laser particle size analyzer LPSA and laser scanning confocal microscope LSCM. Pellets of 5 mm in diameter were pressed into molds of cellulose at 1.
Sources of contamination either from abrading agate balls or from ultrapure water were evaluated and quantified. Gravity flow of powder in a lunar environment. Part 2: Analysis of flow initiation. A small displacement-small strain finite element technique utilizing the constant strain triangle and incremental constitutive equations for elasticplastic media nonhardening and obeying a Coulomb yield condition was applied to the analysis of gravity flow initiation.
This was done in a V-shaped hopper containing a powder under lunar environmental conditions. Three methods of loading were examined. Of the three, the method of computing the initial state of stress in a filled hopper prior to drawdown, by adding material to the hopper layer by layer, was the best. Results of the analysis of a typical hopper problem show that the initial state of stress, the elastic moduli, and the strength parameters have an important influence on material response subsequent to the opening of the hopper outlet.
Comparative spectral analysis of veterinary powder product by continuous wavelet and derivative transforms. Comparative simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline and benzocaine in the commercial veterinary powder product was carried out by continuous wavelet transform CWT and classical derivative transform or classical derivative spectrophotometry.
In this quantitative spectral analysis , two proposed analytical methods do not require any chemical separation process. In the first step, several wavelet families were tested to find an optimal CWT for the overlapping signal processing of the analyzed compounds. For a comparison, the classical derivative spectrophotometry CDS approach was also applied to the simultaneous quantitative resolution of the same analytical problem.
Calibration functions were obtained by measuring the transform amplitudes corresponding to zero-crossing points for both CWT and CDS methods. The utility of these two analytical approaches were verified by analyzing various synthetic mixtures consisting of chlortetracycline and benzocaine and they were applied to the real samples consisting of veterinary powder formulation. The experimental results obtained from the COIF-CWT approach were statistically compared with those obtained by classical derivative spectrophotometry and successful results were reported.
Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder. Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits.
As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration. The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder SWP and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis.
Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC Little by little the engineers research how the development of concrete that can utilize waste. In the utilization of the waste, it can be functioned as mixing material which the chemical or the physical traits of the used goods contain similarity to the mixture of concrete in general, one of them is glass powder as the substitute of cement. The glass powder that utilizes is the one that is sifted through sieve No.
Furthermore, visual examination, absorption, net weight and testing specimen compressive strength. Foaming Agent is make by using modified hand drill and brace. The testing specimen uses the brick mold with the size of 40 cm x 20cm x 10 cm. Based on this research, it shows that the quality that results from brick is still qualified based on SNI 03 — — At or below the surface of painted works of art, valuable information is present that provides insights into an object's past, such as the artist's technique and the creative process that was followed or its conservation history but also on its current state of preservation.
Various noninvasive techniques have been developed over the past 2 decades that can probe this information either locally via point analysis or on a macroscopic scale e. This method can visualize highly specific chemical distributions at the macroscale dm 2. In this work we demonstrate the synergy between the quantitative aspects of powder diffraction and the noninvasive scanning capability of MA-XRPD highlighting the potential of the method to reveal new types of information.
Furthermore, on the same artifact, the depth-selective possibilities of the method that stem from an exploitation of the shift of the measured diffraction peaks with respect to reference data are highlighted. The influence of different experimental parameters on the depth-selective analysis results is briefly discussed. Promising stratigraphic information could be obtained, even though the analysis is hampered by not completely understood variations in the unit cell dimensions of the crystalline pigment phases.
The reaction product was Ge O particles as fine as several nm in size and composed of Ge and O atoms. It is hard to recognize those particles in TEM images. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security DHS , is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives.
Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed when developing safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.
Keywords: Small-scale safety testing, proficiency test, impact-, friction-, spark discharge-, thermal testing, round-robin test, safety testing protocols, HME, RDX, potassium perchlorate, potassium. Additional evidence from x-ray powder diffraction patterns that icosahedral quasi-crystals of intermetallic compounds are twinned cubic crystals. Cross-Modal Multivariate Pattern Analysis. Typically, the method is used to identify a subject's perceptual experience from neural activity in certain regions of the brain.
For instance, it has been employed to predict the orientation of visual gratings a subject perceives from activity in early visual cortices5 or, analogously, the content of speech from activity in early auditory cortices6. Here, we present an extension of the classical MVPA paradigm, according to which perceptual stimuli are not predicted within, but across sensory systems. Specifically, the method we describe addresses the question of whether stimuli that evoke memory associations in modalities other than the one through which they are presented induce content-specific activity patterns in the sensory cortices of those other modalities.
For instance, seeing a muted video clip of a glass vase shattering on the ground automatically triggers in most observers an auditory image of the associated sound; is the experience of this image in the "mind's ear" correlated with a specific neural activity pattern in early auditory cortices?
Furthermore, is this activity pattern distinct from the pattern that could be observed if the subject were, instead, watching a video clip of a howling dog? In two previous studies7,8, we were able to predict sound- and touch-implying video clips based on neural activity in early auditory and somatosensory cortices, respectively. Our results are in line with a neuroarchitectural framework proposed by Damasio9,10, according to which the experience of mental images that are based on memories - such as hearing the shattering sound of a vase in the "mind's ear" upon seeing the corresponding video clip - is supported by the re-construction of content-specific neural activity patterns in early sensory cortices.
Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products. Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits.
Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".
Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively.
Toward a metric for patterned injury analysis. An intriguing question in the matching of objects with patterned injures in two and three dimensions is that of an appropriate metric for closeness -- is it possible to objectively measure how well an object 'fits' a patterned injury. Many investigators have suggested an energy-based metric, and have used such metrics to analyze craniofacial growth and anatomic variation.
A strict dependence on homology is the primary disadvantage of this energy functional for generalized biological structures; many shapes do not have obvious landmarks. Some tentative solutions to the problem of landmark dependency for patterned injury analysis are presented.
One intriguing approach comes from recent work in axiomatic vision. This approach has resulted in the development of a multiresolution medial axis for the extraction of shape primitives which can be used as the basis for registration. A scale-based description of this process can be captured in structures called cores, which can describe object shape and position in a highly compact manner.
Cores may provide a scale- and shape-based method of determining correspondences necessary for determining the number and position of landmarks for some patterned injuries. Each of the approaches described are generalizable to higher dimensions, and can thus be used to analyze both two- and three- dimensional data.
Together, they may represent a reasonable way of measuring shape distance for the purpose of matching objects and wounds, and can be combined with texture measures for a complete description. Hulien, Molly L. While X-ray powder diffraction XRPD is a fundamental analytical technique used by solid-state laboratories across a breadth of disciplines, it is still underrepresented in most undergraduate curricula.
In this work, we incorporate XRPD analysis into an inquiry-based project that requires students to identify the crystalline component s of…. In , an unknown white powder was discovered spilled inside of a shipping container of whole kernel corn during an inspection by federal inspectors in the port of Baltimore, Maryland. The container was detained and quarantined while a sample of the powder was collected and sent to a federal laboratory where it was screened using chromatography for the presence of specific poisons and pesticides with negative results.
Samples of the corn kernels and the white powder were forwarded to the Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center for further analysis. Based on the unique particle analysis by SLM and SEM as well as the detection of the presence of aluminum and phosphorous by EDX, the unknown was determined to be consistent with reacted aluminum phosphide AlP. While commonly known in the agricultural industry, aluminum phosphide is relatively unknown in the forensic community. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns.
This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis LMA as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns , to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components : Body, Space, Shape and Effort.
Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy , it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features.
Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics. Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value.
Notoginseng powder NP could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder SFP or corn flour CF , because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared Vis-NIR spectroscopy method.
Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra SNIR and long-wave near infrared spectra LNIR were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression PLSR and least-squares support vector machines LS-SVM , respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants. Pyrolysis of tyre powder using microwave thermogravimetric analysis : Effect of microwave power.
The product yields at different power levels were studied, along with comparative analysis of microwave pyrolysis and conventional pyrolysis. The feedstock underwent preheating, intense pyrolysis, and final pyrolysis in sequence. The main and secondary weight loss peaks observed during the intense pyrolysis stage were attributed to the decomposition of natural rubbers and synthetic rubbers, respectively. The total mass loss rates, bulk temperatures, and maximum temperatures were distinctively higher at higher powers.
However, the maximum mass loss rate 0. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns. In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis RQA and recurrence plots RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both.
First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns , as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.
Many Mars in situ instruments require fine-grained high-fidelity samples of rocks or soil. Included are instruments for the determination of mineralogy as well as organic and isotopic chemistry. Powder can be obtained as a primary objective of a sample collection system e. In the latter case, a properly designed system could be used to monitor drilling in real time as well as to deliver powder to analytical instruments which would perform complementary analyses to those later performed on the intact core.
In addition, once a core or other sample is collected, a system that could transfer intelligently collected subsamples of power from the intact core to a suite of analytical instruments would be highly desirable. We have conceptualized, developed and tested a breadboard Powder Delivery System PoDS intended to satisfy the collection, processing and distribution requirements of powder samples for Mars in-situ mineralogic, organic and isotopic measurement instruments.
As adulteration of foodstuffs with Sudan dye, especially paprika- and chilli-containing products, has been reported with some frequency, this issue has become one focal point for addressing food safety. FTIR spectroscopy has been used extensively as an analytical method for quality control and safety determination for food products. Thus, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of Sudan dye in paprika powder was investigated in this study.
The calibration and validation sets were designed to evaluate the performance of the multivariate method. The obtained results had a high determination coefficient R 2 of 0. The model was further validated using a second validation set and through the figures of merit, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limits of detection and quantification. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS technique was used to compare various types of commercial milk products.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were investigated for the determination of the elemental composition of soy and rice milk powder , dairy milk, and lactose-free dairy milk. The analysis was performed using radiative transitions.
In addition, proteins and fat level in milks can be determined using molecular emissions such as CN bands. Ca concentrations were calculated to be 2. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis methods showed that the contents of major mineral elements were higher in lactose-free dairy milk than those in dairy milk.
The principal component analysis PCA method was used to discriminate four milk samples depending on their mineral elements concentration. In addition, proteins and fat level in dairy milks were determined using molecular emissions such as CN band.
We applied partial least squares regression PLSR and simple linear regression SLR models to predict levels of milk fat in dairy milk samples. The attention to sustainability-related issues has grown fast in recent decades. The experience gained with these themes reveals the importance of considering this topic in the construction industry, which represents an important sector throughout the world.
This work consists on conducting a multicriteria analysis of four cement powders , with the objective of calculating and analysing the environmental, human health and socio-economic effects of their production processes. The economic, technical, environmental and safety performances of the examined powders result from official, both internal and public, documents prepared by the producers.
The Analytic Hierarchy Process permitted to consider several indicators i. As assumed in this study, the contribution of each considered parameter to the overall sustainability has a different incidence, therefore the procedure could be used to support on-going sustainability efforts under different conditions. The results also prove that it is not appropriate to regard only one parameter to identify the 'best' cement powder , but several impact categories should be considered and analysed if there is an interest for pursuing different, often conflicting interests.
Evidence from x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns that the so-called icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals of MnAl 6 and other alloys are twinned cubic crystals. It is shown that the x-ray powder diffraction patterns of rapidly quenched MnAl 6 and Mg 32 Al,Zn 49 and the neutron powder diffraction pattern of MnAl 6 are compatible with the proposed atom primitive cubic structure [Pauling, L. The values found for the edge of the unit cube are Evidence from x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns that the so-called icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals of MnAl6 and other alloys are twinned cubic crystals.
It is shown that the x-ray powder diffraction patterns of rapidly quenched MnAl6 and Mg32 Al,Zn 49 and the neutron powder diffraction pattern of MnAl6 are compatible with the proposed atom primitive cubic structure [Pauling, L.
Kinetic products in coordination networks: ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Porous coordination networks are materials that maintain their crystal structure as molecular "guests" enter and exit their pores. They are of great research interest with applications in areas such as catalysis, gas adsorption, proton conductivity, and drug release. As with zeolite preparation, the kinetic states in coordination network preparation play a crucial role in determining the final products.
Controlling the kinetic state during self-assembly of coordination networks is a fundamental aspect of developing further functionalization of this class of materials. However, unlike for zeolites, there are few structural studies reporting the kinetic products made during self-assembly of coordination networks. Synthetic routes that produce the necessary selectivity are complex.
The structural knowledge obtained from X-ray crystallography has been crucial for developing rational strategies for design of organic-inorganic hybrid networks. However, despite the explosive progress in the solid-state study of coordination networks during the last 15 years, researchers still do not understand many chemical reaction processes because of the difficulties in growing single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction: Fast precipitation can lead to kinetic metastable products, but in microcrystalline form, unsuitable for single crystal X-ray analysis.
Recent advances in structure determination of microcrystalline solids from ab initio XRPD have allowed three-dimensional structure determination when single crystals are not available. Thus, ab initio XRPD structure determination is becoming a powerful method for structure determination of microcrystalline solids, including porous coordination networks. Because of the great interest across scientific. Rosa, R.
Gradient pattern analysis GPA is a well-established technique for measuring gradient bilateral asymmetries of a square numerical lattice. This paper introduces an improved version of GPA designed for galaxy morphometry. The results suggest that the second gradient moment, G2, has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional morphometric parameters.
Gradient pattern analysis applied to galaxy morphology. Phase quantification by X-ray photoemission valence band analysis applied to mixed phase TiO2 powders. A method of quantitative phase analysis using valence band X-ray photoelectron spectra is presented and applied to the analysis of TiO2 anatase-rutile mixtures.
The valence band spectra of pure TiO2 polymorphs were measured, and these spectral shapes used to fit valence band spectra from mixed phase samples. Given the surface sensitive nature of the technique, this yields a surface phase fraction. Mixed phase samples were prepared from high and low surface area anatase and rutile powders. In the samples studied here, the surface phase fraction of anatase was found to be linearly correlated with photocatalytic activity of the mixed phase samples, even for samples with very different anatase and rutile surface areas.
We apply this method to determine the surface phase fraction of P25 powder. This method may be applied to other systems where a surface phase fraction is an important characteristic. In the LPCGDS process, pressurized compressed gas is accelerated to the critical velocity, which depends on length of the divergent section of nozzle, the propellant gas and particle characteristics, and the diameters ratio of the inlet and outer diameters.
This paper presents finite element modeling FEM of powder stream in supersonic nozzle wherein adiabatic gas flow and expansion of gas occurs in uniform manner and the same is used to evaluate the resultant temperature and velocity contours during coating process. The results are helpful to predict the characteristics of powder stream at the exit of the supersonic nozzle. The analysis of carbohydrates in milk powder by a new "heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method.
In this study, a new"heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate contents in milk powder was presented. In this two dimensional liquid chromatography system, a Venusil XBP-C4 analysis column was used in the first dimension 1 D as a pre-separation column, a ZORBAX carbohydrates analysis column was used in the second dimension 2 D as a final- analysis column.
The whole process was completed in less than 35min without a particular sample preparation procedure. The capability of the new two dimensional HPLC method was demonstrated in the determination of carbohydrates in various brands of milk powder samples. A conventional one dimensional chromatography method was also proposed.
The two proposed methods were both validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, accuracy and precision. The comparison between the results obtained with the two methods showed that the new and completely automated two dimensional liquid chromatography method is more suitable for milk powder sample because of its online cleanup effect involved. Published by Elsevier B. The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America.
They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns , and prey thresholds.
These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance ANOVA in the program JmpPro12 SAS Institute, Crary, NC to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved.
I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density. Scanning pattern angle effect on the resulting properties of selective laser sintered monolayers of Cu-Sn-Ni powder.
Laser-based layer manufacturing of metals, also known as additive manufacturing, is a growing research field of academic and industrial interest. However, in the associated laser-driven processes i. This research aims at determining how the angle of laser scanning pattern i. A noticeable effect of the scan angle on the mechanical strength and degree of densification of the sintered specimens is found.
Thickness of the resulting monolayer correlates negatively with increasing scan angle, whereas relative density correlates positively. It is concluded that angle of the scanning pattern angle plays a significant role in SLS of metallic monolayers. Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis TGA.
For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon PAC adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants WWTP. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix. Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis TGA , which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials.
This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping.
A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0.
They have been treated from a qualitative point of view so far because quantitative analysis method has not be established. In this paper, the authors proposed and investigated some quantitative analysis methods of density and orientation of trabecular patterns observed in a bone.
These methods can give an index for evaluating orientation of trabecular pattern quantitatively and have been applied to analyze trabecular pattern observed in a head of femur and their availabilities are confirmed. Key Words: Index of pattern orientation, Trabecular pattern , Pattern density, Quantitative analysis. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns. Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern-analysis and pattern -recognition computational systems.
These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state-variable model SVM , which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern -recognition, tracking, and data-reduction data preprocessing applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets.
Spiking neurons imitate biological neurons more closely than do the neurons of traditional artificial neural networks. A spiking neuron includes a central cell body soma surrounded by a tree-like interconnection network dendrites. Spiking neurons are so named because they generate trains of output pulses spikes in response to inputs received from sensors or from other neurons.
They gain their speed advantage over traditional neural networks by using the timing of individual spikes for computation, whereas traditional artificial neurons use averages of activity levels over time. Moreover, spiking neurons use the delays inherent in dendritic processing in order to efficiently encode the information content of incoming signals. Because traditional artificial neurons fail to capture this encoding, they have less processing capability, and so it is necessary to use more gates when implementing traditional artificial neurons in electronic circuitry.
Such higher-order functions as dynamic tasking are effected by use of pools collections of spiking neurons interconnected by spike-transmitting fibers. The SVM includes adaptive thresholds and submodels of transport of ions in imitation of such transport in biological.
Introducing a novel gravitation-based high-velocity compaction analysis method for pharmaceutical powders. With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output. Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die.
The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression.
The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen. Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. Analysis of autofluorescence pattern in birdshot chorioretinopathy. To characterize and correlate the different patterns of fundus autofluorescence FAF in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy BSCR , with functional and anatomical parameters.
Twenty-one BSCR patients were prospectively studied in and The disease was classified as active, chronic, or quiescent. The patients' mean age was Disease duration was 5. Macular hypo-FAF was associated with a history of macular edema Autofluorescence analysis in BRSC patients contributes to evaluating disease activity and could be useful to guide follow-up and treatment. Experimental analysis for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio piezoelectric ceramic structure by micro- powder injection molding process.
Aspect ratio effects in the micro- powder injection molding process were experimentally analyzed for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio piezoelectric ceramic structure. The mechanisms of critical defects have been studied according to individual manufacturing steps. In the molding process, incomplete filling phenomenon determines the critical aspect ratios of a micro pattern.
According to mold temperature, an incomplete filling phenomenon has been analyzed with respect to different pattern sizes and aspect ratio. In demolding and drying process, the capillary behavior of sacrificial polymeric mold insert determines the critical aspect ratio of a micro pattern. With respect to pattern dimensions, slumping behavior has been analyzed. Based on our current systems, micro PZT feature has stability when it has lower aspect ratio than 5.
Further modification points to fabricate the smaller and higher feature were specifically addressed. New technique for the direct analysis of food powders confined in a small hole using transversely excited atmospheric CO 2 laser-induced gas plasma. Taking advantage of the differences between the interactions of transversely excited atmospheric TEA CO 2 lasers with metal and with organic powder , a new technique for the direct analysis of food powder samples has been developed.
In this technique, the powder samples were placed into a small hole with a diameter of 2 mm and a depth of 3 mm and covered by a metal mesh. The TEA CO 2 laser mJ, ns was focused on the powder sample surfaces, passing through the metal mesh, at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off of sample, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma.
The confined powder particles are then ablated by laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited; this method cannot be applied for the case of Nd:YAG lasers because in such case the metal mesh itself was ablated by the laser irradiation.
A quantitative analysis of a milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision. This paper presents the results of a multidimensional analysis to investigate stylistic patterns and their communicative functions in language teaching research articles. The findings were that language teaching research articles contained six stylistic patterns and communicative functions.
Pattern I consisted of seven salient positive features…. Neutral model analysis of landscape patterns from mathematical morphology. Mathematical morphology encompasses methods for characterizing land-cover patterns in ecological research and biodiversity assessments. This paper reports a neutral model analysis of patterns in the absence of a structuring ecological process, to help set standards for comparing and interpreting patterns identified by mathematical morphology on real land-cover maps.
Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition methods. A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques.
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