Some bookies ask for it right after your registration, some may not ask until you start withdrawal. If you have such a reliable source then you need a reliable VPN. What we suggest are , On top of the information I share in this report, do your own research until you feel comfortable. Assuming you prefer bookies integrated account, get the demo account before you start with the real money. Every bet broker I provided the information will give you the log-in info immediately after your request via contact.
If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. About Us. Contact GEM. What are the benefits of a Bet Broker and Who should use it? Simply because bet broker is placing the bets on your behalf. Best Odds in industry 2.
High Stake Limit 3. No Account Restriction 4. Bet broker arbitrage. Reduced Betting Exchange Commission — You may be able to enjoy lower commission such as 2. Increase Efficiency — You can select Single Integrated Account from which you can place all of your bets at multiple bookies. I paste a screenshot of the platform of bet brokers review later, which will give you an idea of how it works.
The looks like; Click to Enlarge. It covers 13 bookies in 1 account. The interface looks like; Click to Enlarge. The interface looks like; Click To Enlarge. E Gambling Montenegro d. Podgorica, Moskovska br. AA , numeric no. Podgorica, Cetinjski put bb, reg. More details about the license, E-gambling Montenegro and handling of complaints: www. It is considered to be the fastest betting software for live odds and bets.
Dear Yana, You are obliged to take proper KYC process irrespective of the payment method, especially you manage gambling business which requires strict age limitation in all countries. Unlike other bet brokers Sportmarket never lay any part of the bets, we only act as an intermediate between the players and the bookmakers.
Our income comes from a small commission that we receive from the bookmakers regardless if a player wins or loses. If the customer wins, bookmaker pays their share x odds, and agent pays his share x odds. If there is no position-taking, all EUR 2, will go to the bookmaker and there is no any kind of financial risk from the broker end. Whatever distaste Chan may have felt toward gambling evaporated in light of the profits he then envisioned.
At first, he conducted his arbitrage by placing bets under his own accounts at competing bookmakers. Soon, Chan realized he could do the same thing on a much larger scale by placing bets on behalf of high rollers while still collecting the arbitrage spread for himself. Staking too large a sum would, after all, alert the bookmakers, as well as the wider betting public, that a so-called whale was making a move.
Chan was also selling something more: By exploiting his old Hong Kong connections, he was the first aboveboard bet broker in the UK to offer access to the Asian markets, whose high volumes allowed for bigger bet sizes and lower transaction costs, Chan says. Chan called his new firm Samvo, an English transliteration of the Cantonese characters for harmony and three—a name borrowed, Chan says, from a family business run by his great-grandfather and two grand-uncles a century ago.
To help him get started, Chan hired the former head of information technology at Sun Microsystems Inc. The IT manager, who had specialized in building computer platforms for financial-trading firms, did the same thing for Samvo, creating a partially automated system that would seek out the best prices at different bookmakers. To handle clearings and settlements, Chan borrowed the same logbook and order-fulfillment documentation used by brokerages to record their trades.
Employees refer instead to prices, value and expected rate of return. All is quiet, and then, as if responding to some imaginary opening bell, the instant messages start piling up from clients across the globe. By midafternoon on this day, the talk has turned to the match at Villa Park. Earlier, several syndicate clients had instructed Samvo to bet on the underdog home team, Aston Villa.
In other words, Samvo has taken the other side of the wager in its entirety. Information goes in; probabilities come out. Petite and trim, the Hong Kong born mother of two received her undergraduate degree in economics and mathematics from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
For one thing, she says, Samvo is careful to spread its risk across many bets in many matches in many leagues; its portfolio, in other words, is diversified. For another thing, Tang has an abiding faith in the Samvo model, which has predicted that Liverpool will cover the three-quarter-point spread. As Tang is explaining this, Liverpool scores. A proprietary trader named Sam Fleming, who has been at his desk for the past 14 hours, whoops in celebration.
On this occasion, at least, the model delivers: When time expires in Villa Park, Liverpool is on top, 1 to 0. Despite his success, Chan believes the bet-brokering business as it now exists is past its prime. Click here to read the Mint ePaper Mint is now on Telegram. Join Mint channel in your Telegram and stay updated with the latest business news.
Looks like you have exceeded the limit to bookmark the image. Remove some to bookmark this image. You are now subscribed to our newsletters. New career In , Chan began hunting for a new career.
Once the match gets underway, the baton is passed to the six in-play traders positioned behind him who are intently focused on their banks of monitors. Bedecked in t-shirts, skinny jeans and varying degrees of facial hair, the vibe is more tech start-up than Wolf of Wall Street. Radio waves, however, travel at the speed of light. Despite high expectations for goals, the chances in the opening 20 minutes are few and far between. A similar result here would be a huge bonus.
On 26 minutes, Neymar soars to meet a Dani Alves cross but his header is clawed away by Mexico goalkeeper Guillermo Ochoa. However, Brazil struggle to make the breakthrough and the largely uneventful first half ends goalless, which means backers of Brazil winning both halves have done their dough. Punters from a bygone era tended to congregate in smoky man-caves on the high street to have a flutter on the horses or gangly mutts pursuing a motorised hare around a sandy oblong.
Nowadays football, not racing, is the sport of choice for young gamblers who only need to reach for their smartphones to place a bet. These firms are renowned for taking large bets on these low-margin markets. Over bets on this outcome are staked in under a minute. Soon after, 1, of the 8, mobile customers currently online have gobbled up the carrot being dangled on the stick. Muller netted again in the 78th minute, creating a nail-biting climax. Luckily for them, the match finished In the end, though, neither side is able to score.
To top if off, Russia could only manage a draw. As the old adage states, the house always wins. Well, most of the time anyway. FourFourTwo Football news, features, statistics. Of these most were paid for using a credit or debit card at 47 per cent though PayPal also received 29 per cent of payments. The most popular games on the market were bingo 38 per cent , poker 22 per cent , lottery 10 per cent , roulette 9 per cent , slots 6 per cent and blackjack 5 per cent.
One particularly interesting find by the report was that, in the Latin American and Spanish markets, the number of female players of social casino games far outstrips their male counterparts at 70 per cent to 30 per cent. These players were also asked for their reasons for playing to which a total of 67 per cent stated it was to relieve stress.
Other reasons included helping with mental stimulation 49 per cent , enjoying the competitive spirit of the games 16 per cent whilst social interaction was the main reason given by 28 per cent of those surveyed. So you can keep out age cheats and stay on the right side of the law. ComRes polled over 2, members of the British public and interviewed marketers across the sector.
The commitment of online gambling brands to supporting initiatives aimed at problem gambling also. More generally, one in five British adults say they would be likely to place a bet with an online gambling company that they could see demonstrated corporate responsibility. This proportion increases to almost half specifically among those who currently gamble online.
Tax was also tackled with 77 per cent wanting online gambling companies to pay tax in all the countries in which they operate, not only in the country in which. Half 52 per cent of those who have ever gambled online said that knowing this is an important factor in driving them to visit the site of an online gambling brand.
Alongside charitable investments towards problem gambling, half of those who have ever gambled online also say that imposing limitations on spending is an important factor in driving them to use an online gambling website. This is almost as much of a factor as the name of the brand itself, which is important for 46 per cent of those who have ever gambled online.
Our report shows that effectively communicating a responsible approach has more sway with the public than we think - and can have a direct impact on not just perception but consumer activity. While men are more likely than women to say that they currently gamble online - 28 per cent compared with 18 per cent women are more likely than men to be loyal to one online gaming website.
Of those that have ever gambled online, 41 per cent of British women say they use or have used only one provider, compared with 30 per cent of British men saying the same. Operators will not be rushing to transfer some of their marketing budget over to socially responsible projects at any rate. However, a heightened awareness of the activities that operators already carry out would be no bad thing indeed, 61 per cent of the British public think this would be likely to increase public awareness of problem gambling.
A year-old Betsson customer has scooped 7. Money is not everything, but this is absolutely wonderful for me. And then I want to buy a house! That has been a dream of mine for a long time. We understand that this is all orchestrated to frustrate us to cause us to tire and slink away into oblivion. Amongst those limited jurisdictions that offer e-Gaming licences, the island takes a leading role in the areas of customer protection, fraud prevention, tax transparency and anti-money laundering.
Discussions in Poland over the gambling laws look set to open the door to EU operators for the first time, as long as they comply with Polish tax frameworks regarding gambling. Operators will have to supply documents in Polish, but for the first time it seems that they will not have to physically locate themselves in the country in order to offer gambling. It has been reported that Poland will fast track the online gambling legislation with a view to have the necessary framework for foreign operator licensing by the first quarter of I can therefore confirm there are no planned redundancies.
I was also encouraged by their public. We are confident that growth within e-Gaming and the broader e-Business sector will continue such that it will represent 23 per cent of our economy by and employ 2, people. Having legalised online gaming, New Jersey is putting a lot of effort into introducing sportsbetting back into the state as well. However, when presented with the opportunity to review the law last month, the US Supreme Court passed, leaving New Jersey with a commitment to go it alone.
They said no, so we have to move on. This objection was upheld by two federal courts, leading to the failed NJ appeal at the Supreme Court last month. But, New Jersey is using the disappointment as a springboard with Democrat Senator Ray Lesniak acting as the standard bearer.
The state has already passed legislation that could pave the way for change, bypassing the Federal ban by repealing old state laws prohibiting sports betting at casinos and horse tracks and allowing private companies to have sports wagering operations without state regulation.
This is an opportunity to kick-start this industry in a way that is unprecedented along the East Coast and generate substantial revenue for our state as a whole. The business building initiative, which is designed to drive footfall to pubs, and awareness and engagement with live televised games in pubs, gives licensees a certain quota of free bets - for both them and their customers.
We have seen betting become our customers as it can add another dimension to watching the game. ANALYSIS One of the challenges still facing potential sports betting suppliers into New Jersey is the willingness for Governor Chris Christie to sign a another sports betting bill into law, especially with a Presidential Election looming and Christie still in the running for a nomination to take a run at the big chair.
It might not be politically prudent for a potential Republican President to be endorsing a Democrat bill which worms its way around Federal laws, regardless of how much he might agree with it. W Paddy Power has traded on its notoriety by making people belive that it would chop down part of the Amazon for a marketing stunt. The elaborate Shavetherainforest stunt made it appear that thousands of trees had just been felled to garner support for the England squad.
World Cup warm-up. At least it gave people something to get animated about during the England-Honduras bore fest. The gambling and social marketing specialists finally came clean. Efforts to help raise awareness of the crisis facing our rainforests are always welcome, and we hope that the World Cup bringing the eyes of the world to Brazil will lead to a.
The widely renowned theoretical physicist devised a winning formula on how to take the perfect spot kick. The author of The Grand Design found the conditions that suit the Three Lions by analysing 45 matches played since and penalties. In terms of social media, our AskScholes hashtag was trending organically for more than two hours with more than 30m potential impressions. The partnership will allow both parties to tweet up to 10 match highlights until after the final.
Twitter Amplify believes highlight reels can kick start conversations and target diverse audiences. Stamford has a population of more than ,, is home to a thriving financial district and is situated close to the border with New York. The Stamford venue, which is a redevelopment of an existing building, is scheduled for completion in and will consist of a.
Headquartered in San Francisco, California, WatchandWager conducts US licensed advanced deposit pool wagering and racetrack operations. This contract was signed last month, and then in accordance with New York statute, was formally approved to go live by the New York State Gaming Commission, allowing live wagering to commence just in time for the Belmont Stakes, which featured the Triple Crown seeking California Chrome.
The agreement is an annual contract and also covers the rights to video streaming of the races as well as pari-mutuel wagering rights. Ed Comins, president of WatchandWager. Coverage of the Belmont was huge within the US and internationally with all sources handle 32 per cent up on previous years, and NBC reporting the highest sporting viewership figures since the Sochi Olympics.
The ground floor will comprise a sports bar and restaurant, with giant television screens, while the upper. Like Bradley, Stamford will be operated in partnership with baseball legend Bobby Valentine, a resident of Stamford and restaurant entrepreneur. We are the only licensed operator of betting in Connecticut, and are confident Bradley and Stamford can fill a gap in the leisure market.
BetVIP makes debut as first bitcoin-only sportsbook With a number of bitcoin-enabled casinos on the market it was inevitable that someone should try their hand at a bitcoin sportsbook before too long. Bitcoin has caused controversy due to its lack of a central regulator and also how it can be used outside of conventional monetary controls, but its popularity is steadily increasing. BetVIP takes wagers and pays out winnings exclusively in bitcoin and only accepts bets in regulated markets.
It has offices in Malta and South Africa and holds a gaming licence in Curacao. Schwartzkopff, a South African business executive with a proven background in the start-up, technology and social networking sectors. There is a massive opportunity to provide both a secure and reliable platform for bitcoin holders and take on the traditional online sportsbooks.
He launched BetVIP to allow bettors to benefit from the fast transactions and low costs of bitcoin exchange. We are conscious of issues that have surrounded these activities but also can identify serious and credible entrants to the market wishing to explore this innovative technology. Therefore, the government has instructed the relevant departments and statutory bodies to ensure there is a regime that promotes both business opportunities but also applies appropriate anti-money laundering requirements.
This is not at this stage expected to embrace a full prudential suite of requirements, so consumers will need to be aware of this when making their decisions. Ladbrokes is trialling a new style of shop on The Strand in London, designed by agency FITCH, in order to differentiate Ladbrokes from the normal traditional format of the betting shop. According to MarketingWeek, a social hub at the centre of the store encourages visitors watch events together while it also lets them monitor social media traffic via tablet devices.
Also available is Wi-Fi, phone charging plates and complimentary coffee. Tristan McDonald, manager and founder of Stakes and Ladders, an innovative pools betting exchange, discusses the need and niche of social gaming, and the challenges facing start-up businesses. Our games are set up more like poker tournaments: the prize-fund could be split between any number of players, it all depends on how many entries there are to the pool. Betfair - as the inventor of the betting exchange - is our inspiration here.
But Betfair is becoming more like a bookmaker every day. We would like to do for pools betting what Betfair has done for odds-betting. I would describe our business model as a mixture of Betfair, i-poker and the traditional pools we all know so well. How has the forthcoming point of consumption tax altered your plans? How does the business We established our busimodel differ from online ness in the UK and are sportsbook operators?
We are initially only accepting customers from the UK and the Republic of Ireland. We applaud the introduction of stricter regulation in the gambling industry, which generally has a poor reputation from a regulatory perspective. We want to achieve this as a B2B model of white-labelled gateways we call them hosts into our pools engine i-pools. Online pools sit comfortably in the space between betting and social gaming: we are seeing the edges of each become more and more blurred, as everincreasing access to real time data and an overall surge in transparency rapidly changes the playing field for sports punters, fantasy league players and general sports fans.
I hope players will like the innovative forms of betting that the social pools platform allows: fantasy league betting, last longest pools and private pools on virtually anything. Finally, how has the World Cup impacted on revenue and player subscriptions, plus any predictions? We are really enjoying the World Cup and have benefited from the general noise surrounding it through sign ups and increased traffic.
Our real marketing budget targets are affiliate partners and hosts i. The biggest deal secured so far involves Asian facing brand Fun88, which has signed a deal to become shirt sponsor for newly promoted Burnley for the next two seasons. It is the second time Fun88 has sponsored Burnley FC, as the operator was the official betting partner for the Lancashire-based football club during its Premiership campaign. Burnley chief executive. UK licence to be able to advertise in the Premier League to its Asian clients, although not all operators have had the same view.
These ambitions echo our own as we look to grow and expand into new territories and this agreement is a key vehicle in broadening the awareness of our brand and helping us reach our strategic goals. The Responsible Gambling Trust has challenged people working in the gambling industry to walk the length of the Great Wall of China to help raise money for the charity. Members are to work together to enhance common interests in such issues as technological advances in totalisator and wagering operations; commingling standards and the harmonisation of betting rules; the sustainable funding of the racing industry; providing responsible wagering services; combating illegal and unauthorised wagering operators; and customer and marketing initiatives.
The falling field size per race has caused the BHA to have a good look at what it can do to reverse the decline. While the consultation relates specifically to the Fixture List, the questions it raises are deemed critical to ensuring that British Racing is able to thrive in the long-term. The consultation focuses on the impact of the fairly recent and significant decline in field sizes and increased number of small fields across all codes - and the ensuing repercussions on the competitive nature of racing and therefore its attractiveness to the end consumer, including racegoers, viewers at home and in the betting shop, or overseas.
Unless this trend is reversed, we are in danger of continuing. An improvement of performance in field sizes to create value as a betting product will position the sport to optimise future returns from the principal revenue streams that drive prize money. Importantly, it should be recognised that improved performance in this area will help to sustain and enhance the performance of the betting industry; a key partner and contributor to the sport.
Although in there was virtually the same number of fixtures run as in , there were more races run with 10, races in compared to 9, in This increase in races has coincided with a significant decline in the horse population of well over 1, horses. BHA believes that race planning measures alone will not be sufficient to meet competitive targets, and so the prospect of a reduction in the number of races from seven to six at certain fixtures during specific times of the year is also being explored as part of a multilayered approach.
Where appropriate and supported. Our research has identified these pinch-points during the year which require attention. We are advocating a targeted approach to address specific issues, in order to build a platform from which the sport can prosper and which would underpin the wider ranging strategies for growth that are currently under development. ANALYSIS The numbers are stark and racing finds itself in a difficult position as the BHA acknowledges that it has no idea if removing races with smaller fields to bump up the numbers in other races will have a positive or negative effect on betting turnover.
The betting industry has played its own part in this, wanting both high quality racing and enough racing content around the clock to appeal to customers. However, with bookmakers now ever more adept at sourcing betting content of greater geographical reach and variety, the pressure on racing to churn out figures is not as strong as it once was, and the reliance on the Levy is less because of the media rights payments through Turf TV.
So now is the time to try something out, before things start to get worse. The group, which represents 70 per cent of bookmakers and independent providers, said that the retail betting sector is in severe decline, having witnessed the closure of shops. This represents a 27 per cent drop in the total number of units since , resulting in the loss of approximately 1, staff.
It has continuously lobbied politicians and government, warning that jobs were at risk because of delays implementing the legislation, which would extend opening hours and reform the taxation system. In a recent statement, the IBA added that the Department of Finance has made several changes over the last four months which will extend the term for online licences to two years, and give Revenue Commissioners powers to ensure betting tax is paid by online operators.
The bill is due to go before the Finance, Public Expenditure and Reform Committee, and then needs to pass through the Senate, back to the Irish government and be signed by the President. This year the association unveiled a new monitoring platform that is even more efficient and accessible. The new identity will serve to bring more visibility to our organisation and help build on the increasingly global reputation we have established as a trusted partner and facilitator of sports integrity.
The IBA met with the government chief whip, Paul Kehoe and is he acutely aware of the job losses looming if shops have to close from 6. Taxing online operators who have escaped the betting tax net for so long, and competing inside every betting shop in Ireland is also a huge driver for the government.
It also means that for the first time, the tables are turning, and betting shops are better positioned to compete with online operators, as they can open after 6. Extremely fast and accurate data transmission with the highest security standards All information available via XML feed for direct integration Complete match administration with profit-maximising Live Odds Over different markets including player, corner and booking related markets The perfect visual information source for all your trading decisions Optimised for all types of business.
For more information, please visit our website www. Figures suggest low crime figures for LBOs The Safebet Alliance has been revised in time to be met by statistics suggesting that betting shops are the magnet for crime that many people believe. Statistics compiled by the Association of British Bookmakers ABB suggest that this puts the betting industry on a par with fast food outlets and with far fewer incidents of crime than food stores, clothes shops or pubs.
As with any other retail business, bookmakers can and do suffer from crime, including robberies and work-related violence. The Safe Bet Alliance was formed in to tackle collectively these sorts of crimes - both as an industry and with law enforcement and other partners, including the Metropolitan Police, Community Union representing staff , Crimestoppers, local government and the Institute of Conflict Management. Their safety is our number.
It is also good that other retail sectors are looking at the SBA to develop their own industry-wide measures. These figures show that when industry and trade unions are prepared to work together in partnership that workplace safety improves significantly. We know that many betting shop workers are still concerned about their safety at work and that is why the ongoing work of the Safe Bet Alliance is central to sustaining and enhancing safety in the industry.
The collaboration of police, bookmakers and other key stakeholders has led to an initiative that has stood the test of time. Over half of the forces responded with the information. ANALYSIS While the number of incidents in betting shops is low compared to other retail outlets, the figures still suggest one in four have to report a crime over the course of a year. However low, the industry is still determined to reduce them even further and the current efforts at developing the Safebet standards with a widerange of stakeholders shows that the risks are being taken seriously.
The association suggests the two year grace period given to Germany for making its Inter State Treaty work will expire on 1 July and that as not a single sports betting licence has been granted under the Inter State. Operators are also advised to offer self-exclusion mechanisms which are quick and simple to implement. Among the priorities recommended in the review is the need to explore employee awareness and understanding of their responsibilities with regards to interacting with players who may be experiencing harm.
There are also several recommendations surrounding self-exclusion including a detailed consideration of the technical, operational and legal issues that will facilitate or constrain the range of solutions to the enforcement of self-exclusion, the need to investigate industry and player perspectives on more innovative approaches to self-exclusion and the identification and trial of technology to facilitate its enforcement. Despite the numerous drivers for more prescriptive, up-to-date guidelines for minimising gambling-related harm, there exists a dearth of reliable evidence.
The basic position must be one of careful and strategic consideration of effective options. The Schleswig-Holstein model has demonstrated over the last years that it can offer a reliable and safe gambling regulation for both operators and consumers. As no sports betting licence has been granted it is clear that this will not be possible and we call on the Commission to properly enforce EU law in Germany and open an infringement case for failure to comply with EU law.
The CJEU has concluded that having two different licensing systems in a federal state is not necessarily against EU law. Essential guide to Inbound business Politicians want operators to be licensed locally for consumer protection reason, despite the white label model introduced by the Gambling Act being a perceived success.
The main opposition to the new licensing regime is that it is just a front for a tax grab from the Treasury. Using deterrence, disruption, education and threat of prosecution Jenny Williams, CEO of the Gambling Commission, answers some questions on the forthcoming change in licensing regulations for online operators. Do you have a timescale for working through them? We are anticipating around We have identified those operators who already provide gambling facilities into Great Britain because they hold a licence or authorisation from an EEA or white listed jurisdiction and many of them have been actively engaging with the Commission about the application process.
The transitional arrangements set out in the Statutory Instrument enable operators who are currently able to provide facilities for gambling in Great Britain because they hold a licence in an EEA or white listed jurisdiction to continue to do so if their advance application for a Gambling Commission licence or licence variation has not been determined by 1 October Operators who meet this requirement must have submitted an advance application with the relevant application fee by midnight Greenwich Mean Time on 16 September to be eligible for a continuation licence.
If the application has not been determined by 1 October the applicant will be issued with a continuation licence that will enable them to continue to operate until completion of the application process. Operators in white label or EU jurisdictions are advised to apply for a UK licence by 16 September in order to receive transitional rights to continue to offer gambling in the country.
Operators in Gibraltar will need to obtain the same licences as any other operator wishing to provide services to customers in Britain. They will not be entitled to continuation licences and will not be able to continue advertising or offering gambling facilities to those in Britain from 1 October, How do you plan on enforcing the POC licensing? Our main tools will be deterrence, disruption, education and threat of prosecution.
Working with other regulators in the UK and overseas, and with key organisations such as advertising carriers and payments systems, we will use these tools to combat illegal activity and make it more attractive for operators to comply with our standards rather than try to compete in the black market. Specifically, the Commission will enforce the remote reforms introduced by the Gambling Licensing and Advertising Act in the following ways: First, the Commission can take, and has taken, action against illegal advertising, and has already successfully worked with Google and Ebay for example to disrupt illegal advertising activity, and with Facebook to ensure they have procedures to identify illegal advertising.
This is important, as advertising is the lifeblood of so many operators. Second, the Commission is working in partnership with organisations that share its determination to tackle illegal or harmful activity. For example the Commission has reached an agreement with major payment systems organisations, notably Mastercard, PayPal and Visa Europe, to work together to block financial transactions with unlicensed operators which seek to use these payment systems for illegal purposes.
These three organisations will cover the vast majority of. Under the new regime, we will be able to make it clear to consumers, for example through the new kitemark, whether or not operators are licensed to transact with them. Fourth, the Gambling Commission has powers to prosecute. How will the Commission regulate firms that remain overseas? Gambling is not so different from other forms of ecommerce which are regulated without day to day physical access.
The technology and data used for remote gambling also offers great scope for effective less costly oversight of licensees and means of ensuring compliance and detecting noncompliance. Government consulting on overseas Levy liability Making changes to the Levy has always been an issue fraught with problems, but the coalition government is going to give it a go anyway.
As such, the government has since launched a very late, two-month long consultation on the matter in order to catch up with itself, but changes to the Levy framework have historically been complicated and ultimately unsuccessful. Underlining that fact is the knowledge that the legislation necessary to abolish the Levy was actually passed 10 years ago, yet it remains as the best option for the betting industry to fund horseracing.
The Act gives the Secretary of State power to make regulations to secure that the bookmakers liable to pay the Levy include bookmakers who are required to hold a remote operating licence from the Gambling Commission. This will include the offshore bookmakers who will be required to obtain a remote operating licence as a result of that Act. However, the consultation underlines the extent of changes it will have to make. If any government proposal sought to extend liability for Levy beyond such persons, it is likely to be ultra vires.
The government wants this extended globally, so any overseas operators licensed in the UK will have to pay Levy on all their British horseracing business, regardless of where that custom originates. Given that successive governments have shied away from testing the Levy under European state aid rules, it would suggest that the mechanism would not have a leg to stand on under such scrutiny.
However there has been some developments in this area which might mean the Levy is slightly more robust than previously thought. In June , the European Commission ruled that the French decision to take a parafiscal levy from online horserace betting was an adequate measure to ensure fairness between gambling operators in contributing towards the costs of organising horseraces, to ensure the quality of the races, and the positive effects that flow to the breeding of horses and the wider horse and rural sector.
It also found that it would not distort the European market for horseracing. Given that parliament will be dissolved on 30 March for the General Election, this timetable seems ambitious. Consultation responses are required by 21 August, so stakeholders are advised to get their voices heard now or face the possibility of missing the boat.
You can just envisage the consulting lawyer asking the directors to sit down before breaking the news. Aside from the huge drag of the 15 per cent remote gambling tax on profits, there are a host of other additional costs just waiting to eat at the bottom line.
Have I mentioned that all your software is about to increase in price as the new law is forcing the majority of your supply chain to go through the licensing process as well? Who is your nominated third party arbitration service? I suggest you give IBAS a call and ask how much it is to sign up with them.
It is possible that betting operators might attempt to pass a share of the Levy to consumers through worse odds, with a knock-on impact on consumer demand and, potentially, Levy yield. In all likelihood, however, this sort of effect will be mitigated by the high degree of competition in the sector.
These effects are expected to be small in respect of the total size of the betting industry and the impact on viability and performance of the sector as a whole is likely to be limited. And it looks like the same will happen with the extension of the Levy. However, it seems that checking these details tends to be low down on the priority list for the regulator, judging by the complaints made from those with vested interests. But the liability is still there and is likely to go up in the future rather than down.
This is particularly true when you consider that the Treasury itself happily wrote off 20 per cent of the market to unregulated sites just so it could tax the other four fifths at 15 per cent. And they have the gall to suggest the changes are to improve consumer protection when not only will it criminalise some bookmakers but also reduce choice and value for the punter.
World-class business is the name of the game on the Isle of Man In an advertorial for the Isle of Man, Ray Davies, head of operations: e-gaming at the Department of Economic Development, explains why online gaming operators are still basing themselves in the jurisdiction. The Island is home to some of the most influential operators in the industry and the number of e-gaming licence holders continues to grow at a pace.
According to the latest statistics there are over top quality jobs and continued growth is expected. The reasons for this interest are numerous: the Island is recognised as a well regulated jurisdiction, and offers businesses a zero rate of corporate tax with no capital gains tax and low betting and gaming duty. The Island also benefits from a highly resilient world-class telecoms infrastructure and being an Island it has natural security and enjoys a stable economic, political and geographical environment.
It is self-sufficient when it comes to power infrastructure and is supported by sub-sea gas and electricity supplies again providing diversity and resilience. The Island has excellent professional service providers with expertise in eGaming and related services and provides valuable assistance when establishing a gaming company and ongoing support.
The Network Licence is of significant interest to the business-tobusiness model, where Isle of Man based operators can host players from other Isle of Man operators, foreign operators or directly through B2C provisions and white-labels.
The Island has attracted a cluster of supporting specialists and big industry names such as software providers Microgaming and Playtech. The Island is also at the fore-front of ensuring that provision is in place for foreign-based operators to continue trading should something happen.
This is generally ample time for the primary jurisdiction or the operator themselves to restore normal service. The level of protection is as strong as a trust but without the expense and gives the regulator the ability to repatriate money to players if required. Operators can take interest from the account, but cannot access the fund for operational purposes which mean that the customer is paid first and can therefore bet confidently.
Player protection has recently come into focus as an important requirement from players and for operators wishing to reassure their players that their monies are in safe hands. Crucially this means that in the unlikely event that the company becomes unable to continue to trade, as the player funds are protected under legislation, they are not determined to be operational capital and are therefore not available to the liquidator. So player protection does exactly what it says, it protects player funds whilst those funds are under the temporary custody of an eGaming operator.
If anything happens that prevents the operator from continuing to provide a service to its customers, they will be repaid all funds held in their name. Whilst this is clearly beneficial to players, who are secure in the knowledge that their money is safe. There is a significant incentive and benefit for operators that offer adequate player protection. In terms of their reputation, operators are able to make a valuable promise to their customers that they are operating in a safe and trust-worthy environment which in turn has a knock-on effect for brand-building in an increasingly competitive industry.
When considering further fund raising, operating in a regulated environment is extremely valuable in attracting corporate and private investment, and regulation that includes tried and trusted levels of player protection is even more so. All player funds including winnings are held with an Isle of Man licensed bank in a separate and segregated client account clearly designated as player funds and protected under Manx law from the company itself as well as its.
In the Isle of Man there is a close working relationship between business and Government, helping the Island to be in its 29th year of unbroken economic growth, with low unemployment and strong Government reserves. The Regulator recognises the important of ensuring ongoing communication with other regulators which naturally result in cooperative agreements that encourage consistent regulation for joint operators — essential for any thriving online industry. Looking forward, we are confident that we will see continued strong performance in the sector, though there will be various challenges for the Isle of Man to face going forward.
As part of the revamped regulations, the white list is expected to disappear and operators who have been able to sell or advertise into the UK from overseas because they have been regulated in a white list jurisdiction will be required under the new regime to hold a UK licence. We believe that operators should strongly consider basing themselves in the jurisdiction where they would like to be when they are successful as transferring operations to the most appropriate jurisdiction when they have achieved success can be more difficult.
In a global industry that is increasingly competitive and where consumers are demanding better services all the time, the Isle of Man offers an unbeatable combination: reputation, quality and business efficiency.
Ray has been employed within the public sector for over 24 years. He specialises in the development and implementation of strategy for the eGaming sector in the Isle of Man. He makes a key contribution to the formulation of policy and legislation, designed to ensure that the Island remains at the forefront of this industry.
Ray takes a keen interest in monitoring developments within the industry, understands the likely impact on the Island as a leading e-gaming jurisdiction and provides considered opinion, advice and guidance as required. Within this context, Ray is also responsible for liaison with the private sector, licence holders and relevant public sector organisations to address operational issues and in provides strategic support to potential new licence holders.
Ray has significant experience of working within the public sector and prior to his appointment worked in marketing where he is qualified to Masters Degree level, with significant experience in public sector financial services marketing. One lesser known effect is the change which relates to gambling software providers who supply to remote operators. Currently, the requirement to hold a gambling software licence applies to businesses based in Britain or based overseas but supplying to operators in Britain.
The implementation of the new Act removes from primary legislation the requirement for gambling software businesses that supply Gambling Commission-licensed operators based outside of Britain to hold a gambling software licence. To repair this hole the Gambling Commission have made changes to their Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice, adding in a new licence condition requiring remote operators to source their gambling software from Gambling Commission-licensed gambling software businesses.
Or, in other. This will provide assurance on the integrity of the product and minimise the risk of the unscrupulous profit from remote gambling or harm to the licensing objectives. The change presents difficulties within the supply change, particularly relating to whether software is gambling software. Gambling software supply chains can be long and complex. The Gambling Commission undertook a consultation workshop in January at which they agreed recognised these concerns and accepted that it would be difficult to ensure that all gambling software operators could comply with the proposed requirement if it were brought into effect during Therefore at present we expect the condition to come into force on the 30 January Gambling software is defined in Section.
Clearly, an operator providing a random number generator, or the game platform, provides gambling software. The Commission position is that any software which is designed for use in connection with remote gambling, that is intended to be used or is used by a gambling operator, to be gambling software.
The Commission do say that they do not believe licences are required for suppliers of software used by non-gambling businesses as well as gambling businesses, such as. For example, Microsoft, Oracle or Apple applications. However, the position is far from clear. The difficulty is that there are currently many gambling software providers out there, who provide to foreign operators who will soon be licensed by the Gambling Commission under the Gambling Licensing and Advertising Act They have a limited time, until the 30 January , to make applications and many will not yet understand whether they are actually supplying gambling software as defined by the Commission.
The Commission have said that they will be updating their advice on the circumstances in which a gambling software licence is likely to be needed. This cannot come soon enough. The GBGA argues that the new law is unnecessary, particularly given that Gibraltar has one of the most effective regulatory regimes in the world. It argues that a more effective means to promote consumer protection was rejected by the government without proper consideration or explanation.
This proposal, called Passporting, would ensure that highly experienced and effective local regulators retain responsibility for licensing their domestic industry but work with and share information with the Gambling Commission on a formally structured basis.
In addition, such passporting allows for the imposition of any necessary relevant UK regulatory requirements e. In financial passporting these are commonly known as Conduct of Business requirements. MGS is the only show that is truly representative of the Asian gaming industry. Visit the highly acclaimed Slot Experience Center. Gain invaluable knowledge at the Macao Gaming Summit.
The best networking in Asia Invaluable business networking opportunities. Get to know potential business partners in a relaxed and casual atmosphere. And we will even help pay your way! The five year deal will take the partnership between the two companies to June , 15 years after the commencement of the joint venture in Racing UK has signed a sponsorship deal with upcoming jockey Harry Bentley. SIS has formed a new agreement with PRD licence holder Racecourse Data Company to continue to supply the data to its retail and online customers until the end of PRD is generated by Weatherbys and is the key component of information required to take a bet.
It includes information on a racecard, such as final fields, owners, trainers, jockeys, weight, colours, draw and ratings. The agreement sanctions the distribution of PRD - both domestically and overseas - to newspapers, websites, TV and media businesses, mobile platforms, Pari-Mutuel operators, bookmakers, online betting companies, racing authorities and racecourses.
Additionally, there will be no extra charge to existing SIS customers who will be able to use the data for all purposes reasonably ancillary to their bookmaking operations, including the creation of own-brand text services and TV channels and use on betting websites and mobile platforms, but not passing on to third parties. For on-sellers and distributors, a charge will be payable depending on what customers are doing with the data.
The advantage of taking data from official rather than unofficial sources lies in its integrity. It is also a fact that the law and technology are developing at such a rate that sources of unofficial data can be ever more easily tracked and closed down by rights owners, which makes reliance on unofficial data unsustainable for most businesses. We will endeavour to work closely with our partners to showcase and expand interest in British horseracing by enhancing the way in which it is presented through existing and potential new data streams.
David Ross Fabrications Ltd Metalwork supplied from our designs or your own. Inspired brokers Columbia deal nspired Gaming Group has signed its first virtual sports customer in Colombia; Gentec the Betancur Group. The imminent change in legislation in Colombia expected later in the year will allow virtual sports betting in the country and Inspired will be the first to enter a new market.
The products are expected to go live before November and eventually be rolled out to over Gentec venues around the country. BetBOX enables any type of gaming, casino or lottery operator - including those without sportbooks - to broadcast a new virtual sports event every three minutes and take bets over-the-counter or on terminals.
Players can also view all the upcoming events. Each additional fixture will be similarly backed up with a full fixed-odds pricing service from the outset. Following this success we are therefore delighted to announce the addition of a third regular fixture. We will continue to look for ways to provide new and innovative content, helping to ensure that quality horse racing remains at the heart of the British LBO.
Coral takes Live Channel etradar has successfully launched its Live Channel for retail betting shops with Coral. The UK-based operator has already implemented the live sports channel in over shops across the country with the intention to rollout 1, shops within 12 months. Currently available at Pools. We are looking forward to working with Betfair to bring a world class pool betting system to customers of football and other sports in the near future.
The Betfair integration was hot on the heels of a similar deal with another betting exchange. Betdaq added the Colossus Bets product just ahead of the World Cup, with the Irish based sports betting ex-. With our products, BETDAQ has the ability to offer their exchange customers, unprecedented lottery-sized football jackpots and our patented Fractional Cash-In feature, a world first in betting. Partnering with Kambi, the market leading B2B sportsbook provider, enable us to offer a first-class product and bring a new quality in sports betting to our players.
This agreement is strategically important as it provides an entry point into a newly regulated geographic market. Sportnco sets up Zeturf rench betting platform supplier Sportncois now powering over half the operators in the French betting market after getting Zeturfup and running with a new sportsbetting facility for its French customers. It will also increase the number of markets on popular sports like football, basketball and tennis.
They have some big clients and want to improve the product they offer them, so our rich heritage in modelling, pricing and trading means we are the perfect partner to help them achieve that. The four organisations have joined forces to launch Tipmaster. The Oddslife platform engages sports fans using a free-to-play social betting game, allowing them to challenge friends and fellow countrymen, win virtual rewards, compete in live betting tournaments and interact socially within the community; all in a socially branded world, created and operated by local trusted sports media brands.
While we will all be following Greece this summer, Tipmaster will make all the other games at the tournament as vital to follow. We are especially excited about the global competition where our Greek fans will be able to challenge sports fans from other media partners across the Oddslife global network.
We will provide them with a market leading platform, consultancy and local country support and in return they provide us with marketing budgets and local operational expertise which are invaluable to any local partnership of this size. Digital demand up nline has overtaken print media for the consumption of sports content, according to a report from Perform, Kantar Media and SportBusiness Group.
This provides a number of opportunities to all stakeholders in the digital sports media industry, from rights holders and sports associations to devices. Fast markets give players an enhanced betting experience that allows them to predict whether a specific event such as a goal, corner, free kick, throw in or a card will take place during the next one or five minutes and see the outcome settled immediately.
Our main markets are very successful, and this is where we see the future in having accurate pricing. Good luck trying to display hundreds of markets in front of someone looking to place a bet on current live action!
Only last year we highlighted how we were matching the established groups with 11 per cent margins. Now we are seeing many clients achieving over 16 per cent. We pride ourselves on quality rather than quantity. That said, the team is currently in the process of developing substantially more markets for basketball and tennis as these are two growth areas, but it is important we get the pricing structure right before we go live. The Bit8 platform is going from strength to strength with the addition of the FSB sports betting product.
When we met the FSB team it was immediately obvious that their modern sports betting technology would work well on our product agnostic platform. FSB are in line with our thinking that the industry is ready to migrate away from legacy platforms. This partnership makes great commercial sense, it strengthens our position as a plat-. The sports betting platform is operated as a fully-managed service and greatly reduces the cost and labour required to participate in the regulated sports betting market.
The Bit8 platform offers an advanced bonus system that works across multiple product verticals and seamless wallet integration. The data mining and player segmentation, coupled with an artifi-. The result is an innovative series of four live sports betting games, which will be extended in the near future, providing punters a new, immersive and fun betting experience.
Customers demand new entertainment products and services from betting operators and this is exactly what we provide with In-Play Minigames. With a new betting cycle starting every 3 minutes in average, we convert any live event to a. Furthermore, NextUp: Soccer is a new football live betting game based on the concept of predicting the next match incident in a live soccer match and was also launched with this product update. Up to 30 spins and payouts per soccer match with betting markets continuously open throughout the match allow NextUp: Soccer to be the perfect second-screen betting solution.
Steven Spartinos, co-CEO of Kiron, said he was delighted to sign a multi-year licensing deal in a vibrant, emerging market at such a crucial time. Having complementary products like virtual sports available during a spike in activity will offer both choice and improved performance when they need it most. With Asian sports lottery Betradar betting solutions are currently supplying in-play data for more than 50, soccer and tennis matches annually with live odds for over different bet types.
With In-Play Minigames, Betradar makes. Jack Gold has been a real success and will run as normal. Our technology was always designed to launch additional brands with short lead times and little fuss. They also benefit from the economies of scale being able to run current and additional services under one service provider. Will your background in operating help you as a supplier?
Without a doubt, and not just our experience here. Everyone has worked with a leading operator before and appreciates the challenges and the needs of the end customer.
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HiWave also reported total assets of 5. Chairman David Bramwell said: will be tough and challenging but the company now has the team capable of meeting the challenges. Life insurers regained most of the ground lost the previous day, rising 2. The FTSE ended up The market, which traded at 85 per cent of its day volume aver- age, staged a short-lived rally in the afternoon as data from the US sug- gested that the worlds largest econ- omy is improving.
He is now lobbying sharehold- ers of the maker of cameras and medical equipment to support his reinstatement and replace the board with a new team that he is assembling. We saw a shameful state of the companys finances yesterday, but not one Japanese shareholder stood up and said publicly Mr Woodford is right, thank you Mr Woodford, anything, a total, an utter silence, Woodford said, a day after Olympus released its restated accounts.
At least three big foreign share- holders have backed Woodfords bid to return to the company, but not one Japanese shareholder or lender has openly supported him since he blew the whistle. The US equity market continued its familiar back-and-forth rota- tion between optimism about the US economy and fears Europes debt crisis could spark a global recession. Lately the fear trade has been winning, but FedEx boosted senti- ment.
Data showed weekly applica- tions for unemployment benefit fell to a three-and-a-half year low, while a gauge of New York state manufacturing activity rose to its highest level since May. The Dow Jones industrial aver- age was up The Nasdaq Composite Index was up 1. GBP Evans Group. Tsy 5. The exception must be Mark Makepeace, chief executive of the FTSE Group, who this week ruled all list- ings in London from next month must have a 25 per cent free float In enforcing this, he is potentially sending the City back into the dark ages.
Makepeace was reacting to concerns that the FTSE index has been hijacked by overseas commodity and ener- gy groups like ENRC, Ferrexpo and Fresnillo, who have listed in London but with a free float under 25 per cent. Some pension fund managers, particularly those that run index funds, have said this scarci- ty of stock made available to them serves to inflate the value of the company and give a free ride to those who refused to dilute their holding beyond the bare minimum. He is right to do so, the decision could end up making us a lost Britain as well.
That is what will happen if the National Association of Pension Funds gets its way. It believes the free float should ultimately be lifted to 50 per cent. Bankers, lawyers and accountants in Hong Kong, New York, Singapore and Shanghai must be rubbing their hands in glee at the business that will be heading their way. Remember Americas Sarbanes Oxley Act in , which was introduced after the dotcom boom? As well intentioned as it was, the overload of regulation to tighten up boardroom behav- iour sent the Big Apple into reverse.
This time round it is the City, the UKs most prized asset, that could be sent into a tailspin. It appears we have been denied a proper debate, not even one that discussed whether index funds should have an A or a B category, the latter category being for free floats below 25 per cent which they cant invest in.
Such a scheme would be simple, easy to implement and send out a message that we are still open for business. The UK has enough problems on its plate with- out being sidelined as a financial capital as well. Until this point the Citys willingness to act as a global stock exchange for emerging market com- modity stocks has directly plugged us into the main arteries of the world economy.
Commodities fed the last boom and if we are to feed the army of advisers in London we want them on our doorstep for the next boom. We are never going to find gold, aluminium or other minerals in the UK certainly in the quantities that are required but we can provide the finance, as well as the intellectual capital in legal, accountancy and other areas. Ever since the South African beer group SAB now SABMiller moved its primary listing to London in , it has been followed by a steady trickle of other overseas groups wanting to use the London market to finance global ambitions.
But it wasnt until six years ago that the trend accelerated on the back of the booming emerg- ing markets and the demand for commodities led by China. The City was one of the first finan- cial centres to spot the opportunity, and as a result companies from India and Mexico to Russia and Kazakhstan were lined up to list in London and enjoy a Western valuation.
However, it is the latest wave of Russian com- panies and the knowledge there are many more to come that has brought the tensions to the surface. When overseas groups listed here before there was a view that they were raising money to help finance international ambitions. Some fund managers believe that is not the case here, that fundraisings are this time more about lining the pockets of oligarchs.
Its a short-sighted view. We shouldnt be wor- ried about ownership, we should be concentrat- ing on the quality of the assets and the ability to invest in them. That is what matters, not that some oligarch will have another few billion added to his wealth. In time and through more corporate activity, oligarchs will dilute their holdings to increase the free float above 25 per cent. In the mean- time, so long as fund managers are confident in the independent boards appointed to police these companies and have assurances from the owners that they will not abuse their majority shareholding, then the City must ensure the door is kept open, not closed.
Most of us can still recall the dotcom boom when index funds piled into multibillion tech- nology flotations and went on to lose it all. We have since learned that the valuations attributed to those listings did come from outer space, which cannot be said about the emerging mar- ket companies.
A phalanx of advisers and experts spend many months holed up in various out- posts of the world to ensure that reserves are proven and the assets are genuine. If only that same level of diligence had been done back in the dotcom days. Got a sharp comment? The Forum wants you to join the debate. Top responses will be reprinted in The Forum. Earlier this year I might have said its tie-up with Microsoft was not so much a case of rearranging deckchairs on the Titanic as sending a diving team to the bottom of the ocean to drape bunting over its rusting shell.
I might have said it was duller than Canadas vast swathes of icy tundra. I might have said that its boss, Stephen Elop, could drop his trousers in front of the worlds press and nobody would bother looking. Thankfully the latter was never tested; what Elop dropped instead was the Lumia and I looked twice. Nokias latest handset is, against the odds, very good and it hasnt been shy about it.
Earlier this month it projected a gigantic light show onto Millbank to show it off. It shipped over Canadian DJ Deadmau5 to take care of the music the equation goes something like this: Deadmau5 is down with the kids you can tell by the number in his name Nokia knows who Deadmau5 is, ergo Nokia is down with the kids.
People Ive spoken to at the major networks say that, while the Lumia is selling, it isnt set- ting anything on fire. This hasnt deterred Nokia from announcing it will make a return to the US though; a market in which it has spectacularly failed to sell any phones in the past. It is staking a lot on this phone. So whats all the fuss about? The mobile market is all about what industry players insist on calling ecosystems Googles Android, Apples iOS and WP7 handsets are just a way of interacting with them.
And on this front, the Lumia works. Its sleek, its got a great camera and a vibrant screen although it falls down on its incredibly frustrating map software. Nokias decision to jump into bed with Microsoft is looking like a smart move. At the moment Microsoft has a great product that nobody uses somewhere between one and six per cent of the market, depending on who you ask. Almost exactly 10 years ago it was in a very similar position with its new Xbox games console.
Sonys PlayStation was flying high and Nintendo had its hardcore fan-base. So Microsoft threw money at the problem. Lots of it. It made a significant loss on each unit sold but, slowly, it chipped away at the competition. It is now the clear leader in the console space and neither Sony nor Nintendo look likely to catch up any time soon.
While a repeat of the financial promiscuity demonstrated back then is unlikely, rest assured Microsoft will make WP7 work. All of which is good news for Nokia. Its mar- keting boss Niels Munksgaard was ridiculed this week for saying young people are fed-up with iPhones and frustrated by Android, which is akin to the Liberal Democrats saying voters are sick of Labour and the Tories before suc- cumbing to yet another trouncing at the polls.
But there is a shade of truth behind the spin: I own phones running all three operating sys- tems. Whats in my pocket right now? A Nokia. Steve Dinneen is the deputy lifestyle editor for City A. All hail shale I wholeheartedly agree with Matt Ridley [In America, the shale gas revolution is creating jobs and growth, yesterday].
The country would be much richer for letting the shale gas industry compete on a level playing field with subsidised green energy. Crucially, doing so would spark much-needed industry in the north-west. Many people in Blackpool, which would be at the epicentre of the energy rev- olution, are struggling unem- ployment is around 9 per cent and rising.
Politicians obsess about rebal- ancing the economy, but rather than wasting money on wealth- destroying green jobs and enterprise zones, they should let the price mechanism decide. We have gas reserves that com- pare with those of Venezuela to tap into. Its about time we got our priorities in order.
Jim Stephens Speak your mind The Forum is open for you to take part. Got a sharp comment on one of todays columns or rapid response topics? Do you have another subject relating to business and the economy you want to share your opinion on? We want to hear your views. Readers are invited to comment on the web: cityam. The best responses will be reprinted in The Forum. He wasnt talking about the Eurozone, but he could have been. Its steadily-compounding financial disaster is an epic tale of failed responsibility, the consequence of spending without thought to the consequences.
And yet lazy references to PIIGS, while they point rightly to the dysfunctional choices made by some economies on the Eurozone periphery, are misguided, tilting the table to send the blame all one way. In truth, the Eurozone and the EU as a whole is a project in which responsi- bility is excluded as a matter of philosophical principle. Responsibility isnt a European word, dating instead to the American founding.
Mark Reibling has tracked its first published use to , with Federalist Paper 63 by James Madison, who says: I add as a sixth defect [which a senate should answer], the want, in some important cases, of a due responsibility in the government to the people. He adds This remark will, perhaps, appear not only new, but paradoxical. It must nevertheless be acknowledged, when explained, to be as undeniable as it is important.
Reibling finds that the first recorded use of the term was actually a little earlier than this, on 1 June , at the constitutional convention, and indeed by July Madison was already concluding The responsibility of all to the will of the community seemed to be generally admitted as the true basis of a well constructed government. The EU, of course, disagrees.
It is notorious for retaking referendums until it gets the result it wants. And it is telling that, as the Eurozone crisis continues, the cry is always for leadership, not for the will of euro-users to be consulted. Italians and Greeks have seen their entire governments given to technocrats. The growth of democracy worldwide after the fall of the Soviet Union has made it easy to forget the originality of the American constitution. It was designed not to introduce periodic voting to legitimise state power, but to upend the political philosophy of the old world, in which only men of exceptional virtue could be relied on to govern.
In the American vision, as Lawrence Goldman writes in his introduction to the Federalist Papers, we see a transition from a depend- ence on human virtue as the foundation of political society to a new confidence in the capacity of laws and institutions to make men live up to their obliga- tions. America is built on the idea that ordinary men and women can run the state, if their powers are limit- ed and their fellow-citizens can hold them responsible.
By contrast, the modern European project rests on an ancient, aristocratic belief: that grand central plans, bulldozed through without responsibility by a vast bureaucracy, will create a better world. The American founders understood that worldview too well to admire it. A representative for Massachusetts observed that public bodies feel no personal responsi- bility, and give full play to intrigue and cabal.
It is scarcely any wonder that a lack of responsibility has become visible on the Eurozones extremities it is a disease spread from the centre. Americas system was drawn up by geniuses to be run by ordinary men and women; Europes treaties have been drafted by ordinary minds to create a labo- ratory for philosopher-kings. Europe is finding that no leader is equal to that task. Its responsibility deficit must at last be paid off, and that means building a Europe of citizens, not of experimental subjects.
Marc Sidwell is the business features editor for City A. Europes responsibility deficit is out of control Email: theforum cityam. This fully refurbished apartment is on the top floor of a period townhouse and comes with a double bed- room, lounge, separate kitchen and shower room. Contact Wilfords London on Q.
I'm a homeowner with a property in central London - despite the fact that this area isn't directly affect- ed by the Olympics, I am keen to capi- talise from the influx of tourists coming to London in the summer, but where do I start?
Many homeowners across London are considering the option of a short let for their property, as demand from potential tenants for the Olympic peri- od starts to show itself. There are various points to consider in order to weigh up whether the ultimate income is worth the upheaval. Firstly, insurers and mortgage companies must be notified as permission may be needed and premiums increased. Local councils should also be consulted as some have restrictions on short lets, and planning permission can even be required.
Provision of efficient property management will be important as short term tenants are less tolerant of small maintenance issues. Various regulations governing furniture, gas and electricity must also be explored. If you decide to hold a deposit against dilapida- tions, this may have to be logged with a Government-approved deposit scheme. Of course tax is payable on rental income, so this must be declared. Seeking advice from all relevant sources will be essential, and your agent should be equipped to make you aware of the risks as well as the costs involved.
I'm a first-time buyer looking to invest in a buy-to-let property - what is the outlook like for the rental market in ? Traditionally January is busy, but given the highly volatile year we have experienced, it is difficult to make predictions for We are very dependent on what happens to the economy. The Government is indicating that they are going to make it easier for first time buyers to purchase properties, but without the ben- efit of job security, many may opt to contin- ue renting.
The properties at the lower end of the market in central London should con- tinue to rent quickly. We are finding that a lot of tenants are opting to renew tenancies at the moment, so the rents are usually being increased at least by the RPI which is cur- rently 5.
We are suffering from a lack of good quality properties at all levels, as we are seeing less investors coming back into the market. The dearth of properties in close proximity to the Olympic stadium has driven short-term rental prices through the roof, with most deals already snapped up months ago.
A typi- cal homeowner can usually expect to achieve a per cent increase. More than 20 per cent of households said that the value of the property in which they lived fell during the month, with only seven per cent report- ing a rise. The resulting HPSI figure of Any figure under 50 indicates that prices are falling.
The letting fol- lows the completion of a 3. There are four schools local to Kensington which are highly graded state schools graded as level 1 by Ofsted. A book to help you put an end to workplace frustration - and get the most from your people. Pitched against the backdrop of a faltering economy, this has created a climate of uncer- tainty for employers and employees alike. Never before has there been such a need for steady stewardship at the top of the HR function.
There is no doubt that uncertain- ty creates stress, so many organisa- tions have implemented wellbeing programmes. Whilst the larger rms have Occupational Health Depart- ments, smaller companies are reli- ant on their Employee Assistance Programmes or corporate medical practice for employee support.
Additionally,there is the need for positive employee relations. Creat- ing a fair working environment is not just good practice, but a mat- ter of employment law. Extensive legislation exists to protect indi- viduals employment rights and HR is regularly required to pro- vide advice, counsel and mediation from contractual entitlements to workplace disputes, supported by employment lawyers.
Diversity advances 1 The City HR Association is proud to have made a diference in the area of gender diversity. By way of background,the City HR Association represents the HR departments of al- most nancial and professional service rms on matters from lobby- ing and consultation to HR bench- marking and training. The Association has worked hard with its members to create best practice guides, provide case stud- ies and to consult with the EHRC re- garding the issues in the Financial Services Inquiry: sex discrimina- tion and the gender pay gap.
Charlotte Sweeney, Head of Di- versity and Inclusion at Nomura says: Diversity and Inclusion is likely to take a greater prominence during , particularly when ex- amining the impact of the Lord Da- vies review and the outputs of the rst FSA Diversity Survey. Compa- nies will need to consider how these issues remain on the business agen- da in a meaningful way during chal- lenging economic times.
Most companies are looking to grow, and if they dont think differently, how are they going to do that? Mediaplanets business is to create new customers for our advertisers by pro- viding readers with high-quality editorial content that motivates them to act. City CEOs and HR leaders also need to pay heed to the public and me- dias perception of pay and ethics. But there have also been some major positive developments from which to take heart.
Talent Management is still preva- lent, particularly employee engage- ment, retention and development. There was also an increase in employee coaching. This Mediaplanet supplement showcases some of the innovative practices going on within the HR function,both now and in the future. For more details please viisit www. Reserve your place today at www.
Howev- er,the Equality Act of could ac- tually help companies grow mar- ket share as well as build a happier workplace,explains Worman. Diversity rules can sometimes be seen as very technical and a lit- tle cumbersome but there is a lot of guidance available to ensure that companies not only stay the right side of the law but actually use the law to ourish, she says. Diversity and equality in the workplace are simply about recog- nising and valuing diference. This isnt just within the workplace, but also with how you treat clients and customers.
Companies have to re- alise that with a global workplace people are becoming increasingly diverse. That not only means your staf, but also your end customers and the companies you work with. So the question is; can compa- nies aford not to actively encour- age diversity and equality in the workplace?
Its a huge opportunity to reach out to new customers and new areas of society whose skills and custom a business might not otherwise fully tap in to. New thinking A point Worman is very keen to make is that if a company does not engage with all of its employ- ees and ofer everyone an equal opportunity to progress their ca- reers, how are they going to know the opportunities they are missing out on?
By acting on diversity rec- ommendations, companies should not be thinking solely about stay- ing the right side of the law. Treat- ing all people within a company the same - regardless of age, gen- der, ethnicity, religion, disability or sexual orientation not only avoids friction,it allows fresh ideas to percolate to the top.
Most companies are looking to grow and if they dont think dif- ferently, how are they going to do that? Diversity laws account for ev- eryone but,in particular,the groups that they primarily seek to pro- tect represent huge markets which companies could be helped to tar- get if they encourage diversity throughout the business.
Diversity is a little like a shop- ping loyalty card, Worman be- lieves. When a supermarket starts to glean knowledge about its cus- tomers,it nds it can sell more pro- duce and get ideas for new lines. Similarly, by engaging all staff within a business,innovative ideas ourish and access to new markets begin to open up.
Thought needed Although some companies may be put of encouraging diversity by a fear of getting to grips with new regulations, Worman maintains there are good sources of impar- tial advice. In addition to studying these rec- ommendations, diversity training is advisable for those light bulb moments when staf realise they may unwittingly treat some of their co-workers or clients diferently. Encouraging positive employee relations is a duty most managers take very seriously because it en- sures all staf feel comfortable and valued at work, and able to perform to the best of their abilities.
Con- icts and misunderstandings be- tween members of staf can esca- late and impact productivity and work quality if there is not a culture of supporting all employees and en- suring the working environment is free from friction.
Question: Diversity and equality rules are sometimes seen as a burden on employers, is this the case? Answer: Not at all. The government will increase the unfair dismissal qualifying period to two years from April , apparently to give greater condence to employers in re- cruiting new employees, without undermining workers sense of job security. Compromise agreements the government will consult on whether and how to enable com- promise agreements to cover all existing and future claims with- out the need for a full list of caus- es of action.
However, according to the Head of Reward Consulting at Hayes, Stuart Hyland, forward thinking companies are now working on total reward programmes. This encapsulates flexibility in pay and conditions as well as how employees feel about their employer. Rewards used to be fairly inex- ible and so crche vouchers were of no use to a single person and a gym was useless to someone who doesnt work out, he says. Today, companies are being a lot more exible through ofering access to a pot of money which can be used for a wide variety of rewards.
Its basically extend- ing the option to have a compa- ny car or extra salary to other re- wards. There are also interesting schemes that, for example, allow people to buy extra days of work. Crucially, total rewards pro- grammes need to look at the type of company employees want to work for and ensure the company lives up to it. Working for a really well respected brand which has strong values that it lives up to is reward itself for most people.
He said: Training staf and treating them well is good because not on- ly is it likely to promote loyalty and productivity, but it will limit any legal risks associated with al- legations that any unfavourable treatment or failure to ofer train- ing is motivated by discrimina- tion based on one of the protected characteristics e. It will also avoid claims that the im- plied term of trust and condence is engaged,which might allow an employee to bring a claim in con- structive dismissal.
There were 56 participants, all from different major nancial institutions involved in banking, asset management and insurance. In particular, companies are in- creasingly eager to move towards performance management where, rather than dealing with employ- ees as a single block,individuals are rewarded according to their perfor- mance. According to Andrew Pull- man, Managing Director of People Risk Solutions, for the transition to go smoothly, training is needed to ensure managers can gauge perfor- mance and employees can make as- sessments a two way process.
Companies are starting to realise that if they are to become perfor- mance-driven they need managers to become a lot better at giving ap- praisals, he says. The main point is they need to be only forty per cent about the past and sixty per cent about the future so you have a sense of moving forwards.
Too often these appraisals just sum up the year thats been and never move on. The really advanced companies are also seeking training for em- ployees so they can perform better in these annual or quarterly con- versations. They need training in how to bring matters to their em- ployers attention as well as explain how they feel they contributed to the company and how they see that contribution developing.
Showing commitment The major point the move to per- formance-based HR underlines, is that what Pullman considers the good old days are long gone and today employers and employees must engage better. Employers used to all want loy- alty, but those days are long gone, he says. If you want loyalty, get a dog. What modern companies realise they need is commitment and that goes two ways.
It means you cant just keep the troops in the dark, you need to engage with them and explain what is going on inside the company and where its headed. All employees secretly ask themselves not just if theyre get- ting paid enough, but also if they are doing something worthwhile and if they have a manager they can learn from to help with their career development. So, employ- ers are investing in the neces- sary training to engage and com- municate with staf to encourage this commitment and ensure staf keep focus.
As with so many HR issues, al- though initiatives such as perfor- mance based reviews may be ini- tiated to promote excellence in employees, it can place a focus on managers to improve their own performance and seek training. If a company is underperforming it can always be linked to poor lead- ership, Pullman believes.
If managers need an example, they should consider the way the MacLaren F1 team holds a meeting with all staf after every race to ex- plain what went well and where im- provements are needed. It means that all employees feel part of the bigger picture. It is this kind of lead- ership that makes people feel they belong and commit to a compa- ny even though there may be the chance of better pay elsewhere.
Answer: Far from it. Companies are beginning to focus on growth through training managers and staff to reward performance and build commitment. Coping during dif cult times is as much about taking stock as it is about taking action. Acas has been advising all types of organisations on employ- ment relations and HR best practice for over thirty years. Weve seen that when times are tough, bu- sinesses often need to up-skill their managers to ensure they have the right skills and knowledge to push the business forward and implement change, while ensuring legal requirements are met.
At the same time a well trained manager is able to take their staf along with them by maintaining em- ployee engagement and having the confdence to tackle dif cult workplace situations before they get out of hand. The past 18 months has also seen signifcant chan- ges in employment law which all managers and HR staf need to feel confdent with. From the introduc- tion of Fit Notes, to the Equality Act , through to the removal of the Default Retirement Age and the new agency worker regulations, theres been a lot going on!
Acas uses decades of experience in working with thousands of employers and employees to develop training courses which provide down-to-earth ad- vice and practical solutions. We design competiti- vely priced bespoke training programmes which can be delivered at your workplace.
You can save time and money by training a group of managers at once and shape the training to suit the unique needs of your company. We cover a variety of employment relations and HR topics ranging from the fundamentals, such as con- tract writing, absence management and discipline and grievance procedures through to the more ad- vanced, such as helping ensure equality and diver- sity, mediation, investigations and redundancy and restructuring. Just tell us what you need. Managing in dif cult and changing times?
Investing in training can provide valuable solutions Find out more at www. Cut backs can mean morale is low and that can apply to the HR team itself just as much as the rest of the business. This makes it more important than ever to ensure skills are not lost forever within the team if numbers are depleted. So, in addi- tion to facilitating training for de- partments across a business, HR executives should themselves con- sider extra training to ensure their team has no skills gaps.
According to PennyDe Valk,Chief Executive at leadership development consultancy,Fairplace Cedar,in addi- tion to keeping skills up to date,HR teams should invest in training to help the team develop a coaching culture throughout the business. The HR department is a cru- cial link between employees and management and so its got a huge role to play in communicat- ing what is going on, she says.
Its really important for HR ex- ecutives to develop as business people and a critical part of this is to become coaches to colleagues throughout the business to help them through a difcult time. This can be to help them have those aw- ful conversations where somebody has to be made redundant but it can also be about being positive. Once difcult decisions have been made, coaching and mentoring can move on to being more upbeat and com- municating how the company is planning to grow so the people left are less anxious about the future.
Have a clear vision of how your team and individual staf will develop over the next year. Use your imagination 2 These plans can be fun to write. Include wider learning activities such as web research, visits, team presentations. Mix it up 3 Remember that your staff will learn best if taught in their favourite learning style.
Some need to understand the the- ories behind things theoretical learners while others learn by do- ing. You have to make big decisions that could afect the lives and careers of the people around you. That means having a clear resource strategy and the best people to help you. And thats why ARM is much more than a recruitment consultancy.
Whether youre planning your own career or a full scale resource programme, ARM Consulting can help you to make sure your next move is the right one. For more information talk to Martin Grady on or visit www. Corporate Recruitment Software without boundaries! Use the same tools recruitment agencies have used for years Experts at creating feature rich, branded end to end career portals Instant online access for candidates, hiring managers and vendors Lower costs and place more candidates from your own talent pool ScaIabIe, hexbIe 8 totaIIy customsabIe Eploy.
Unfortunately, the result feels like an overlong episode of a Sunday afternoon drama, the sort grandparents love and everyone else falls asleep to. Having been in the army and suffering from night terrors, Dawn watches her idyllic relation- ship falter as it becomes clear Nick isnt the only troubled son in the family. Theres nothing terribly wrong with Wreckers the British cast are strong, espe- cially Cumberbatch, and the story is divert- ing.
Unfortunately, its also fairly one-note. The number of coincidental meetings, not to mention inexplicable decisions taken by characters, mean that Wreckers isnt quite as acutely realised as it imagines, much like Dawn and Davids relationship. Meaningful looks, natural light and the odd loaded sentence dont automatically make something real, and Wreckers would have done well to concentrate a little more on pace.
It plods along reasonably enough but is lumbered with the sort of script bet- ter suited to a subplot in a soap opera a shame, given the talent on show. Exhilaratingly sharp, sweeping visuals pack a punch and Robert Downey Jnr throws everything hes got into carrying the Holmes-doess-Bond juggernaut. But is isnt quite enough to conceal a lack- lustre plot. Having intercepted a letter, as well as a bomb, Downey Jrs Sherlock Holmes takes a break from the manic inventions he dreams up while drinking embalming fluid to drag the world-weary Dr Watson Jude Law away from his honeymoon to go up against evil genius Professor Moriarty a terrifying, subtle performance by subtle Jared Harris.
Trying to work out what Moriarty is up to, the pair are led to Noomi Rapaces mysterious gypsy woman, all the time bickering, acting homoerotically and get- ting into well-executed fight sequences. That said, it sometimes feels Ritchie is just waiting for the next set-piece so he can go mental with the slo-mo button again.
Holmes tendency to visualise the dif- ferent elements of an upcoming bout of fisticuffs was a fresh gimmick in the first film, as was Ritchies epilepsy-inducing editing, but it starts to tire, as does his overuse of slow motion and underuse of Noomi Rapace.
Despite being set up as a knife-wielding, if stereotypical, gypsy able to give Holmes a run for his money, shes all of sudden reduced to looking vaguely shocked and following people about while wearing jangly earrings. However, credit where credits due: Downey Jnr and Ritchies inherent sense of fun is impossible to ignore. People are thrown from trains, things explode, Downey Jnr sports an impressive selection of beards and Stephen Fry gets naked all Ritchies Sherlock is vapid fun, but Cumberbatch fails to save Wreckers set to plinky-plonky-East-End-boozer piano strains.
The nude scene is a little gratuitous and the film often slides into the cartoon- ish, skipping past scientific impossibility for the sake of entertainment. But maybe it doesnt matter if Watson suddenly becomes adept at combat, or that Moriartys solution to disguising terror- ists from their relatives is utterly ludi- crous: there is a convoluted evil master-plan to be unravelled and a lot of fun to be had doing it.
As ever, the location and movie to be screened are hush- hush but there seems to be a military theme. Limited tickets available. Email ahead to make sure you get in. Nostalgic adults will be as pleased as their kids. Rebecca Ferguson performs. You can only use the digits and you must not use the same digit twice in a block. The same digit may occur more than once in a row or column, but it must be in a separate block.
Each word must be of three letters or more, all must contain the central letter and letters can only be used once in every word. There is at least one nine-letter word in the wheel. SUDOKU Place the numbers from 1 to 9 in each empty cell so that each row, each column and each 3x3 block contains all the numbers from 1 to 9 to solve this tricky Sudoku puzzle.
They didnt perform badly in either game, though, and Roberto Mancini will be desperate for his men to pick up three points against Arsenal on Sunday. City have won all seven home league matches this campaign and although they havent come up against anyone as strong as Arsenal at the Etihad yet, they should still take all the beating at around 1.
The Gunners won here 3- 0 last season, but this is a much stronger City side and the Chelsea defeat should have galvanised the league leaders. Arsenal have won their past two league games, but this will be a big test for Arsene Wengers men. They have lost three of their seven away games in the league this season and I fancy it to be four from eight after Sundays game. These two sides have been involved in some of the most high scoring games in recent Premier League history.
There have been four or more goals scored in 11 of Citys last 15 league contests and the same is true in 12 of Arsenals last 19 away matches. The Gunners have failed to score in just two of those fixtures, so buying goals at 3. Andre Villas-Boas has answered his critics in style over the past few weeks and he will be hoping for a fourth straight win across all com- petitions at Wigan tomorrow evening.
Manchester United registered a much-needed victory against Wolves last weekend and they travel down to QPR for Sundays lunchtime kick- off. There have been two or fewer goals in five of Rangers seven home games this season and the same is true in Uniteds last five on the road.
I would also advise spread bettors to sell goals at 2. If youre heading out Christmas shopping this weekend, make sure you ditch the missus and drop into one of the Samvo gaming cafes in Hammersmith or Camden which are being turned into Man Creches. Sexy Santas will be handing out free mince pies, yuletide logs and hot chocolate, while punters will also receive a 5 free bet on the weekend football.
What better way to avoid traipsing around the shops? He may have only ever run three times over hurdles to date, but he has created a really good impression in recording two impressive victories and only failing by a quarter length to reel in Steps To Freedom at Cheltenham last month.
There is every chance that he could make a mockery of his mark of , but this is a tough assignment for a horse with relatively little experience and Im prepared to let him go unbacked. The formerly useful flat-campaigner made an impressive hurdling debut at Newbury last season and bounced back from a couple of disappoint- ments to end it with a decent win in a competitive soft ground handicap at this track.
He was well beaten on his seasonal reappearance behind Celestial Halo at Wincanton last month, but trav- elled much better than the bare result implies and I expect him to strip much fitter tomorrow. The ground looks ideal and with his sta- ble in top form, it would be disap- pointing if he didnt outrun his odds.
He looked the winner approaching the last in a warm look- ing Sandown handicap last time on very similar ground and will surely strip fitter tomorrow. He has been raised 5lb for that run which doesnt look too harsh a penalty. The unbeaten five- year-old impressively shrugged off Irish raider Sea Of Thunder at Wetherby last time and he had a bet- ter race in the bag at Cheltenham last weekend before crashing out at the last.
Hell surely have too much class for Molotof whose presence should guarantee us a better price. You can follow me on Twitter BillEsdaile for all my up-to-date views. Manchester City at 1. The Italian giants, crowned kings of Europe seven times, appear the biggest threat among the seven teams apiece the English clubs could meet.
Napoli and Basel, who eliminated Manchester City and Manchester United respectively, are also potential opponents for the Gunners and the Blues. City and United, having failed to progress from the group stage, join the Europa League and will be inter- ested observers when the last 32 draw is made, also today.
City face having to play their sec- ond leg on a Tuesday afternoon. Terry is under investigation from the police following accusations he abused QPR defender Anton Ferdinand during Octobers defeat at Loftus Road a claim he strenuously denies. The England skipper is sweating on the decision of the Crown Prosecution Service, who have been mulling over a file they received from the police a fortnight ago.
Videos of Terry appearing to mouth an obscenity at Ferdinand surfaced on the internet just hours after Chelsea slipped to a costly loss. And in a new, potentially damaging development, the CPS is understood to have received fresh TV footage of the incident earlier this week. Should the year-old face a crimi- nal charge, the Football Association would be under pressure to follow suit. The governing body is waiting until the police probe has been con- cluded before making a move. Protesting his innocence, Suarez, who was accused of using a racist insult at least 10 times by Evra, said last month: I called him something his team-mates at Manchester call him, and even they were surprised by his reaction.
Off the field, however, Redknapp endured a testing evening and was con- stantly barracked by the home support. The year-old appeared to lose his temper with 20 minutes remaining and aimed a gesture at fans seated behind the visiting dugout. When asked if he had made an obscene gesture towards the Rovers fans, Redknapp said: Not really. Did I make an obscene ges- ture?
No, I didnt make one. I have spent enough time in Ireland to know what lovely people they are. If you go and meet them afterwards they are proba- bly lovely people. But they get together and shout a load of nonsense and that is foot- ball. Thats life. I dont hold any grudges. Spurs made nine changes to the side which slumped to a first defeat in 12 league games at Stoke on Sunday and initially struggled to find the fluency that has char- acterised their recent impressive form.
Indeed, it took until the 29th minute for the Premier League aristocrats to break the deadlock. Pienaar was afforded too much space on the edge of the area and the South Africa international located the far corner with the aid of a slight deflection. Townsend doubled the lead 10 minutes later when he curled an inch-perfect first- time effort inside Paul Brushs left-hand post and a rout looked like it was on the cards when Defoe, via another helpful deflection, prodded beyond Brush from six yards in first-half injury-time.
But with news filtering through of Rubin Kazans equaliser in Greece, Spurs notice- ably eased up in the second half and could easily have been reduced to 10 men when Karl Sheppard was prevented from running through on goal by Jake Livermores agricul- tural challenge. Spurs had to wait until the last minute to add to their tally when substitute Kane spun his marker and swept home his first goal for the club. It was disappointing.
I want to win every game. We havent not gone through for lack of trying, added Redknapp. If I had played players like Scott Parker we might have sneaked through, but we might not have won 10 out of 11 league games though. Melrose are the visitors to the Richmond Athletic Ground kick-off 3pm , and after a victory over Ayr during our pre-season cam- paign, it is great to be able to test ourselves against another top Scottish club. Melrose are currently flying high in the Scottish Premiership, and we anticipate another test from this famous old club tomorrow afternoon.
However, I am well aware that there will be great interest in the result from people on both sides of the border for a number of different reasons. For us, this game is a part of our contin- ued development as a club, having made the step up this season to the Championship, and we will aim to showcase the ability of our squad.
We have a number of first XV players returning from long-term injury, and several will certainly be involved as the final step of their rehabilitation. I grew up with Jonny, and he was in the same age-group as me throughout our jun- ior rugby development. Much has been written about his dedica- tion and professionalism, and I would like to echo those sentiments. Even at a young age, Jonny was the most dedicated person I have ever seen. As a year-old, he was spending two or three hours a day on kicking practice including Christmas Day.
It was his desire for perfection and atten- tion to detail that marked him out as a titan of the game. Every single day he would work on every part of his technique, and this desire to suc- ceed was obviously something he was born with: an innate determination to squeeze every single drop of talent and ability from his potential.
He was the fittest member of the England squad, and in my opinion, the epitome of the modern professional rugby player. They take on Melrose tomorrow at 3pm in the British and Irish Cup. Tickets are available from www. A goal behind and down to 10 men, Rubin Kazan appeared to be on the brink, but Nelson Valdezs 48th minute leveller rendered Tottenhams efforts in Dublin irrelevant.
A Thursday-Sunday playing schedule is a scenario both Manchester clubs will now have to contend with, while Spurs, as the old saying goes, are now free to concen- trate on the league. Villa, who is set to spend up to five months on the sidelines, suffered the injury in Barcas Club World Cup semi-final victory over Al-Sadd. Westwood holds a five-shot lead over American John Daly. Defence Secretary Philip Hammond said security would remain police-led but the Armed Forces would make a significant contribution.
Farah, who won 5,m gold and 10,m silver at this years World Championships, is one of six Britons shortlisted for the Laureus Sports Awards, which will be held in London on 6 February. And decathlon great Thompson is tipping the year-old to win the headline Sportsman of the Year gong at the awards if he realises his hopes of winning both events at the London Olympic Games.
If Mo Farah does the double I reck- on hell win it, Thompson said. I dont reckon hell have a problem. He was fantastic [this year] and is really likeable. Other home stars in con- tention include McIlroys com- patriot and rival Darren Clarke, for Comeback of the Year and Englands cricketers, in the Team of the Year cat- egory. The nomadic awards ceremony arrives in London ahead of a land- mark sporting year for the capital, and Thompson, one of the select Laureus Academy members who will decide on the winners, said the city was a natural choice.
Next year the most important place for sport is London, so this should be here really, he added. Everybody in the organisation thought it was a brilliant idea, and its confirmation that this is the cen- tre of the sporting universe for the next year. The all-new Kindle The smallest, lightest Kindle ever Holds up to 1, books Choose from over , books Reads like real paper Battery life of up to one month Learn more at www. Cerrar sugerencias Buscar Buscar.
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Documentos similares a Cityam Beatriz Mena. Shaji Philip. Benson Kurien. Toby Goldman. Furthermore - and this also involves championships in Western Europe - sports club economics are extremely uncertain because they depend on sponsors, ticket sales, television rights, and therefore the results of the club. As a result, many football clubs regularly find themselves in difficulty and it can happen that players are not paid, as was highlighted by the Spanish footballers strike in August But this is common in Southern and Eastern European countries.
In Albania, while the monthly salary of a national star player is close to 6, per month, young players earn about per month, i. The lack of financial security is such that contracts are fixed term one year and each year, there are many players who do not receive their salary for one or more months The economics of professional tennis are no less uncertain. Tennis players do not receive a fixed salary.
For the great majority of them, the only source of income is their winnings from competitions. There is therefore a significant difference between the income of top-ranking players who also benefit from sponsorship and advertising contracts, which supplement their wins on the circuit and those of other players who are obliged to play the secondary circuit, particularly the challengers.
The professional and financial situation of this second group is therefore particularly precarious. The slightest dip in performance or physical injury can compromise their financial balance. This fragility can constitute a weakness from which some corruptors are able to profit.
As explained in a report published in February op. A number of criteria are taken into account: the probability of detection, wealth of the sportsperson, financial gain expected, financial penalty in the event of detection, loss of sporting success when underperforming, a taste for transgression or conversely an inclination to feel guilt. Corruption at grassroots level is the concrete manifestation of corruption in sport. Its rules are easy enough to understand: to rig a match, one needs to corrupt players, because it is they who win or lose on the field.
But it would be unwise to restrict oneself to approaching individual players only. The process of corruption can also involve other people who are physically more remote from the pitch, but who are broadly able to orchestrate corruption in sport. Corruption can in fact be decided upon and organised at sports administration level, i. In football for example, the most frequent cases of match-fixing involve the clubs themselves.
The scandals that shook the Turkish and Greek Football Championships in raised questions about the clubs themselves. During the European Basketball Championship in Lithuania in , it was a member of the Greek delegation who contacted the referees of two matches to try and bribe them. The classic model: rigging a match so that ones team wins, Buying a match This is the traditional type of match-fixing; it does not focus primarily on sports betting but rather on the issue of a predetermined victory.
The methods used to rig matches in these situations are the same as those directly concerning sporting bets. Hence the interest of spending some time on them. In some cases, victory is more important for a club or athlete than for their opponent. Consequently, the latter may be offered financial compensation in exchange for their defeat. This may be the case for example when a stronger team meets a supposedly weaker team. Even by losing, the weaker team can earn money!
This was the reasoning that enabled Olympique de Marseille to corrupt some Valenciennes players in At the time, Marseille was fighting for the title and was due to play in the European Cup Final several days later. The Marseilles management wanted to guarantee a win so that their players could prepare mentally for the final against AC Milan.
Jean-Pierre Bernes, the Chairman of OM, aptly summed up the situation with the following words to a Valenciennes player: Youre going to lose anyway. So why not do it with 30, francs in your pocket? The risk of matches being rigged in this way increases as the end of the season approaches, if a team is still in contention for promotion or victory in a championship, or is trying to avoid relegation, and the match has no real significance for the opponent.
In this case, sports betting is not the primary reason for corruption, but this in no way prevents various people from taking advantage of the predetermination of the result to amass gains on the betting market. In practice, the corruption of an opponent can be effected in a number of ways. One method is to contact the players directly, as was done by OM in Initial contact was made by a Marseille player, Jean-Jacques Eydelie, who telephoned three strategic players in the Valenciennes team: central defender Jacques Glassman the man who revealed the affair , the team captain Jorge Burruchaga and forward Christophe Robert.
J-J Eydelie knew these three players, who had been his teammates earlier in his career, at Nantes or Tours. Targeted players are approached first by a sportsperson or agent, someone they know, then put in touch with a club manager or chairman, who will put the deal to them. A second method, specifically related by Aleksei Matveev , op. Club chairmen in the same championship not only often know each other personally, but above all, understand each other because they all have the same aims and constraints obligation to achieve results, income etc.
Club chairmen have a doubly strategic position in respect of their players. Firstly, they know each other. They know who is less scrupulous and will not expose corruption. It is through these players that a match can be fixed. Also, the chairman is the person who is responsible for paying the players and for the conditions under which they exercise their profession. He therefore has particular authority over them and players are less tempted to expose the criminal behaviour of their own chairman.
Our study has shown us that this chairman-to-chairman method of contact is very frequent in Albania and Russia for example, where the chairmen have stronger authority over the players and corruption can even assume systemic proportions.
In fact, in Eastern Europe and the Balkan States, clubs have been known to do each other favours from year to year. A club facing potential relegation may ask for advantageous scores when it plays friendly clubs. The club thereby contracts a sort of debt of corruption that it has to repay in future years by rigging other matches or transferring players.
In Albania, this technique of exchanging favours can even take on a political aspect, when the club of a municipality with certain political leanings allows a club to win that is affiliated with a friendly political leader who is fighting an election A club or federation can also corrupt a match through the referee.
As we have already seen, fixing a match through a referee is less certain than bribing players. It is also often more obvious. The study of corruption in sport in Russia and Albania has revealed that the referee option is most often chosen after failure to negotiate with players.
Numerous testimonies by former referees speak of the standard practice of clubs giving gifts before European Cup matches, a practice that was very widespread in the s and s. These gifts did not systematically represent a proposal to rig a match, and the boundary between hospitality and corruption was not always very clear. Using the services of prostitutes to cajole referees into fixing a match was also often used. The so-called golden whistle scandal in Portugal is an illustration of this practice.
He was suspended for two years for having bought referees. Two cases of attempted corruption were heard by the Disciplinary Commission of the Portuguese National League. In the first case, referee Jacinto Paixao and his assistants were offered the services of prostitutes by the club after a match against Estrela da Amadora on 24 January , which Porto won In the other case, referee Augusto Duarto visited Pinto da Costa who gave him an envelope containing 2,, two days before a championship game with Beira-Mar which ended in a draw on 18 April Unlike sports staff, who focus on improving the sporting performance of a team, club chairmen have wider obligations, particularly in terms of financial profitability.
It is on their desks that economic, legal and political aspects converge, because it is their duty to defend the interests of their club. Some who are unscrupulous can therefore be tempted to cross the line in attempting to achieve goals they have been set.
By virtue of their relationships, some may try to obtain support within national or international sports bodies, so that they can, for example, find referees over whom they can exercise influence. This was the case with the so-called Calciopoli scandal involving Luciano Moggi,. General Manager of Juventus of Turin between and , and recently banned for life from all activities relating to football by the Italian Federation. The scandal broke in Spring following publication in the Italian press of recordings of telephone conversations between Moggi and Pierluigi Pairetto, a former referee accused by the Italian Federation and UEFA of selecting referees for some matches held between and These recordings revealed exchanges of favours between Moggi - who for his part provided gifts such as luxury cars - and Pairetto, who appointed referees who were supposedly favourably-inclined towards Juventus.
The following is an extract of a conversation in between Giacinto Facchetti and Paolo Bergamo, another former selector of Italian Championship referees, before a match between Inter Milan and Sampdoria of Genoa. The match, refereed by Paolo Bertini, was won by Inter Milan , although they were down at one point. Facchetti: Hello Paolo? Its Facchetti.
Bergamo: Hello Giacinto. Facchetti: Im on my way to the stadium and Ive told my people to be tactful with Bertini, to be receptive. I said it to the players, with Mancini and the others. Bergamo: Itll be a good match, youll see. Facchetti: Great. Bergamo: Is he [Editors note: referee Bertini] predisposed towards a good match? Facchetti: Yes, yes, very good.
Bergamo: Youll see, its a match well win together. Facchetti: I just wanted to tell you that Ive done it. Another more recent example: on 25 September , the Chairman of the Romanian Soccer Referees Association, Vasile Avram, was arrested by the police after having received 19, from a businessman, the sponsor of First Division FCM Targu Mures, in exchange for appointing so-called favourable referees His predecessor, Gheorges Constantin, had also been arrested on charges of corruption in A new type of match-fixing arising directly from sports betting: Selling a match, or Who loses, wins With the advent of sports betting, clubs have developed a new method of corruption.
It focuses primarily on winning money on the betting markets but this time it is a case of getting ones own team. A typical example is the case of Macedonian club FK Pobeda, whose eight-year exclusion from all European competition decided in by UEFA was confirmed in April by the Court of Arbitration for Sport, for betting-related corruption on the occasion of the first preliminary round of the Champions League The sums placed on the Asian betting markets for this match were 10 times greater than usual and the vast majority were in favour of the Armenian club, which was not however the favourite to win.
The club had been experiencing a number of financial difficulties and some players had not been paid for several months. The former trainer had left the club having received only half his salary. The match-rigging had been decided on and organised by the Chairman, Mr Zabrcanec, who asked the players to lose the first leg match. At half time in the second leg match, when Pobeda was leading , he asked his players to allow Pyunik FC to equalise, which they did.
Fraud is more difficult to detect in a case where a club chairman decides on the defeat of his own team, because the match-rigging negotiations are internal to the club. This type of decision does involve a large number of participants though, and the risk of leaks to the media or authorities is not insignificant.
Also, there are some factors in this type of situation that are favourable to secrecy and make it possible to tie up a corruption pact. This type of arrangement can also help to guarantee payment of the teams salaries for a number of months. Everyone is therefore directly and personally concerned. By agreeing to lose deliberately, club players and management are able to bet on their own defeat and add significant value.
A defeat is even more profitable if the players agree to lose with a substantial margin, because bets on greatly differing scores e. This scenario can be illustrated by the match between Belarusian club Cnepr Mogilev and Albanian club Laci, in the first preliminary round of the Europa League in July The first leg in Albania ended in a draw, making the odds for the return match rather high, because it was more difficult to predict the result.
Laci lost the second leg in Belarus , with a large number of goals being tainted by flagrant irregularities As far as enrichment on the betting market is concerned, club chairmen can place bets themselves, ask their players to bet individually, and more particularly sell information to criminal organisations.
In the case of Pobeda, the chairman received , for selling information on the second-leg defeat to criminal elements outside the club. The decision to throw a match can also be taken jointly between a club chairman and a criminal organisation, possibly one with whom the chairman already has links. If, on the other hand, Pobeda had gone through to the second preliminary qualifying round for the Champions League, it might have earned only 30,, given that the club was not certain of being in.
In fact, there was only a very slim chance of its being able to win all three preliminary rounds, particularly because in the second and third rounds, it would have had to play against major European clubs. So why not abandon the competition at the outset and take advantage of these hundreds of thousands of euro that would put the club in a solid financial position for a large part of the season?
All the more so as in some Eastern European countries, the preliminary rounds of European cups offer better odds than national matches, which are considered by betting operators to be too corrupt Rigging European matches also nets much more for those involved. Two factors favour this type of behaviour on the part of some clubs: on the one hand the particularly difficult financial situation in some sporting environments, on the other, the organisational system of clubs. The precarious nature of European football can assume a number of forms.
Firstly, in the continents most prestigious leagues, such as in Spain or Italy, the richest clubs can get into a spiral of debt that can progressively weaken their position. In order to attract the best players, these clubs offer very high salaries and thus help to bid up transfer amounts, sometimes spending more than they have. Some clubs can then find themselves unable to pay their players, as was the case in Spain in The excessive indebtedness of clubs is a primary reason for their financial fragility, as highlighted by sports economist Bastien Drut The Chairman of UEFA, Michel Platini, stressed this risk recently when referring to repeated scandals relating to arranged matches and strikes in Spain and Italy: If players are not paid, there is a major risk of their being influenced by arrangers But the most precarious financial situations are to be found primarily in the lower leagues of the leading championships, as well as those of Eastern Europe and the Balkan States.
The situation is similar in Albania, where many clubs are unable to pay their players salaries. Albanian clubs are partowned by municipalities, which invest very little in infrastructure and clubs. Thus, Dinamo Tirana, which is one of the countrys most successful clubs and was National Champion in , had a catastrophic season in , with numerous salaries unpaid. As the chairman could no longer afford to cover the clubs costs, he could have asked his players to pay themselves by rigging matches At the end of the season the chairman left the club, leaving it without management.
The club no longer owns its own training pitch, which it is obliged to rent. Its headquarters is neglected and the clubs youth trainer has had to build up a team for the championship. The example of Dinamo Tirana is fairly representative of the precarious nature of the organisational system of some European football clubs. The main clubs, and particularly those in Western Europe, are run by boards of directors and have finance, accounting, administrative, executive and sports departments.
They undergo genuine audits and there is multilateral surveillance of the various activities of the club. But this type of governance is not typical of most football clubs, which are often run unilaterally by a single chairman. The players and sports staff are in charge of sports-related issues, and the chairman deals with the financial activities. For many clubs in Europe, the role of chairman is primarily that of a businessman seeking a return on his investment.
There is a real danger when the club is in financial difficulties. The chairman, who - unlike the sports staff - has not necessarily spent his entire career in the world of sport, is potentially less inclined to respect the principle of sporting integrity, particularly when rigging a match helps to balance the accounts.
There is one factor that plays a decisive part in facilitating the rigging of both bought and sold matches: the opacity of the world of sport. The economics of a club are inevitably complex, depending as they do on a wide range of variables incoming and outgoing alike : ticket sales, player transfers, salaries, travel, TV rights, sponsorship, bonuses, real estate stadium, training pitches etc. These multiple activities attract many people into the world of sport players agents, staff, security, federation, supporter groups, investors and other sponsors etc.
The club environment is sometimes similar to a vast closed and opaque circle, which is all the more likely to reduce the probability of detecting instances of match-rigging and makes judicial enquiries particularly difficult Exogenous sporting fraud: criminal gangs outside sport In some countries, the links between the worlds of sport and crime are many and ancient.
The disciplines infiltrated vary from country to country, but criminal networks generally favour the most popular sports. This can also make it possible to carry out underground criminal activities back-to-back with a positive public image, that of a sport with millions of supporters.
This is what is sometimes known as image-laundering, in other words a criminal enterprise may attempt to buy itself a certain form of moral authority by investing in a popular activity with an enthusiastic following. In Europe, football has therefore sometimes attracted unscrupulous - even criminal - investors.
As highlighted in a report by Frances Financial Action Task Force GAFI published in , footballs economic model can represent a windfall for criminal groups, particularly for money-laundering: The professional football market has seen exceptional growth since the beginning of the s due to increased television rights and sponsorship.
In parallel, the labour market for professional players has become globalised. Transfers are effected throughout the world. The resulting flows of money across borders do not come under the control of national football bodies, and attempts to control such.
Recent instances of corruption in Italy have also revealed the close links between Albanian and Italian crime. Cultural and historic links are strong between Albania and Italy, which are separated only by the Adriatic Sea about , Albanians live in Italy. The Albanian and Italian Mafia cooperate seamlessly with one another45, and in the context of the Italian football scandal of , it was established that the Italian Mafia were selling information about rigged matches to the Albanians, who were betting from Albania on online sports betting sites that were not authorised in Italy.
The network brought together a number of Croatians based in Germany, who ordered match-rigging and tasked intermediaries with orchestrating frauds in over 10 countries. Bets were then laid by professional gamblers who also collected and redistributed the winnings. Money-laundering, a priority for large criminal organisations The first concern of a criminal organisation is the need to give apparent legality to their ill-gotten gains, otherwise they can only use them in very limited circumstances.
They therefore need to launder these considerable amounts of money in order to enjoy them freely. The sums deriving from criminal activities are open to debate. The balance sheet of Italys four Mafia families is eloquent, and these figures only include their activities and earnings in Italy as identified by the law.
After investment, money-laundering is the Mafias second largest item of expenditure. Their net profit would therefore be above 78 billion per year, i. Criminal organisations therefore have a strategic need to launder their money and, as explained by the FATF report on money-laundering in the world of sport , op.
What forms do these Mafia investments take in the world of football? The wolf in sheeps clothing, or criminals taking control of clubs In December , the leak of American diplomatic documents by Wikileaks revealed a report by the US Embassy in Sofia Bulgaria entitled Bulgarian soccer receives a red card for corruption The report reveals that: Bulgarian soccer clubs are widely believed to be directly or indirectly controlled by organized crime figures who use their teams as a way to legitimize themselves, launder money, and make a fast buck.
There is a historic example that helps to give a clear understanding of the Mafias interest in controlling clubs. This is the case of Arkan, an eminent member of the Milosevic regime in former Jugoslavia, who used the club Obilic FK to spearhead his criminal activities, which were as many as they were varied At the end of the s, Arkan was the leader of a group of hooligans connected with the Red Star Belgrade club: he subsequently transformed this ultra-violent group into a paramilitary militia, which committed serious acts of violence during the Jugoslavian wars The Arkan Tigers militia was dissolved in April following the Dayton agreements.
Two months later, Arkan bought FK Obilic, which he transformed into a top-ranking club, even winning the Jugoslavian championship in US journalist Franklin Foer52 relates the various techniques used by the club chairman to win victories: corruption, threats etc. Supporter groups were composed of former members of the militia, who had no qualms about pointing their guns at opposing players and making personal threats sometimes in the form of chants.
Arkan regularly paid personal visits to opposing teams in their changing rooms at half time, to order them to allow Obilic to win. One player told how he had been taken away and locked up while his team was playing Obilic Owning the club enabled Arkan to launder a large amount of capital via ticket sales, sponsorship, player transfers and sports betting. International matches also enabled him to organise illegal traffic arms, narcotics , sporting delegations only very rarely being searched by Customs.
Even though he had to transfer ownership of the club to his wife in because UEFA was threatening to exclude the club from European competitions, Arkan took advantage of football to extend his popularity whilst continuing to promote and grow his illegal activities.
Another example that perfectly illustrates the benefits of acquiring a club is that of Chinese businessman Zheyun Ye, who took possession of a Finnish, then a Belgian, club in , with the aim of organising rigged matches and enriching himself on the sports betting market.
A number of Belgian players were also transferred to the club and took part in a rigged match ! The Finnish Federation and police very quickly opened an inquiry and fined the club 10, for not having played its best team. Zheyun Ye then returned to Belgium where he had already tried to make contact with clubs and became actively involved in two clubs in particular: Lierse and La Louviere. Whilst in Belgium he organised 10 rigged matches, including Lierse-La Louviere in , with the aim of enriching himself on the Asian betting market.
During the following season , an FC Brussels player accepted money to manipulate the result of the match on 20 September between his own club and KAA Gent. During the same period, 13 other players were approached with promises of gifts of up to , if they would ease up on the pitch during certain matches. These players declined the offer. The authorities were alerted by the online betting site Betfair, which detected abnormally high betting on the Saint-Trond La Louviere and Cercle de Bruges - Saint-Trond games.
Legal proceedings were instituted and the trial in the magistrates court involving 31 people has yet to take place, while an international warrant has been issued for the arrest of Zheyun Ye. Although Zheyun Ye was in fact arrested by the police, he was released several hours later due to a police-legal muddle.
Since then, he has totally vanished from the scene The ease with which this criminal entrepreneur could infiltrate Belgian football circles is a matter for concern, all the more so as his action was copied by another fraudulent investor several years later. Revealed during the investigation for the Bochum trial, an instance of corruption in the club UR Namur - at that time playing in Belgiums Second Division - reveals the fragility of the world of football in the face of Mafia intrigues.
He then turned to a Croatian investor living in Germany, Marijo Cvrtak. On 22 January , Chairman Baudard and Marijo Cvrtak concluded an agreement whereby the Croatian would pay , followed by two tranches of 50, over the space of four months. Cvrtak also agreed to take over the clubs debts, amounting to ,, in exchange for a place on the Club Board, where he was introduced as the clubs saviour. Now solidly established within the clubs management, Cvrtak brought seven players into the club, whose salaries he lent and whom he knew to be corruptible.
Two of these players went on to play a major part in rigging matches: Serb Nemanja Cvetkovic and Bosnian Dragan Bubic. The latter was hired to buy other teammates. In any event, his transfer did not really comply with the criteria for a sportsman because the clubs medical team judged him to be 29 kilos too heavy to be competitive!
Six players were eventually involved, their bonuses generally amounting to 2, for. During this time, Cvrtak and his associates took full advantage of the matchrigging, pocketing , from the betting market. The Namur club has since been relegated to Division Three and Cvrtak was sentenced to five years in prison. His assets in a bank in Zagreb were frozen and the amount 3,, testifies to the resources of todays transnational criminal organisations.
The two examples above perfectly illustrate the interest that criminal organisations may have in moving into the management of a sports club, and the ease with which they implement their strategy. In some countries with more powerful criminal networks than others, sporting circles are specifically targeted by the Mafia. Mafioso not only own clubs directly, but also have secret links with club chairmen and certain underworld circles.
In his book55, Aleksei Matveev explains that club chairmen help in covering up illegal traffic, for example, by allowing criminals to use the names of their clubs, which are not subject to the same surveillance by public authorities, particularly when teams are travelling abroad for European Cup matches.
The clubs accounts are then tainted with various obscure amounts from Mafiosi supporters who do not invest in football for love of the game. An article in Russki Reporter corroborated this information on the links between football clubs and the Mafia, and give a number of examples of known links with the Mafia Moscows regional anti-crime department brought to light evidence of links between the success of the club Saturn, from the Mosow suburbs, and the vor v zakone godfather, Oleg Shishkanov.
He also headed up Russias Premier Football League in and and was involved in a number of scandals. The club Spartak Moscow also fell into the clutches of Mafia gangs, particularly the Alazan gang and one of its leaders, Ruslan Atlangueriev, who used the club for his personal business.
Larissa Netchaeva, who became CEO of Spartak and tried to stop these practices, was assassinated in Small provincial clubs in Russia, even though they exist partly thanks to public funds, are also of interest to Mafia gangs.
In , the club Fakel de Voronej fell foul of the law. Substantial sums granted to the club by the State were received by people without any official links to the club, but who oddly enough accompanied it constantly on its travels. Even though the practices of the s and early s are less common nowadays, it is still difficult to get rid of them completely. In May , Rustam Saimanov, who was then a Director of the club Rubin de Kazan, was jailed for his involvement in a series of murders in the mids.
The match referee claimed to have been threatened at half-time in the changing rooms by three people, including Osman Kadiev The Russian football championship is now one of the most corrupt in the world, to the extent that betting operators now refuse to accept bets on matches in the Russian Second Division, as well as a significant number in the Premier Division.
Two Russian clubs are currently in the news in Western countries: the first is the club Terek Grozny, headed up by the President of the Republic of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov. He wants to make Grozny an international shop window for his republic and has injected very substantial funds into developing the team and infrastructure.
The human rights violations and other crimes of which Kadyrov is accused fuel rumours about his ability to rig matches. Club Anzhi Makhachkala also became famous in for recruiting footballer Samuel Etoo for three years at an annual salary of 20 million. At the beginning of the year, the club was bought by millionaire Suleyman Kerimov, who has close links with Magomedsalam Magomedov, President of the Republic of Dagestan, a neighbour of Chechnya.
The enlistment of football clubs by political dignitaries of authoritarian regimes suspected of entertaining links with criminal organisations therefore represents an additional potential risk of corruption in sport. Corruption in sport ex nihilo: How to rig a match from the outside Without developing institutional links with sporting structures, criminal organisations are able to bribe one or more athletes to alter the course of a match.
They can thus take advantage of the vulnerabilities in the world of sport that we identified earlier, and in some cases, as we have also seen, can avail themselves of exceedingly extensive financial resources to achieve their ends. It should be noted that in the large majority of cases, match-rigging at the instigation of criminals outside sport has the aim of enrichment on the sports betting markets. The direct approach: a knife to the throat or banknotes before the eyes To convince sportspeople to fix a match, some criminals may use a classic method: threats.
This method involves using verbal methods to apply pressure, or blackmail or physical violence. In the scandal that shook Italian football in , a goalkeeper who was aproached to allow Inter to win against Lecce received physical threats following the failure of the plan.
As mentioned earlier, the countries in which Mafia practices are most common are more likely to see this type of physical and psychological pressure on players. The other form of direct approach is that of financial corruption, i. At the last European Basketball Championship in Lithuania in September , a member of the Greek delegation, Stavros Ellianidis, contacted three different referees by telephone to convince them to favour Greece in first round matches.
Specifically, he contacted the German referee for the match against Montenegro, offering him 20, to favour Greece These direct contacts are very seldom reported. For example in tennis, the media attention given to the Kafelnikov and Davydenko affairs encouraged some players to break their silence and admit having been approached in the past. It was five or six months ago in Europe. My mobile rang. At the other end of the line was someone who said he was the Czech agent of the player I was meeting in the first round of the tournament I was playing in.
And what did he ask me to do? To go slow, to let my opponent win, because apparently he was young and needed to win points to move up the ratings. I was flabbergasted. In other words, the total budget for the tournament, and four or five times more than I would have won if I had won the tournament. I said no, but how could you not be tempted if you are short of money, which is often the case with players who are moving up through the secondary circuit?
In , Belgian player Gilles Elseneer was approached to lose his first round match at Wimbledon against Potito Starace in exchange for the sum of , Another Belgian player, Dick Norman, also admitted having been asked twice to lose a match in exchange for a substantial sum of money: It was during a Challenger tournament.
I only remember it vaguely because it is quite a long time ago. I didnt do anything about it French player Arnaud Clement was also the target of an attempt at corruption: Someone phoned me once four years ago in my hotel room to ask me if I wanted to go a bit easy the next day. At the time it wasnt a common thing, so I thought someone was playing a trick on me.
I said no, no and hung up In March , during the Indian Wells tournament in California, payer Dmitry Tursunov also received a phone call in his hotel room offering him money to lose a match Tennis is not the only discipline in which this type of thing happens. Erol had already settled the rigging of a match between his club and Kayseri with the other members of the team, and now just needed to convince the goalkeeper to allow the goals in.
This is an extract from a transcription of the recording received by the Turkish police from the Chairman of Sebatspor who had learned of the corruption attempt and had placed a listening device on the phone of the goalkeeper, Hakan Olgun: Kenan Erol: Ive spoken to all the other players about fixing the match. The others know about it. Hakan Olgun: What? The whole team knows? Kenan Erol: Dont worry! Hakan Olgun: I dont understand. You just want me to leave my goal area and concede a goal?
Kenan Erol: At half time, youll lead But Kayseri must win the match. You will have to let in two or three goals in the second half. Hakan Olgun: Can I trust you? La Dernire Heure, 27 September Kenan Erol: The money is in the car. Let me show you. Hakan Olgun: So do you mean that its betting? Or have you got an arrangement with the other team? Does our staff know?
Kenan Erol: If you talk to your staff you wont receive a single lire! Im trying to do you a favour. These people are trying to bet billion lire. You just need to give us the score we want. Hakan Olgun: Hey man! Theyre notes. Ive never seen so much money in my life! Are you going to give it to me? Kenan Erol: When the match ends, it will be in your pocket. Hakan Olgun: Ive got debts of billion Turkish lire. How much am I going to get? Kenan Erol: At least 75 billion Turkish lire. The rest will go to your friends63 The indirect approach: using intermediaries or maturing a long-term relationship It remains difficult for organisations outside the world of sport to approach athletes or referees who live within a closed circuit.
An indirect, more subtle, approach is therefore often used. The use of intermediaries specialising in corruption is a classic approach technique. In most cases, these are ex-players, agents of players or members of the world of sport who are known in sporting circles, and have a good reputation. The intermediary will therefore ideally be someone from the same milieu as the sportspeople to be corrupted, who can reassure them about the risks they will be running.
These intermediaries are also able to identify players who are weak, psychologically fragile or in financial difficulties, or possibly at the end of their careers, who make ideal targets. The match-rigging scandal that exploded in Italy in May involved several former footballers, including the famous Giuseppe Signori, a forward in the s, who represented criminal circles and organised corruption at grassroots level. The player contacted was responsible for the smooth operation of the corruption and if necessary recruited other players to the scheme.
Certainly, he would then have to share his gains, but at the same time ensured the chances of the scheme succeeding. The Juve Stabia - Sorrente match on 5 April can be cited as an example of this because it was Cristian Biancone, a centre forward at the end of his career and childhood friend of Francesco Avallone, an important member of the local Mafia the Alessandro clan , who contacted the teams goalkeeper to persuade him to allow a goal through, whilst reminding him of the type of physical retaliation he could expect if he did not rig the match as agreed Corruption can also be born out of a relationship of collusion between a sportsperson and the intermediary.
The intermediary might also give them presents, which help to deepen the relationship. The stage of actual corruption is reached when the player is asked to go easy in a match. This is a real spiral because as soon as the sportsperson accepts the initial gifts, the corruptor-corruptee. Tuncer , Y. Sali Hakan ikeyi 90'dan ikardi! Zaman, Spor Istanbul If the sportsperson refuses to rig a game, the corruptor reminds them of the initial presents they accepted, which helped to strengthen the relationship.
If the player proves to be overly reluctant, threats may be made, given that now the criminal knows the player and their possible weaknesses family for example. The establishment of this type of relationship of trust is known as grooming. It involves gradually winning a sportspersons trust, preparing the field, and opening up the doorway to crime to make the first match-rigging proposal.
This technique can be particularly effective in an individual sport such as tennis, where young players often find themselves alone on the circuit and are therefore more inclined to let themselves be approached by people they do not know. Obviously sportspeople are not the only targets. Referees can also prove to be interesting prey, as demonstrated by the Hoyzer affair in Germany. This football referee - Robert Hoyzer - was banned for life in by the German Federation from any activity connected with football for having rigged several games at which he was officiating.
One of these games was a German Cup match on 21 August , between amateur team Paderborn and Hamburg, one of Germanys top teams. Hamburg lost after two highly controversial penalties were awarded and one of its players was sent off Robert Hoyzer had established a long-term relationship with a Croatian criminal organisation, some of whose members frequented the King Cafe, a bar and betting shop in Berlin.
Robert Hoyzer visited the cafe often and gradually built up friendships, particularly with Ante Sapina, manager of the Berlin cafe, and his two brothers Milan and Philip Sapina. It was then that these three brothers suggested he fix a few matches and bet on them at their Berlin branch66 cf. For the most powerful criminal organisations, the easiest way is to organise matches themselves! The range of corruption techniques available to criminals is almost limitless because it has recently come to light that bogus friendly matches have been organised by fraudulent organisations with the sole purpose of deceiving the betting market.
For example, in February two unlikely friendly matches took place in Antalya in Turkey: LatviaBolivia and Estonia-Bulgaria, two matches refereed by Hungarian and Bosnian trios respectively. In the first match, Latvia beat Bolivia , while Estonia and Bulgaria walked out with a draw, all seven goals being scored from penalties. During this time, several million euro were placed on the Asian markets, betting that three or more goals would be scored in each match.
The two matches had been organised by Footy Sport International, a sports agency based in Thailand that was responsible for recruiting and corrupting the referees for these two matches. The man at the head of this organisation was a Singaporean named Anthony Santia Raj.
He introduced himself as Tony to the four national federations whom he emailed in November inviting their teams to play in Turkey three months later. Footy Sport International proved to be bogus. The six referees have since. A second unbelievable - but genuine - example is that of the Bahrain-Togo match held in Bahrain on 7 September The team wearing the Togo shirts were not the countrys national team, but merely a group of amateur players who lost against the genuine Bahrain team.
The Togolese Federation was surprised to learn of the defeat of its national team, because at the precise time the so-called match was being played, Togos real national team was returning by coach from an official match against Botswana The man who organised this bogus match was named Wilson Perumal Raj.
He is known internationally for having been involved in many affairs of corruption in sport since the s. He was imprisoned initially in for having corrupted a player in the Singapore Championship, then a second time in for having physically attacked another player with the aim of preventing him from playing in a match. In , he succeeded in corrupting the national team of Zimbabwe which was playing in an Asian tournament, before organising the bogus meeting between Bahrain and Togo.
The seizure of Wilson Perumal Rajs mobile phone revealed the existence of an international corruption network, with contacts who were members of national federations, employees of betting operators, financial criminals, professional players and referees. As these examples of bogus matches demonstrate, the world of sport is not immune to exceedingly ingenious transnational criminal activities, some of them even verging on unbelievable in the light of what they dare to do.
The specific role of sports betting in corruption Our analysis of cases of corruption in sport has already revealed that many matches are rigged with the aim of enrichment on the sports betting market. In fact, corruption has always been intimately linked with gambling.
The laws of cricket and golf were codified in England in the 18th Century in order to resolve betting-related disputes. Cricket has a particularly rich history when it comes to cheating and fraudulent bets. David Forrest quotes a press article dating from criticising changes in cricket, which was being perverted - according to the author - by excessive gaming Since then, the vast majority of corruption scandals have continued to be connected with betting activity, as has been seen in the cases of the Black Sox scandal in baseball in , the Hansie Cronje affair in cricket in , the Davydenko affair in tennis in and the Bochum trial in But it appears from the review carried out by the authors of this study that scandals of this type have multiplied in recent years, while the sports betting phenomenon has simultaneously become more widespread, particularly thanks to online betting sites.
We should therefore consider the specific features of sports betting and recent developments therein: what has been the impact of virtual sports betting on the Internet? Are there inherent risks in this new way of betting? Before the advent of the Internet, sports betting was organised according to methods determined by each state. Thus in the United Kingdom, licences have been awarded to bookmakers to offer fixed odds bets to domestic customers in shops or by telephone since the late s.
In France, Francaise des Jeux had the monopoly on football pools, and then on the first fixed odds betting authorised in The recent globalisation of the sports betting market By the end of the s a large number of online betting sites had been set up independently of any state control.
Profiting from the growth of the Internet, these sites began to extend their offering to Internet users across the world, without prior authorisation. The formation in just a few years of this uncontrolled virtual market has put pressure on the various laws that govern betting activities at a national level. In , the United Kingdom was one of the first countries to open up the market.
France waited until May to propose regulating the market, and has now authorised 17 operators to market sports betting on the Internet, the management of physical sports betting remaining the monopoly of the Francaise des Jeux. Italy and Belgium also chose to regulate the market, and Spain and Denmark are on the point of taking the same route. At European level, sports betting is not covered by any specific text emanating from the European Commission. Legal precedents therefore derive from ECJ jurisprudence that, through a succession of decrees since the beginning of the s, has established a series of European principles for the regulation of betting.
Games of chance and gambling are considered to be services and therefore subject to the freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services in the European Economic area , but states have the right to restrict them for overriding reasons relating to the public interest, primarily protecting consumers guarding against addiction and protecting public order guarding against crime and fraud. In these cases, restriction by a state must be proportionate, consistent and systematic non-discriminatory.
Lastly, there is no mutual recognition between Member States in the matter of gambling. The fact that one operator has authorisation from one Member State does not prevent another state from prohibiting that operator or making its gambling offering subject to prior authorisation by that state. Today the geographic mapping of EU laws is most unusual.