Relatively low incomes contrasted with high levels of cultural capital in respect to high culture produce a different landscape of cultural consumption. In the final case study Caro Bonink and Erik Hitters Chapter 12 examine one of the new breed of popular culture attractions being developed in European cities.
The Westergasfabriek is a converted gas factory in Amsterdam, which is now a multifunctional cultural performance and production space. This attraction demonstrates a trend away from heritage attractions based on preserving the culture of the past, towards attractions based on creativity, typical of quadrants 2 and 3 in the model. The different case studies presented in this volume therefore illustrate the range and diversity of cultural attractions across Europe, and at the same time demonstrate that many of these attractions are facing similar management and marketing problems.
As the attraction stock of Europe grows, the problem of generating enough visits to meet policy goals and financial targets will also become more acute everywhere. The remaining chapters in Part 1 of the book consider the nature of the cultural visitor market and the way in which attractions are being created to meet the needs of this market. References Advertising Association Lifestyle Pocketbook NTC Publications, Henley.
Bender, B. What past? Tourism Management 13, Bianchini, F. Manchester University Press, Manchester. Recreatie en Toerisme, 7 7 6—8. Boorstin, D. Harper and Row, New York. Bramwell, B. In: Bramwell, B. Tilburg University Press, Tilburg, pp. BTA, London.
Bywater, M. Travel and Tourism Analyst No. Carroll, C. Cloke, P. In: Glyptis, S. Leisure and the Environment. Belhaven, London, pp. Colors Venice: how much? Colors, August—September. Debord, G. Zone Books, New York. SCP, Rijswijk. Dodd, D. In: Dodd, D. Boekman Foundation, Amsterdam, pp. Edensor, T. Routledge, London. Edwards, J. In: Richards, G. Routledge, London, pp. ETB, London. Forni, G. Museums International, , 47— Glancey, J. The Guardian, 27 December, p.
Goedhart, S. MA thesis, Tilburg University. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 22 1 , — Grobler, J. Hall, C. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Richards Hanna, M. Cultural Trends 32, 5— Herrijgers, C. Hewison, R. Methuen, London. Jacobsen, J.
The case of North Cape. Annals of Tourism Research 24, — Janarius, M. Leisure Management 12 November , 34— Kneafsey, M. In: Kockel, U. Culture, Tourism and Development: the Case of Ireland. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, pp.
Leiper, N. Annals of Tourism Research 17, — Lew, A. Annals of Tourism Research 14, — Littrell, M. In: Robinson, M. Centre for Travel and Tourism, University of Northumbria, pp. MacCannell, D. Macmillan, London. Macdonald, S. In: Rojek, C. Mowforth, M. Munsters, W. Garant, Apeldoorn. Munt, I. Theory, Culture and Society 11, — Murray, M. Tourism Management 18, — Picard, M. Archipelago Press, Singapore. Revue de Tourisme 4, 17— Pretes, M.
Annals of Tourism Research 22, 1— In: Ellmeier, A. Richards, G. In: Gartner, W. Ritzer, G. Roche, M. Annals of Tourism Research 21, 1— Samuel, R. Verso, London. Shaw, S. Tourism, Culture and Communication 2, — Swarbrooke, J. Towner, J. Annals of Tourism Research 12, — Tunbridge, J. Wiley, Chichester. Urry, J. Sage, London. Joensuu University Press, Joensuu. Williams, R. Fontana, London. Wright, P. Market G. It is perhaps surprising that relatively little systematic research has been conducted on this important market.
Many attractions conduct ad hoc surveys of their visitors, but these are often difficult to compare from one attraction to another. National surveys of domestic or international tourists rarely cover cultural tourism, apart from assessments of how many tourists visit cultural attractions. This is slowly beginning to change, as more collaborative research is beginning to be undertaken by attractions and public sector tourism and cultural organizations.
In the UK, for example, the Arts Council has researched the arts audience, including some information on the presence of tourists. The Museums and Galleries Commission has also examined the relationship between international tourists and museums, and they concluded that almost one-third of visitors to the UK are motivated to visit the country because of museums. Usually these studies are guided by marketing or public policy considerations, as cultural attractions try to identify current audiences and look for new ones.
Academic research covering more than one attraction is rarer, but developments are taking place in this direction too. Richards 31 32 G. Richards Review of previous research and statistical sources As noted above, most of the studies of cultural visitation are undertaken by or for individual cultural attractions.
Such studies are often commercially sensitive, and therefore often remain confidential. Even where the results are made public, the surveys are usually specially designed for the attraction, and therefore difficult to compare with those conducted elsewhere. Most academic studies of cultural tourism are descriptive, and are seldom based on empirical analysis of the visitor market. The emphasis of most research lies on examining the meaning of cultural tourism, either for the hosts or for the tourists.
A recent collection of papers from a major international conference on tourism and culture held at the University of Northumbria Robinson and Boniface, , for example, contains 13 chapters, of which only three contain figures on tourism supply or demand. The only visitor research quoted is the number of visitors to museums in Greece. In none of these studies is any attempt made to gather information on cultural tourists or their behaviour. This is fairly typical of the literature on tourism and culture, which tends to be dominated by critical social science perspectives.
The meaning of cultural tourism tends to be deduced from the interpretation of attractions and their presentation, rather than the behaviour or experience of visitors. There seems to be a significant gap between the predominantly theoretical approaches to the study of the relationship between tourism and culture on the one hand, and the more practical, empirical studies of attraction visitors on the other. Much visitor research is undertaken from a marketing perspective, and is not usually designed to engage with the social science perspectives being put forward in the literature.
This points to the need for more integration of theory and practice through the development of cultural and tourism consumption research above the scale of the individual attraction. Most attempts to produce wider empirical insights into the nature of cultural tourism have been based on survey work at regional or national level.
As Ganzeboom and Ranshuysen have noted, there are basically two methods of surveying cultural consumption: population surveys and visitor surveys. Population surveys attempt to discover the levels of cultural consumption in the population as a whole through surveys of representative samples of both visitors and non-visitors. This has the advantage that visitors and non-visitors can be compared, and reasons for non-visitation can be examined. In addition a clear picture of the proportion of different groups of the population making use of cultural facilities can be obtained.
This is particularly useful where cultural attractions are trying to promote access under different segments of the population. Most European countries have some form of omnibus survey which examines the cultural consumption patterns of the population, although the aspects of cultural visits are usually limited to levels of visitation and a basic Market for Cultural Attractions 33 profile of visitors and non-visitors.
A further problem is that omnibus surveys carried out by different bodies often adopt differing definitions of cultural attractions and participation. In the UK, for example, Davies compared the results of a number of omnibus surveys of visits to museums and galleries. In estimating the number of visits generated by cultural visitors, the multipliers used to reach an aggregate figure also varied, between 0.
Davies himself established on the basis of site surveys that the average number of visits per participants was three per year. Some of these omnibus surveys also provide information on nonvisitors. For example Mintel found that cultural visitors were more likely to come from higher socio-economic groups than non-visitors, and that the 20—24 age group was particularly well represented among nonvisitors. As they point out, non-visitors have often been treated as an aggregate group, whereas there are significant differences between latent visitors who might be motivated to visit, and those non-visitors who are simply not interested in cultural attractions.
Some of the differences between omnibus surveys can be attributed to varying definitions of cultural attractions, usually depending on the interests of the sponsors. The studies reviewed by Davies, for example, were all based on museums and art galleries, as his research was conducted for the UK Museums and Galleries Commission. The Mintel study, on the other hand, includes historic properties as well as museums and galleries, but excludes the performing arts.
The definition of arts tourism is where the main purpose of a trip is to attend a performing arts event including the cinema or to visit a museum, gallery or heritage attraction. Part of this fall may reflect an increase in cultural trips abroad by UK residents. However, it may also be the case that this specialist segment of the market is so small that sampling error may have a significant impact on the estimate of aggregate expenditure. The solution adopted to this problem of small sample sizes in many population surveys is to use a very broad definition of cultural tourism in order to include larger numbers of respondents in the research.
Major European omnibus studies, such as the European Tourism Monitor, for example, do not specifically cover cultural tourism. The European Tourism Monitor asks a general question about city trips, which probably have a high cultural content, but no specific questions about cultural consumption on holiday. The EuroBarometer omnibus research by the European Commission, which covers tourism periodically, also generates no specific information about cultural tourism. The most recent EuroBarometer survey of tourism European Commission, did contain a question on holiday motivations, however, which indicated that cultural heritage was not particularly important as a motivation.
Because such population surveys usually contain a relatively small sample of cultural tourists, the information that can be generated about the specific motivations and behaviour of cultural visitors is limited.
In order to obtain a reasonable sample of cultural visitors, therefore, the most cost-effective approach is to conduct site surveys. It is not surprising that many research studies conducted in the cultural visitor market are based on visitor surveys at cultural attractions. A number of site-based surveys of attraction visitors have been carried out in recent years. For example, Light and Prentice carried out almost visitor interviews at 15 sites in Wales on behalf of Cadw, the Welsh Historic Monuments agency.
Prentice also carried out research at a number of sites in the Isle of Man, conducting visitor surveys between and He found that different groups of heritage visitors tend to seek different experiences and benefits when visiting attractions. In order to generate a picture of the arts consumption of tourists in Amsterdam, a study carried out for the Amsterdams Uit Buro included interviews with over foreign tourists visiting the city.
Market for Cultural Attractions 35 Festivals and events have also become a major focus of academic research in recent years, and there have been a number of studies of visitors to cultural events, although the bulk of the research has been conducted in the US Getz, In Europe, van Elderen has conducted a detailed longitudinal study of the Joensuu Festival in Finland, and examined how the audience has changed over the years.
The motivations of the visitors were primarily an interest in the cultural forms presented at the festival, a desire to be entertained and to experience the atmosphere of the event. The enthusiasts were more likely to be repeat visitors with higher incomes and education levels. Their motivations were more likely to be related to a thirst for culture, the desire to experience new things and a search for stimulation and excitement.
One of the major problems of these studies is that they usually have different aims and adopt different methodologies which are specific to the site s being studied. This makes it very difficult to compare findings on an international or even national basis. In order to overcome some of the problems of comparability, it is important to use a common research methodology. ATLAS had some member institutions in 45 countries at the end of The research focused originally on visitors to cultural attractions in the European Union EU , but the scope of the research has increased to cover first Central and Eastern Europe and more recently Asia and Australasia as well.
The original aims of the research programme were to: 1. Devise definitions of the nature and scope of cultural tourism 2. Collect data on cultural tourism visits to European attractions 36 G. Richards 3. Assess the profile and motivations of cultural tourists 4. Develop case studies of cultural tourism management. Many of these aims were at least partially fulfilled in the first phase of the research programme, which was undertaken in —, and the results of which were published in Richards b.
The initial visitor surveys covered interviews with visitors to 26 cultural attractions in nine countries. The visitor research was repeated in with over surveys at 50 sites in nine European countries. Some initial results of these surveys have been published in Richards a, The survey programme was originally designed to answer the basic question — who are the cultural tourists?
The research programme has progressively addressed different aspects of cultural visitor behaviour. In the focus was on motivations, and the position of cultural visitation within overall leisure and tourism consumption. These relationships are dealt with in more detail in Chapter 3 of this volume. Questions were added on sources of information about the attractions visited, and the point at which the decision to visit the attraction was taken. Since the cultural visitor surveys have been supplemented by a series of specific studies on different aspects of cultural tourism, mainly conducted by students at Tilburg University, or participating in the Programme in European Leisure Studies PELS.
The definition of cultural tourism has also evolved during the research programme, in line with the expanding horizons of our knowledge of cultural tourism consumption. Originally we began with a technical definition which facilitated the fieldwork. A conceptual definition was devised to describe the nature of cultural tourism itself, which we viewed as being focused on the motivations of tourists Richards, b, p.
Technical definition: All movements of persons to specific cultural attractions, such as heritage sites, artistic and cultural manifestations, arts and drama outside their normal place of residence. Conceptual definition: The movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs.
Since these definitions were published there has been some comment made on them by other researchers. For example, Alzua et al. However, as our research has shown, it would be hard to find a tourist who is not interested at least in part in some aspect of the culture of the destination they are visiting. Barbara Marciszewska has also suggested in Chapter 11 of this volume that the definition of cultural tourism should include a consideration of wants and desires as well as cultural needs.
As Leiper has pointed out, needs are the underlying factors influencing tourist motivations to visit attractions. An analysis of wants and desires may be useful for a practical discussion about the consumption of individual attractions, but this does not provide a sound basis for the definition of the phenomenon of cultural tourism. The use of needs as the basis of motivations also relates more closely to the findings of tourism motivation studies, which have consistently identified the need for learning and new experiences as one of the core tourist motivations Fodness, ; Moscardo, Richards Research Methodology As noted above, the research is based on surveys of visitors to specific cultural attractions.
The research findings cannot therefore be considered to be representative of visitors to cultural attractions as a whole. The research was organized on a devolved basis, which gave responsibility for the choice of attraction surveyed to the people conducting the research locally.
This was partly on the basis that the people closest to the local situation would be able to choose the appropriate attractions to survey in their locations, and partly because of the limited funds available for the research programme. Cultural attractions had to be found that could be fitted into the existing research interests of the local partners. The attractions surveyed should therefore be considered a convenience sample rather than a representative sample of cultural attractions in Europe.
Research instrument The transnational nature of the survey meant that the development of a standard research instrument was crucial. The basic survey questionnaire was developed for the survey, and has subsequently been revised in the light of experience and as new aspects have been added to the research programme. The same basic questionnaire was used by all the survey participants.
The English language questionnaire was used by the survey team to produce versions of the questionnaire in different languages. The translations were made by native speakers who were also familiar with the research programme. In each case the wording and the order of the questions was left as close to the original English text as possible. In order to facilitate comparison, standard classifications were used wherever possible. The employment question, for example, is based on standard ISCO occupation codes.
This made the job of translation easier, since EU documents, such as the European Labour Force Survey, provide translations of the categories in different languages. The euro was also used as the basic monetary unit, with conversion scales being provided for the different language versions. Terms which might cause some differences of interpretation were also clarified in order to facilitate comparison. Market for Cultural Attractions 39 Survey procedures The questionnaire was designed to be used either by an interviewer or through self-completion.
In most cases, however, the questionnaires were interviewer-completed, as this tended to give a higher degree of accuracy and generated a higher response rate. The total visitor population in principle consisted of all visitors to the attraction or event being surveyed who were 16 years or older.
In some cases, however, visitors younger than 16 were also interviewed, as it was difficult to judge the lower age limit visually. The sample obtained at each attraction depended to a large extent on local circumstances. Usually exit interviews were conducted, and visitors were sampled on a random basis, with the sampling interval being adjusted to the visitor stream.
Wherever possible, interviews were held over different days and time periods to ensure that all visitor groups were sampled. The questionnaire was deliberately kept as short as possible, to minimize problems of refusal. Visitors who could not speak the language of the country concerned or where the interviewer was unable to speak their language could often be offered a self-completion questionnaire in their own language.
There is a likelihood, however, that Japanese and other Asian visitors will have been under-represented in the sample because of the lack of questionnaires in non-European languages. For each survey site, information was also gathered on a number of background variables, including the date and times of interviews, details of sampling methods used and the number of face-to-face interviews and self-completion questionnaires gathered.
A standard form was circulated to all survey participants for this purpose. Although there are obviously problems involved with conducting a transnational research on this scale and without structural funding, there is no doubt that the project has generated important research data which are not available in any other way. The following sections examine the data generated by the visitor surveys in terms of visitor profile, motivation, activities and visit characteristics.
A profile of cultural visitors The following analysis of the cultural visitors to the attractions surveyed is based on surveys collected at all sites. Where references are made to significant differences, these have been calculated from chi-square or t-test statistics, with a confidence interval of 0.
The proportion of women was slightly higher than that recorded in This tends to confirm the picture obtained from other studies of cultural consumption that cultural activities tend to attract more women, although the overall differences are not dramatic.
In Poland, The Netherlands and Portugal men were in a slight majority, but in all other countries women predominated. Age The research tended to confirm one of the major findings of the survey — that the cultural tourism market is younger than many previous studies have tended to suppose. The number of young visitors was slightly lower in than in , which may relate to the fact that more surveys were held outside the main summer season, which would tend to increase the proportion of older visitors in the sample.
Not surprisingly the age profile of the respondents tended to reflect the age distribution in the destination country. Even so, those with a higher education background are clearly over-represented among cultural visitors. The proportion of students tended to be highest at the Eastern European survey locations, and lowest in north-western Europe.
The high proportion of students encountered at Eastern European sites is probably related to the rapid growth of the student population in recent years. Professionals were particularly important, accounting for over half of the interviewees. The predominance of professional and managerial occupations in the cultural audience again contrasts sharply with the occupation profile of the EU Market for Cultural Attractions 41 workforce as a whole.
Income Not surprisingly, given the high status of the respondents, the majority had a relatively high income. For respondents interviewed in the EU, the median income lay around? In Poland and Hungary absolute income levels were much lower, with the median household income being about? Even so, as Marciszewska Chapter 11, this volume indicates, this is higher than the average income in Poland, which is less than? The proportion of tourists was slightly lower than in the surveys, mainly because the interviews were spread more evenly across the year.
The country of origin of the tourists was strongly influenced by the survey locations, and cannot be said to be representative of the picture for Europe as a whole. In general, however, the major origin countries reflect the major tourist generating countries for Europe. Tourists from other origin countries were generally more evenly distributed between the survey countries. The proportion of cultural tourists among the foreign visitors varied considerably according to the origin country.
America, France and Germany therefore all generated more foreign cultural tourists than the UK, in spite of the large number of British tourists interviewed. Australian and New Zealand tourists were predominantly on touring holidays. Because of the distance they have to travel to Europe, there is a tendency for these tourists to make long trips taking in several countries. Visit to survey attraction Almost half of the visitors interviewed had visited the site or event before.
Those making a repeat visit to the attraction were significantly more likely than first time visitors to have a high income, a professional occupation and to have a job related to culture. The attraction visited was viewed by a large proportion of tourists as an important reason for travelling to the survey region. In general, the remoter the attraction, the greater the importance of the attraction in stimulating travel.
In major cities there is often a combination of attractions that generates travel rather than any specific attraction. Visits to other cultural attractions Tourists were asked about their visits to other cultural attractions during their stay in the survey region. All visitors were asked about their visits to cultural Market for Cultural Attractions 43 attractions during their leisure time in the previous 12 months.
Although the average length of stay in the survey region was relatively low 2. This is because the former require the tourist to obtain information about the staging of the event, acquire tickets, and in many cases also to have a command of the language. Not surprisingly, the overall level of cultural attraction visitation is higher during leisure time than on holiday Table 2. In particular, the proportion of respondents visiting the performing arts and festivals is more than double that on holiday.
The only exception is monuments, which are visited by more people on holiday than during their leisure time. This emphasizes the important position that holidays have taken in total cultural consumption. For some consumers the holiday has taken on some of the functions that the weekend used to have, as their work Table 2. Visits to cultural attractions during stay in survey area other than survey site. Table 2. Attraction type Per cent of tourists visiting Museum Monument Art gallery Historic house Performing arts Festivals 49 39 28 37 25 13 Attractions visited in leisure time 12 months previous to the survey.
Attraction type Per cent visiting during leisure time in the previous 12 months all respondents Museum Monument Art gallery Historic house Performing arts Festivals 54 35 41 37 55 28 G. Richards 44 has become more pressured. Those visiting cultural attractions on holiday were significantly more likely to have a higher income, and to be employed in the cultural sector.
Fewer differences were apparent in visits to cultural attractions during leisure time. There were significant variations in audience composition according to the type of attraction visited. The survey sites could be roughly divided into museums, art galleries, heritage sites, industrial and crafts heritage, events and performance venues. Younger visitors were particularly well represented at performance venues and events, middle aged visitors at museums and galleries, and older visitors at heritage sites Table 2.
Highly educated visitors tended to be found at museums and heritage sites, in line with previous surveys of cultural attendance e. Merriman, Museums and heritage sites tended to attract those with high status occupations, whereas those in lower occupational groups were well represented at events and industrial and crafts heritage. Museums and galleries also attracted higher income groups.
Foreign visitors tended to be concentrated at heritage sites and galleries. Heritage sites are attractive because they are relatively easily accessible to foreign visitors, while the galleries surveyed tend to hold exhibitions that are potentially attractive to foreign visitors. In contrast, foreign visitors were under-represented at museums and performance venues. Arts performances tend to be oriented towards local audiences, and many of the museums featured in the survey have a more local or regional than international profile.
This confirms the profile developed by Richards , which indicates that heritage attractions attract an older audience, that often has higher incomes and social status. Museums and cultural attractions based on contemporary cultural production, on the other hand, attract a younger audience, often with higher levels of cultural capital. Age group by attraction type per cent of respondents. Age group 15 or younger 16—19 20—29 30—39 40—49 50—59 60 or over Total Industrial and crafts Heritage Performance site venues Events heritage Museum Gallery Total One motivational question that was posed both in and was the type of holiday taken.
Sun and beach holidays and touring holidays remain the most popular types of holiday taken, in line with the findings of the European Tourism Monitor. Countryside recreation and city breaks were also relatively popular holiday types among respondents, which is not surprising given the strong link between cultural tourism and urban tourism and the growing development of cultural tourism in rural areas.
This perhaps underlines the tendency for cultural holidays to be second holidays, taken alongside a long summer holiday which is more likely to be a traditional beach holiday. Those classifying themselves as cultural tourists were significantly more likely to be older, better educated, in a professional occupation, to have a higher income and an occupation related to culture. This matches the picture of cultural tourists developed during previous research.
There were, however, no significant differences between men and women in terms of cultural tourism participation. A range of statements relating to the motivation of visitors for visiting the survey location was also included in the research see Fig.
The motives rated most highly by respondents were experiencing new things, learning new things and relaxation. This tends to confirm the view that cultural tourists are motivated largely by a desire to learn about and experience other cultures, but it also underlines the fact that cultural tourism is no longer regarded as purely cultural — it has become a form of leisure as well. It is interesting to note that culture has become an almost compulsory part of tourism consumption for many.
Cultural tourists were more likely to state that they were motivated by new experiences or learning and that they always visited museums on holiday. However, there was no difference from other tourists as far as relaxation or work motivations were concerned. Far more significant differences in motivation were evident between tourists and local residents.
Figure 2. Local people were also more likely than tourists to be making a visit connected to their work. One area where 46 Fig. Richards Motivations for culturally motivated and non-culturally motivated there was no significant difference between the two groups, however, was the search for relaxation.
An overall analysis of the motivations of visitors to cultural attractions reveals a distinct hierarchy of factors. The most important motivators are judged to be the experiential aspects of the visit, in particular experiencing new things, relaxation and learning new things.
The final motive, visitation connected with work, is not surprisingly rated relatively low — only the small proportion of those working in the cultural sector were likely to see this as an important reason for visitation.
Tourists were significantly more likely than local residents to be motivated by learning or experiencing new things, whereas local residents were more likely to be visiting for social or work-related reasons. Market for Cultural Attractions Fig. Cultural destinations A further question added to the survey related to cities which were ranked as the most suitable cultural holiday destinations by respondents.
A list of 19 cities was constructed on the basis of the major cultural destinations in Europe identified by van der Borg Analysis of the scores awarded by visitors indicated that people tended to score the city they were visiting significantly better than visitors interviewed in other cities.
This indicates that visitation has a significant impact on the evaluation of the cities. In order to minimize this effect, respondents interviewed in one of the cities also listed as a cultural destination Amsterdam, Budapest, Edinburgh and Munich were omitted from the analysis for these cities. The impact of previous visitation is still evident in the scores, however, as Paris, Rome and London scored highest, and these are cities that attract large numbers of international tourists Fig.
Other cities, such as Florence, scored better than might be expected relative to their visitor volume. The level of correlation between the presence of these cultural cities 48 Fig. Richards Rankings of European cities as cultural tourism destinations. The perception of the different cities as cultural tourism destinations varied according to the background of the visitor. Rome, for example, scored better with women, Dublin with men. Athens, Barcelona, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, Paris and Venice were all significantly more popular with younger visitors, while Dublin, Edinburgh and Florence were more popular with the old.
Those with a higher education were more likely to favour Dublin, Edinburgh, Florence, Paris and Prague, and those with lower educational attainment found Athens more attractive this is because lots of students scored Athens high. Those with a professional or managerial occupation tended to score Florence and Paris high, and those in lower status occupations Athens, Edinburgh, Dublin and Munich.
Atmosphere is of course very difficult to define, and may often be cited by tourists as a motivational factor because they are unable to describe the specific qualities of a place that motivates them. Leiper , p. This is essentially what our research also suggests. Holiday characteristics In order to establish how cultural tourists travel, a number of questions were asked about their accommodation and travel arrangements, length of stay and group composition.
In spite of the image of cultural tourism as a short break form of tourism, the survey respondents tended to be staying longer than three nights away from home. Because of the high incidence of touring holidays, however, the length of stay in the survey region was considerably shorter. Self-catering accommodation or tent or caravan was used by just under a quarter of respondents.
Selfcatering accommodation and camping were particularly important in coastal and rural regions, whereas the majority of visitors to urban regions used hotels or stayed with friends and relatives. A third of visitors made use of the travel trade to arrange either their transport or accommodation or both. This tends to fit the picture of cultural tourists as short stay, high spend visitors. There were no significant differences in booking behaviour or party composition, however. An East—West Comparison The inclusion of sites from Central and Eastern Europe in the surveys allowed comparisons to be made between cultural visitors in Eastern and 50 G.
Richards Western Europe. As noted in Richards b , cultural consumption in Eastern Europe has suffered since the fall of the Berlin Wall from loss of public subsidies and falling incomes of local people. Because of the low purchasing power of people in the East, cultural consumption has been centred around relatively cheap forms of mass culture, such as video Jung, High culture, which was promoted under Communist regimes, has tended to suffer from the absence of state funding. In addition, as Barbara Marciszewska points out in Chapter 11 of this volume, the idea that production is driven by consumption does not tend to apply in Eastern Europe, because of the low incomes and therefore limited commercial consumption opportunities for most people.
A comparison of cultural visitors in East and West shows a significant difference in motivations. Local residents in Eastern Europe are significantly more likely than their western counterparts to be in search of new experiences and to be accompanying other people.
Their visit is also more likely to be related to their work, but they are less likely to visit museums as a matter of course when on holiday. Not surprisingly in view of the different structures of cultural attraction supply, respondents from Eastern Europe were far less likely to have visited art galleries and historic houses, although there was no difference in levels of museum and monument visitation.
There were relatively few differences in cultural consumption levels during leisure time, although respondents from the East were more likely to have attended performing arts events. There was also no difference in levels of holiday taking between East and West. In spite of the younger age profile there were very small differences in the level of people with higher education qualifications.
Eastern European sites attracted more students and fewer retired visitors. They also had more professional visitors and fewer clerical and sales and service staff. Far fewer of the Eastern European visitors had occupations connected with culture — indicative of the strong development of cultural employment in Western Europe in recent years Bodo and Fisher, In terms of favourite cultural destinations, there were also surprisingly few differences between East and West.
Only Florence and Prague were rated significantly lower by those from the East than by western tourists. Market for Cultural Attractions 51 The data from Eastern Europe underline the fact that many of the traditional images of the cultural visitor may be derived from a north-west European perspective.
In our studies in Eastern Europe there is even less evidence of cultural tourism being dominated by older, wealthier tourists. An Overview of the Cultural Visitor Market in Europe The picture that emerges of cultural tourists in the ATLAS survey is consistent with the picture obtained in , and with other studies of the cultural tourism market.
Cultural visitors tend to be better educated, have professional or managerial jobs and have relatively high incomes. In Eastern Europe the leading role played by the intelligentsia in cultural consumption Jung, means that cultural visitors have similar levels of cultural capital to those in the West, but have far lower levels of economic capital.
Cultural tourists are shown to be heavy consumers of cultural attractions. Their attraction visits are often concentrated during their holidays, particularly as the increasingly time-squeezed new middle classes have less time available at weekends Richards, b. Cultural tourism seems to be particularly important for double income couples, who are often undertaking short break holidays.
The indications are not so much that cultural holidays are replacing traditional beach holidays, but are becoming additional holidays or are being combined with sun, sea and sand products. Learning and experiencing new things remain the most important motivations for cultural tourists, who are enthusiastic participants in the experience culture. It should be noted, however, that by no means all cultural visitors are tourists, and not all tourists have a cultural motivation. The culturally motivated cultural tourist remains a relatively small segment of the total tourism market, although undoubtedly a very important segment for cultural attractions in Europe.
References Alzua, A. Journal of Tourism Studies 9, 2— Amsterdams Uit Buro, Amsterdam. Bodo, C. Davies, A. Tourism Management 16, — Davies, S. MGC, London. European Commission The Europeans on Holiday. Fodness, D. Annals of Tourism Research 21, — Formica, S. Journal of Travel Research 36, 16— Ganzeboom, H. Boekmanstichting, Amsterdam.
Getz, D. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Green, M. A cross-national comparative study of Tilburg, Bilbao and Leicester. MA Thesis, Tilburg University. Jung, B. The role of culture and recreation in postcommunist Poland. Leisure Studies 13, — Kirchberg, V. Poetics 24, — Light, D. Tourism Management 15, 27— Merriman, N. Leicester University Press, Leicester. Mintel Cultural visits. Leisure Intelligence 3, 1— Moscardo, G. Sagamore Publishing, Champaign, Illinois. Prentice, R. Market for Cultural Attractions 53 Richards, G.
Tourism Management 17, 25— In: Grande Ibarra, J. Social rights and international tourism consumption. Time and Society 7, — Interpretation 4 3 , 9— International Journal of Cultural Policy 6, — Robinson, M. Roetman, E. MA dissertation, Tilburg University. Silberberg, T. Tourism Management 15, 66— Annals of Tourism Research 23, — Veal, A. Longman, London.
Experience G. The growth in the number of cultural attractions is also part of a wider trend towards the production of experiences for consumers. Culture is arguably the most important raw material for the creation of experiences. Creating cultural experiences, and particularly cultural attractions has therefore become a fundamental part of modern societies.
This chapter analyses the changing nature of attractions, and examines their role in the experience economy. The Experience Economy Services are dead — long live experiences. In their analysis of the evolution of the production process, Pine and Gilmore argue that the economy has gone through a transition from extracting commodities to making goods, delivering services and currently staging experiences as the primary arena of value creation. They argue that experiences are an economic offer distinct from services.
Richards 55 56 G. If he insisted on seeing a painting, he would be telling Vincent that he had no plans to come visit. Vincent knew that Theo would never say that, as it would cast him in an unbrotherly light. In dealing with his parents, Vincent developed just the opposite strategy: a brazen brinksmanship.
The best example of this comes from when Vincent plotted to confront his Uncle Stricker with his plans to marry Stricker's daughter, Kee Vos. His plan was to show up unexpectedly at Stricker's home in Amsterdam to confront the preacher directly with the threat of an ugly scene if his suit of Kee were denied. Vincent learned, presumably quite early, that his willingness to throw towering fits in a family that prized decorum forced his parents to choose: either appease him or risk an embarrassing explosion.
He grew increasingly defiant and bullying, even as his parents grew increasingly distant and disapproving. He learned the power of self-abusive behavior — or even just the threat of it. He often threatened to refuse the meager allowance that Theo sent him -- implicitly a threat to throw himself on the public dole and make himself a family embarrassment.
Vincent also developed a chronic miscreant's addiction to negative attention. That's to say, an ill-fated association of people with conflicting interests, each one at odds with the rest, two or more of whom share the same feelings only when they join forces to obstruct another member.
Kools, p. Even if the observation in Kools is based on the acceptance of childhood drawings that may well not have been by Vincent see Ch. Now I believe that this is precisely the quality one has to have in order to paint -- the strength one must exert in painting or drawing. It may be that nature has favoured us to some extent in any case you and I certainly have it -- perhaps we owe it to our boyhood in Brabant and to surroundings that taught us to think more than is usual , but it is really and truly not until later that the artistic sensibility develops and ripens through work.
Now this, I believe, is exactly the quality one must have in order to paint -- one must exercise this power when painting or drawing. It may be that there has to be something innate in us, to some extent but that too you have, and so do I -- for that we may have to thank our childhood in Brabant and a background that helped, much more than is usually the case, to teach us to think , but above all, above all, it's only later that the artistic sense develops and ripens through working. Or — be quiet, my toy, be silent!
For instance, as far as I know all children are brought up on a kind of bread porridge. But he has refused that with the greatest determination. He often sits with me in the studio on the floor in a corner on a couple of sacks or something, he crows at the drawings and is always quiet in the studio because he looks at the things on the wall.
Oh, he's such an agreeable little lad. I go walking as much as I can. I'm curious to know whether you'll find an opportunity to go skating. And, I imagine, behave as if I first heard about it only recently, on a superficial level. Context: BVG R54, June "So this is my last word: I want you to take back , frankly and without reservation, what you wrote in your last letters -- beginning with the one I sent back to you. I want you to come right out and take back once and for all, without reservation, what was in your last letters -- beginning with the one I sent back to you.
I whom God has endowed at least with moral energy and a strong instinct of affection, I fell in the abyss of the most bitter discouragement and I felt with horror how a deadly poison penetrated my stifled heart. I spent three months on the moors , you know that beautiful region where the soul retires within itself and enjoys a delicious rest, where everything breathes calm and peace; where the soul in presence of God's immaculate creation throws off the yoke of conventions, forgets society, and loosens its bonds, with the strength of renewed youth ; where each thought takes the form of prayer, where everything that is not in harmony with fresh and free nature quits the heart.
My spirit was weary, my soul disenchanted, my body sickly. I , whom God has at least endowed with moral energy and a vast instinct for affection, was falling into the depths of the bitterest discouragement , and I felt with terror a deadly poison creeping into my shrivelled heart. I have spent three months on the heath : you know, that lovely region where the soul returns to itself and enjoys sweet repose; where everything exudes peace and tranquillity; where the soul, in the presence of God's immaculate creation, shakes off the yoke of convention, forgets society and frees itself from its bonds with the vigour of returning youth ; where every thought takes on the form of prayer; where the heart is emptied of everything that is not in harmony with the freshness and freedom of nature.
I just hope they arrive safely. Context: BVG R58, September "I thought that you might like the birds' nests as much as I do myself, for really and truly birds -- such as the wren and the golden oriole -- rank among the artists too. Combining the skills of scholar and juggler, Dirks instructed all levels of students in everything from "rhymes and singing" to physics, constantly rotating groups between the benches on one side of the room and the desks that filled the rest of it Brekelmans, p.
Singing, along with geography and history, were compulsory subjects in elementary education [ibid. Dirks taught geography using maps on the wall, math using abacuses, and writing using individual slates that were piled in the corner at the end of every day.
Reading and history were leavened by speaking exercises and "contemplation class. After regular school hours, Dirks taught advanced classes in French, English, and German. School inspectors invariably gave Dirks "lots of praise" for his classroom skills and the town rewarded him with free accommodations, numerous honors, and a regular salary of one thousand guilders per year plus twenty cents for every three months each student attended. His salary was raised at least once, in According to Kools, Master Dirks was a leading citizen in Zundert.
If there was one complaint about him, it was that he demanded too much of his charges. He was widely regarded -- not necessarily disapprovingly -- as a strict disciplinarian Kools, p. Provily's , looking after your carriage on the wet road; and then of that evening when my father came to visit me for the first time. And then the evening when my Father came to visit me for the first time. What I felt, wouldn't it have been 'because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying in us, "Abba, Father"'?
It was a moment in which we both felt that we have a Father in heaven; because my Father, too, looked up and in his heart there was an even bigger voice than mine crying 'Abba, Father'. The grey sky above it all was reflected in the puddles.
And around a fortnight later I was standing one evening in a corner of the playground when they came to tell me that someone was asking after me, and I knew who it was and a moment later I flung my arms round Father's neck. Provily's steps and watched your carriage driving away down the wet street. And that first homecoming at Christmas. Huysmans was at the height of his reputation when the Van Gogh family friend, Johannes Bosscha, recruited him to teach at the new HBS school in Tilburg.
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