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However, the high interest in these aspects contrasts with a limited effort to investigate the root causes of non-integration. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Figures and Tables from this paper. Figures and Tables. Geopolitics as a migration governance strategy: European Union bilateral relations with Southern Mediterranean countries. Research Feed. Originally their roofs were low and double-sloped.

They frame the place de la Pyramides on three sides, looking out toward the Tuileries gardens and the Louvre. But long before Hemingway made the Ritz famous, Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald—along with other wealthy American patrons—took up residence here in the s, when they threw lavish pre-Depression parties. As directed by architects Roubert and Papamiltiades, more than artisans restored its antiques, mosaics, stained glass, and friezes.

In , Philip Stark transformed the interior with more color and light, and the hotel is once again attracting stars. The buildings created around them were intended as showcases for the statue—to elevate the stature of the king and express his glory. As the director of the French Academy in Rome, he was clearly and disproportionately influenced by the Baroque architecture there. Or maybe he just needed glasses!

Decorative friezes surmount the windows on one side and decorative ironwork adorns the windows on the opposite side; s columns frame the classy passage where elegant boutiques and galleries hold sway under the arcades. It has more in common with the Bauhaus architecture. Flat, white strips wrap horizontally around the building, and vertical black lines give it an industrial and graphic aesthetic.

The result is a streamlined, futuristic effect—a glass and grid fabrication in stone and steel. Inherent in this Spartan design is the visible absence of commercial goods. The architect juggled the concept of clean store presentation with the conflicting merchant philosophy of piling up goods.

Though he demolished many buildings to achieve his urban objectives, some were rebuilt, as was this nineteenth-century department store. Today, a Monoprix chain store occupies the building. So much for individuality. While the building takes its inspiration in the angle treatment, its structure reverses the concept of an imposing corner frontage.

At its entrance, four statues represent Agriculture and Industry on the eastern side, and Justice and Commerce on the western side. For a time, it also housed the Commerce Court until it moved to the first arrondissement. In the s, the building was extended two stories that respected the primary design. The white stone bridges the two time periods, yet, minus the ornamentation, emphasizes the powerful lines of the Art Deco period.

Though it is not a massive building, it appears moumental on the small street. A few storefronts survive from the early days, including the oldest bookstore in Paris. Roofed, vehicle-free passages like this facilitated movement while also protecting customers from inclement weather. Galerie Vivienne boasts a structure typical of the passages of nineteenth-century Paris. An early version of the Figaro appeared in and during the next three decades, there were nine different versions of the paper, and multiple format changes occurred in the second half of the century.

In , the news journals, Paris-Midi and ParisSoir, operated in this building and, since , Le Figaro has dispensed news from the premises. More recently a new press, La Tribune, built its own office next door at place de la Bourse. Young girls, hoping for good times or perhaps bad, used to come to pray here. During the Revolution, the chapel became national property and was destroyed.

During the nineteenth century, this mansion was given a cohesive Louis Quinze style and became a national monument for its beauty. Imposing and elegant, this building is also perfectly aligned to the spirit of the times, the Belle Epoque, catching the attention of contemporaries.

From the early part of the eighteenth century, the building on the left accommodated four stories while the adjacent building on the right maximized the same space to express an additional floor, and the last-floor balcony is typical of pre-Haussmann architecture. This corner construction—set back about two meters from the older alignment—allowed a wider street, which was preserved by chance when rue du Louvre was pierced in The connection of the two streets and these buildings reflects the architectural disruption as well as the challenge inherent in creating a city where modernity confronts history.

As business expanded, however, the company wanted to establish a greater presence in the neighborhood. Rue du Mail had been built along the fifteenth-century wall of Charles V. However, nineteenth-century regulations demanded that any subsequent constructions be set back from the street. The positioning of number 23 conforms to that ruling. Decorated with stone, this industrial building has a metal structure, which provided support for the combined weight of the pianos and harps that were assembled here.

The auditorium opened onto a street that was then known then as petit chemin herbu the small grassy way , but which we now know as rue Paul Lelong. The Erard reputation attracted numerous artists to this hall, including composer and pianist Franz Liszt, who lived next door on rue du Mail. The second arrondissement, known as the financial center of the city, also carries the reputation as a center for communications, which expanded in this area as commercialism grew.

A marble plaque hanging outside and a bust inside attest to its having been the scene of a political assassination. He achieved a solid yet playful design with an ironwork inset bordered by stone. The result defies gravity with its weightless appearance. It is most likely the first building in Paris to eliminate traditional stone construction. Finally, the design reaches out three-dimensionally to bay windows supported by consoles.

The complexity of decoration is intriguing, given the industrial nature of the workshops here. At dawn, Au Panetier bakers fill their year-old, wood-fired ovens with eight different kinds of dough to create their quotidian supply of loaves. Inspired by Italian architecture, the building rises two stories over a rusticated ground floor on place de la Bourse. The arched entrance gives way to a main staircase.

Today, an annex service monitors control of gemstones from this site. The structure required 20, tons of cement, plaster, and sand, and about 1, tons of steel. Possibly the largest cinema in Europe when constructed, its baroque interior recalls an era when moviegoing was an experience beyond the latest film. It houses a Grand Hall and bars and foyers on three levels, and has a seating capacity of 2, people: in the orchestra, on the mezzanine level, and 1, in the balcony.

Its monumental proportions extend to the screen, nearly sixty feet high and over forty feet wide. This gigantic screen is surpassed only by the awesome stars rotating above your head. Opening to the street, with a monumental portal and two triumphal columns, the entrance of its main building was flanked with statues in the style of ancient temples. After the Revolution, which frowned upon such opulence, no one could afford to maintain such property.

So, the huge land parcel from rue Montmartre to rue Saint-Fiacre meters long was sold and, in , textile works and printing presses moved in. Number 13 is the headquarters of a publishing group. The building at 15—17 is the main office of the Moniteur group, which specializes in books about construction and architecture.

Nonetheless, the wonderful portal of this hotel, with its Rococo pattern, has survived quite well. The gate was shaped to help carriages ease into the courtyard from a street overcrowded with textile plants. Only around twenty gabled houses still exist in Paris today. These were narrow, connected, one-family homes; each gable represented a different family. A pattern of odd angles and jutting extensions mark layers of time. The ground level of these buildings accommodated commercial enterprises, above which businessmen lodged in one room, while a loft served as their stockroom.

The highest, glass-covered passage in Paris, Passage du GrandCerf is almost forty feet tall. Constructed on this site by an unknown architect, the arcade has a light neoclassic decoration and metal structure that covers two floors and an attic. Restored in , the passage connects the very hip Montorgueil quarter with the old Saint-Denis area filled with sex shops. Today, the much-altered ground level houses a Monoprix store, but the upper portion retains the flavor of its earlier days.

Its neoBaroque style features cornices with abundant carvings of fruit garlands and caducei, and portends prosperity. Many of these ceramic-tiled paintings depicted exotic or imaginary landscapes. This one depicts a colonial scene from a foreign land: an indigenous character deferentially serving coffee to his cushion-seated Western master.

A medieval church portal marks the entrance, and a giant clock that resembles a rosette surmounts the geminated windows. Sculptor F. Jacquier decorated the building with carvings of the Four Seasons, the twelve months, and zodiac signs. An industrial textile firm still operates from the premises. As the first department store in the second arrondissement, the building still serves as a symbol of power within the textile industry. Today, wholesale clothing dealers operate from the premises, where multicultural accents abound along with the clothes.

Despite his precautionary measures, this tower proved a only temporary hideaway, as he was murdered eleven years later. One of the oldest extant signs in the city, its image of the cork tree dates from the seventeenth century. Ceramic signs eventually replaced the iron ones. Today, beautifully restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century residences line the street.

Hidden in a courtyard, the main building of number 15 has high, stone-framed windows and a triangular pediment above the dormers, elements all of the Louis Treize style. The fishermen have since packed up, put their fish on ice, and now sell it south of Paris, but restaurants and merchants still spill out onto the lively rue Montorgueil, offering a wide range of seafood and its savory culinary necessities.

Au Rocher de Cancale, in the same location since , provides sidewalk service and, inside, its pale mustard-color walls and wooden-beamed ceiling make for cozy dining. The exterior ground-floor level is finished in a soft green and still has the original sign from , while other decorative details date from the end of the nineteenth century. But the presence of the Parti Socialist expresses its long-held position that, even in this popular neighborhood, workers have traditionally earned low wages.

Four allegoric stone statues—two of Atlantis and two caryatids representations of journalism and typography —support this ledge and the balcony above it. In , Emile de Girardin, a famous journalist of the nineteenth century, established a press presence in the second arrondissement with a publication called La Presse.

In , he created La France, a daily newspaper for the masses. Colorful stained-glass panels, copper beer pumps, brass railings, and mirrors, along with black-vested and white-aproned waiters, contribute to the ambience. Though the sides are an uneven width, it has well-balanced proportions. Typical of the nineteenth-century corner construction that marked streets, this building hovers over rue Leon Cladel and rue Montmartre.

A new law in , however, allowed for balcony projections of up to eighty cm 2. Bay windows brought more light into apartments and became quite common, and metal was emphasized as a noble material. Architects finally had more artistic freedom of expression, as demonstrated by this building. The high dome, the ornate iron balconies, and the caryatids and the other carved-stone window detailing all contribute to the impressive edifice.

They bought another building nearby to allow for the passageway and a courtyard. An ironwork window grid bordered by stone pays homage to the turn-of-the-century technology and the future of the Industrial Age. This building and others like it housed warehouses and studios and introduced new principles of architecture. Using metal framing created advantages in construction, obviating extra wall partitions and permitting work in open spaces with an optimal penetration of light.

Interspersed by decorative Corinthian pilasters, the buildings at this artery align symmetrically. The height of these buildings, dictated by ordinance, also contributes to the uniformity of design. Lacking an official venue, this company moved some dozen times between Saint-Germain and the St.

The first two theaters on this site were consumed by fire, in and in He and his wife, singer Justine Duronceray administered that company in the style of Italian opera buffa. The latter troupe played here until the early s, when they relocated to boulevard des Italiens. An intricate mosaic-tiled floor, high ceilings, globe lighting, columns, and painted panels fill the restored interior with period atmosphere.

Each building stands on a hollow base, supported by pillars at each corner, which permits a free flow of pedestrians on the ground floor and creates a sense of airiness in an area already dense with architecture. Dishing out lunch and dinner for over a hundred years, Aux Lyonnais caters to a business crowd in the financial center of Paris and, in tune with its clientele, closes on Sunday and in August, when business in Paris takes a holiday.

Lower levels of buildings such as this one housed retail stores for the savvy customers looking for the latest fashions. Following World War I, poured concrete would replace metal as the material of choice for commercial structures. Devotees ignore the tourists and high prices while barmen in spotless aprons pump beer from copper taps and a pianist taps out tunes at the circular piano bar downstairs. Almost any nationality will find someplace in Paris that will feel like home, if only for a meal.

This restaurant, decorated with stained glass and Gaelic street signs, will bolster up homesick Irishmen with hearty home-style cooking. No blarney. For the interior of this Art Deco theater, Jacques-Emile Rhulmann created an imaginative landscape of red flowers on a gold backdrop.

Propped on the window ledge are a few vintage photos and an old gravure print: One photo shows a butcher with his family, posed in the shop with sides of beef hanging above their heads; another depicts a working slaughterhouse. And the gravure print reveals an imaginary butcher dressed in the elements of his profession, in a manner Hieronymus Bosch might have conceived. Its decorative, iron-framed window treatment shows off traces of Art Nouveau, but the balanced proportions of the building are rooted in tradition.

During the Second Empire, this area catered to an elite clientele from the rapidly growing upper middle class. Today, Bijouterie Maty carries on this glittering tradition. The building rests on the site of the former place of the pavillon du Hanovre, built by architect Chevotet in for the duc de Richelieu.

Three mysterious fires have recently damaged part of the bank but it has since been restored. The original eighteenth-century stories are stone, while the upper level is a nineteenth-century construct: painted plaster in a Rococo pattern. The loose stonework framing the double doorway contrasts with the iron grillwork over the ground-level windows, a later addition from the nineteenth century.

Davioud was hired to put up a similar building opposite it, for symmetry. In , the Morice brothers sculpted the giant statue of the Republic that lords over the square representing Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. The entry to number 52 remains unchanged. Four successive Cardinal Rohans occupied this family home.

They also incorporated classic material and design elements to evoke the spirit of this ancient district. Most of these buildings were damaged when used for industrial purposes in the nineteenth century. Finally declared a protected quarter in the s, the Marais now preserves and restores its townhouses. It also contains an Art Nouveau shop. Today, that building showcases the evolution of Paris and its artifacts from prehistory to the eighteenth century. On the ground floor, double columns support a second level of sculptures, more paired columns, and a pediment decorated with seated sculptures on top.

The original statues are the work of Robert Le Lorrain. Keeping the old, high roof behind the new one expressed family prestige. Pharmacie des Francs Bourgeois has changed ownership over the last two centuries, but has remained a pharmacy since Hung above the double doors, like curtains rising on an elaborate stage setting, it presents a stately and balanced composition, opening onto a forecourt and garden. The inner building construction is brick and stone, and contains a staircase dating from the time of Henry IV.

Fontenay was the object of royal envy as well, and ran afoul of the monarchy. Fontenay died before seeing his residence completed. Sometimes several families, as well as servants, occupied the various buildings and suites. Often, rooms were rented out to subsidize the construction. In Paris, the term has now become almost completely interchangeable, referring sometimes to an old mansion and sometimes to a temporary lodging for tourists.

Viewed from these gardens, the pediment depicts an allegory of Time, and its orangerie features a sculpted pediment of Truth. The society restored the residence to its former elegance. The grandeur of the place rests on its stone staircase that—supported by stone vaulting—is so light it appears aerial.

About a hundred years later, Denis Quirot altered the street entry. A nineteenth-century modification changed the street front with the addition of one floor. This entryway gives access to two inner courtyards, one of which was a garden, probably added in along with the buildings in the second court.

Since then, its incarnations have included bathhouse, ballroom, and fol- lies theater. Before Haussmann demolished buildings in his town planning campaign, boulevard du Temple was a swinging area with theaters galore. It remains a theater. It passed through several hands before Charles Bernard acquired it, and it remained in the Bernard family until By , the City of Paris had purchased it and replaced the hotel with a primary grade school for young boys.

Bands of color on the bricks accent the floor divisions, piers, and windows. The growth of the doll industry coincided with the rise of commerce and the economic fortunes of the Third Republic, toward the end of the nineteenth century: Jumeau, a leading French porcelain doll manufacturer, produced about 10, dolls in By the turn of the century, that number exploded to about three million and included Parisiennes French fashion dolls.

In the s, the City of Paris bought the theater—in a state of total ruin by then—and rebuilt everything as it had been in the eighteenth century. Balanced by two linear side buildings, the theater—no longer in existence—was contained in the arched-windowed, central portion of this huge structure. Demolish the architect? This half-timbered fire hazard, once thought to be the oldest house in Paris, actually managed to survive since the seventeenth century—proof that the restrictions were regularly ignored.

Transformed into a prison during the Revolution, the original tower on the Square du Temple for a time held captive Louis XVI and his royal family: Marie-Antoinette, the Princess, and the young Dauphin. The king remained in the tower until his execution; Marie-Antoinette stayed for a year before her transfer to the Conciergerie; the Princess was there until her exchange for Republican prisoners, and the Dauphin withered away in an isolated cell until his supposed death.

Along with paintings by Chagall, Soutine, and Modigliani, it displays a wooden sukkah and furniture from an Italian synagogue. Paul de Beauvilliers, duc de Saint-Aignan, acquired the hotel in In , Jacques Chirac decided to convert it to a museum of Judaism.

As happened with many other Parisian buildings, additions and alterations shaped changes in this structure over centuries. When it was originally built in the first part of the seventeenth century, the church had only one aisle; a second was added early in the nineteenth century but was destroyed during road construction mid-century. Additional modifications included construction of a nave and choir, completing this amalgam of centuries. In a dual role, IRCAM promotes and supports high technology research within the industry, and it produces concerts and workshops for the public.

Out of deference to nearby housing and respect for the scale of the neighborhood, the aptly named architect Piano placed most of the music studios underground, within this brick and metal annex to the Centre Georges—Pompidou. In a bold and controversial move, the architects relegated all normal building infrastructure to the outside of the complex: Launch-pad—like metal scaffolding wraps around the outside of the rectangular building and provides structural support.

A great escalator enclosed in glass tubing inches up the side of the building like a caterpillar, revealing an exciting view of Paris. A meal on the rooftop is worth the trip alone. This colorful complex of external guts is itself an exhibit. The huge arches retain the traditional shape of commercial buildings, on this headquarters for the trade union that governs grocery and food stores.

In , Nicolas Faure expanded it with an additional parcel of land on rue du Temple. Then, he changed the entrance to the street and built two rental houses on each side, partly to finance the project. He turned the logic of the hotel upside down: The old garden became the courtyard, and the courtyard was transformed to a garden with a new wing on its side. Jean Aubery occupied the home in , and then it belonged to Thierry Le Rebours. But part of the picture is missing, namely the nineteenth-century industrial occupation of the building.

Later in the fifteenth century, the convent of the Brothers of Charity occupied the premises. In , the Carmelite Order of the Billettes built the current church, which became a Protestant sanctuary in and survived the Revolution with its inherited, medieval cloister intact. Completed in , this late Gothic, pillared cloister is the last of its kind in Paris. The house, converted to a day care center, at one time belonged to the granddaughter of Jacques-Coeur, silversmith to Charles VII.

Jacques-Coeur, or perhaps his son, may have once owned it, but no records exist to verify such assumptions. The lower portion is stone; the upper, brick, was used as a building material for the first time in the Paris.

The slanted rooftop is capped with tiny dormers. The Guillemites, or brothers of SaintGuillaumede-Malval, who wore black robes, assumed control of the church a few decades later but not the name of the street. Though closed to the public, the portal facing rue Vieille du Temple is visible, and worth a visit for its relief sculpture of War and Peace by Thomas Regnaudin.

Converted to apartments in the nineteenth century, the mansion is of brick-and-stone construction with a steep roof. In the early sixteenth century, an edict prohibited such frontage and stipulated that plaster cover any timbered framing to minimize the potential fire hazard these homes created. The Le Brun ceiling still survives. From Polish Jews to Turkish baths, the strange destiny for this nineteenthcentury building awaited yet another odd turn: a luxury shop opened here in Celebrations of a more noble cause also graced this royal place.

Additions and remodeled wings have altered the mansion since its early owners occupied it. The overhanging turret on the corner dates from , and the decorative portal featuring two putti dates from Originally conceived in as a monastery for the Jesuits, the church honored Saint-Louis alone. Composed of two sides of freestone, with a mixture of sand and rubble filling the empty spaces, the remains of this enclosure were often preserved and concealed behind various courtyards and workshops around Paris.

Noteworthy features include its interior seventeenth-century staircase and the Giovanni Gherardini fresco, The Apotheosis of Saint Louis, which adorns the cupola. In trying to recreate the scale of traditional neighborhood residences, Cesari subdivided the building into five small sections, between which he positioned large, recessed bay windows. Floodlit and tiled, the inner courtyard space has a quiet ambience but with the odd sensation of being inside an aquarium. Because of its proximity to the river, the architects built the entire structure, except for the roof, out of concrete.

The corner rises in the shape of a severe, rectangular tower as a reflection of the studious atmosphere inside. The old duke loved dancing with young women of ill-repute under the arcades of Place Royale, now the nearby Place des Vosges, while he accommodated his young wife and her lovers by building them separate apartments within this residence. His daughter, the duchesse de Rohan, fooled around here, too, and had an illegitimate son.

A century later, Voltaire challenged the then-prince de Rohan who lived here to a duel, but Rohan had Voltaire thrown in prison instead. Their restoration preserves the original building configuration between the court and garden. Bofinger is famous as both the oldest brasserie in the city and, its website claims, the first Parisian restaurant to serve draft beer on tap.

This remaining portion of the arsenal served as a residence before being converted to a library. Originally, the duc de Sully lived here as the grand master of the artillery; then architect Boffrand enlarged it for a new grand master, the duc de Maine. For the late twentieth-century restoration, Yves Lion respected the original design and added modern extensions using contemporary material.

When Baron Haussmann cut streets in the mid-nineteenth century to modernize the city, he did so with the thought of perspective: He wanted a clear line of sight with awesome buildings on both ends of the street. If a building did not exist in the right place, he ordered one built. If one was in the way, he had it demolished. Haussmann preserved the arch, today the entrance of a private street. After this boring period, homes were deliberately rebuilt to make them fashionable, sensual, fascinating, and demonstrative.

This same view would have greeted Alsace-Lorraine refugees from the Franco-Prussian war. Fleeing to Paris in the s, many opened restaurants introducing their hearty country specialties to local residents. The subject of many paintings, engravings, and carvings, the elm motif decorated home furnishings, balcony ironwork, workshop signs, and four wooden choir booths within this church. It was not uncommon for a church to rent out apartments to increase its monetary position, and this is what happened here.

A cemetery once existed here as well. But when the houses were rebuilt in the mid—eighteenth century, it was closed, as burial was forbidden within town limits during this period. In , the City of Paris had plans to demolish these row houses, but Albert Laprade launched a preservation effort to save them.

It also mourns the demise of its own Templar leader who met with an untimely execution on the Pont-Neuf bridge. It seems the bar owner prefers royalty over Revolutionaries and, as one of about 75, royalists in Paris, waits for the return of the would-be Louis XX. It began as a wooden two-story town hall in , and went throught several incarnations. In , several centuries after the Norsemen devastated Paris, Philippe Auguste financed and encouraged redevelopment on the Left Bank to balance city growth on both sides of the Seine.

Business was already thriving on the Right Bank; on the Left, where earlier Christian sites existed, religious orders—primarily responsible for education in those times—taught classes in open forums. Theologians and intellectuals preached while standing on wooden benches in the vicinity of place Maubert and rue de Fouarre, and students plunked down seats around them, to absorb their teachings.

Permanent colleges gradually replaced open-air learning and, in Robert—a scholar, chaplain, and confessor of Saint-Louis, who hailed from the village of Sorbon—established a college to house and educate poor students. It became La Sorbonne, the seat of the theological faculty. Its size and reputation grew over the next several centuries despite its limited religious teachings in Latin. In , Cardinal Richelieu commissioned architect Lemercier to expand and rebuild the Sorbonne.

The minister of education established new building regulations: rooms had to be well-lit from one side and buildings had to be raised sixty centimeters above the ground and constructed of brick and tile. Thus it was easy to recognize these buildings with their stone foundations, the well-marked ground level of two materials, the large windows, and the use of brick and stone for the lintels and frames.

Its spires and arcades, winding staircases and stained-glass windows, courtyard gargoyles and storytelling tapestries virtually celebrate Paris of the Middle Ages. The six-paneled Lady and the Unicorn—the most famous of the woven tapestries—is an allegorical work upon the six senses. She would often give them books and extend credit to them. Unbeknownst to Julien, the pauper was Christ in disguise who ultimately redeemed Julien.

Several earlier chapels existed here, prior to this small, rustic twelfth-century church, one of the three oldest in Paris. The owner, the grand panetier, baked bread for the royal court of King Philippe the Fair. In , it became a distillery, but a violent explosion in severely damaged it. Behind walls and a closed gate, a sober seventeenth-century building still stands, the oldest portion of which is the gate and two pavilions on each side that probably date from the sixteenth century.

High-ranking corpses were buried beneath the corridor, while the laity was dumped under the open spaces. Later, in the seventeenth century, when the arches were redesigned and closed off by stained glass, the clergy held meetings there, and a few resided above the arches.

The architects designed the center courtyard and prayer hall to have a border of arched columns, and a marble patio and fountain. This collaboration between the French government and several Muslim countries respects the three traditional components of Islamic architecture: religion, culture, and commerce.

Supposedly, the fork was invented on this spot, in a sixteenthcentury inn. Half that many bottles of wine , are stored in ancient wine cellars beneath the restaurant. Composed of metal, brick, and glass, the facade features the industrial characteristic of a riveted metal framework. Iron bars define the long, triple windows, and a thin, brick border surmounts arched windows at the ground level.

Only the refectory remains. Founded in by the Abbot of Clairvaux, an Englishman named Etienne de Lexington, the order lost its mandate to the Citeaux Abbey in Reconstruction occurred periodically due to regular flooding and a first-floor fire in In the s, only the papal living quarters survived the new construction on rue de Poissy and boulevard Saint-Germain, when the remaining buildings were demolished.

Later, its grand lecture room accommodated large crowds for political meetings. Today, this simple church, with its pointed roof and tall steeple, serves a Romanian Orthodox congregation. Of note is the mosaic above the entry. Just after the completion of this building, the street was lowered by several feet, requiring the installation of a new doorway below the original.

The ground floor thus became the main level of the building. Female students receive training here today to prepare for higher education. He studied Greek, Hebrew, and Syrian, and collected botanical and mineral specimens. In another stunning achievement for the age, architect Labrouste constructed this library, which predated and influenced the famous ironwork of Les Halles market pavilions, the railway stations, and particularly the National Library.

Typically, then as now, the ground floor was reserved for commercial space while the upper levels were converted to living quarters. Currently, a cultural bookstore occupies the ground level, with apartments above. An academic committee oversaw the development plans; and, therefore, the building design incorporated about fifty different laboratories. One was sunk thirty-six feet below ground, to keep a constant temperature. It first occupied the premises here in , but relocated in ; and this building now houses the Ministry of Research and Technology, and other government offices.

The former college courtyards have, in part, become a public garden with a reflecting pool and a delightful walkway that links rue Descartes to rue du Cardinal-Lemoine. The last rood screen, or stone choir, in Paris is preserved in near-perfect condition inside this church.

Before pulpits existed, rood screens provided a place to read the Gospel. This screen dates from , and Beaucorps designed it to leave the nave fully visible. Also noteworthy within the interior of the church are the organ case, the pulpit, the winged female sculpture, and the elaborate spiral balustrade. He lived and commissioned a church with a dome and portico in monumental Gothic style.

Et voila, the art-house cinema was born. In the s, Truffaut shot a scene here, when he directed Jules et Jim. The interior, renovated in , has Dolby sound and seating for , plus a balcony. Inspired by Italian renaissance, Gueri then depicted deer and wild boar on an ochre background surmounted by an unrestrained floral and fauna pattern. The residents of this boring, prefab complex, however, have a lovely view across the angled street, overlooking a small patch of green and toward more interesting Haussmann stone apartments.

The book trade continued to thrive on this street, however, throughout the seventeenth century. Today, this tall, narrow building, constructed in Rococo style for coin exchange controller Claude Dubuisson, houses the Abbey Bookshop—a Canadian-owned English- and French-language bookstore. After a fire destroyed the interior, Joly—with the aid of an engineer and optical experts—devised an ingenious system of projection using a periscopic device.

With a projection room situated lower than the screen, this mirrored system still functions today, perhaps the only one Europe. It was the first, in , to show films in their original English-language format without dubbing, thrilling English and American communities in Paris. The street is aptly named for microbiologist Louis Thuillier, a student and collaborator of Louis Pasteur.

Like the aperture of a camera lens, mechanized panels on the photosensitive windows regulate the intensity of light in the building, while the aluminum varies the shadows, thus producing a lattice-screen effect reminiscent of early Muslim architecture. This building was an Arab-French collaboration under President Mitterand, in which architects from nineteen Arab countries participated.

She wanted a mansion reminiscent of the Pitti Palace, her former palatial home in Florence, Italy. While the stone rustication indeed resembles that of her Italian palace, the grand proportions, the simplicity and the classic entre cours et jardin styling of the building are all French sensibilities. She also commissioned Peter Paul Rubens to create a series of paintings, now in the Louvre, on the cycle of her life. In , during the Day of the Dupes uprising against her, she fled this palace, never to return.

In the next century, the Revolution confiscated it to use as a prison. With its tennis courts, jeux de boules, tree-lined paths, beautiful gardens, pony rides, toy boats, and plenty of people-watching positions, this is definitely a democratic park, original intentions notwithstanding. Occupying the premises is a shop that buys and sells antique dolls. The structure has five levels, plus one added probably at the turn of the last century.

Toklas and held court with writers and artists. Her large, ground-floor apartment welcomed Hemingway, a frequent visitor whom she took under her tutelage. Art Nouveau flourishes abound on the building as it undulates from the corner down both sides of the street. The building is occupied today by the Tati chain. Of particular interest is the portal with a Rococo cartouche above which Bonnot mounted a cornice balanced by two ornamental stone vases that offset a window.

On the upper level, two decorative, oval windows flank the central rectangular one. But that rural setting did not last for long, as the city expanded quickly. Though its unadorned windows show only slight variations and its central pediment contains no decorative sculpture, the structure is beautiful in its simplicity. He was commissioned to enhance the apse of the Pantheon during the Third Republic. Although the upper story reflects the same style, it is probably a nineteenth-century addition.

Perhaps it is a metaphor for the artist-residents who might be attempting to break through the rigidity of society with their art. Halfway between tradition and modern construction, a layer of fine brickwork conceals the concrete frame of the apartments. He achieved a vertical emphasis with a central staircase that is enclosed by glass panels and capped with a rotunda. The exaggerated chimneys add to the impression of architecture rising to new heights of expression.

Always in competition, these restaurants drew intellectuals from the political arena as well as the arts. The first owner, Libion, harbored Russian political exiles, including Trotsky and Lenin. Such international artists as Picasso, Modigliani, Derain, and Max Jacob were also among the patrons.

Simone de Beauvoir was born upstairs in this building in Once upon a time, La Rotonde offered one of the best places to people-watch. In real life, this magnificent combination Art Nouveau and early Art Deco hotel has also attracted the famous and infamous.

And, during Occupation, the Nazis set up Gestapo headquarters here. Seven years later, a real estate developer took control of the property and expelled them. A new cultural forum opened here with broader ambitions and eventual support from the Ministry of Culture.

In , Lucernaire Forum received official recognition with the label, National Center of Art and Essai, for the creative work it still undertakes. Since then, several different models have been designed to service the public. Often located at subway entrances, these newsstands open like small books each day to service Parisians and tourists.

This particular, forest green kiosk dates from around , and stands in front of a massive building from the early twentieth century. Over time, a mismatched structure grew, the church compensating for this lack of unity in design and style with its imposing proportions: Ordered sets of Doric and Ionic columns support two successive levels, above which a balustrade borders a terrace. Shaped like spiraling ram horns, the Ionic capitals support an entablature with a small, triangular pediment above the central portal.

The state partially paid for another building opposite the square, which architect Godde designed in a neoclassical style with additional influences from Italian palaces. Seminarians used this building until a decree separated church and state. Today the Ministry of Finance occupies the premises. Prior to its current occupant, the Paris-based Institut Tessin—named for the seventeenth-century Francophile architect of Swedish origin—occupied the building.

By , it had evolved into a bistro, but retained its simple menu, affordable prices, antique mirrors, and old tiles. Between and , James Joyce dined at this restaurant when money from his literary reviews arrived from Dublin. The bistro also attracted nineteenth-century writers Verlaine and Rimbaud, twentieth century author Richard Wright, and numerous others in the arts.

Its design features an angled pavilion, a rotunda, and two wings. Above a simple ground floor, decorative windows open out to a balcony. A bronze attribution crowning the central door indicates its original mission as le Cercle des Libraires—a member association and union that brought together varied professionals to protect mutual interests and private properties.

Part of the completed space was then rented to engravers and printers. After the building was remodeled in , the Ecole Nationale du Patrimonie—the historic monument division of the Ministry of Culture—moved in. A permanent covered market with a double-tiered roof was built nearby in Damaged by fire in , it was redesigned on the square as an arched structure.

Rebuilt on this same site in the late twentieth century, from the outside the current covered shopping arcade resembles the early nineteenthcentury Saint-Germain marketplace. However, inside, brand-name chain stores and other modern shops, and other contemporary facilities occupy the retail space; and it is only the overall structure of the interior that bears even a faint reminder of the medieval fairs of long ago.

Overall, it combines Romanesque and Gothic features: Its nave, transepts, and three bell towers reveal Roman origins, while its flying buttresses and stained glass owe their style to Gothic influences. They resettled in Paris, where they opened this eatery. Originally, they named their brasserie Edges of the Rhine, but customers habitually referred to it by the name of the owners, and that stuck. Its Belle Epoque interior features exotic ceramic designs by Leon Fargue.

In , Marcellin Cazes bought the restaurant, expanded it, and, in , received the Legion of Honor for having the best literary salon in Paris. Literary and theater groups still meet here. Even when air-raid alarms sounded, they pretended to leave, but then continued writing upstairs. Picasso and Chagall exchanged political views and matchbook doodles.

Allegedly, in the twelfth century, Pope Alexander III himself passed through the door in this manner to enter the abbey. Now, Bel Ami occupies two renovated buildings: a typically austere construction from the eighteenth century and an industrial workshop structure from the nineteenth century.

Designer Grace-Leo Andrieu, the same woman who remodeled the Montalembert Hotel, recently completed an interior renovation. Although shops fill the ground level of these buildings today, doorways at the crossroads of numbers 1, 2, and 2 bis once led to the main courtyard of the Abbey.

In the 18th century, administrative houses for the bailiffs, civil and criminal judges, and police force were situated at the angle of these streets. A hundred years later, Francis and David Holder bought the period restaurant and began expanding. Its mostlywindow exterior curving around the corner gives weightlessness to the large and weighty structure. Situated at a corner, the place also seemed ideal for mischievous students who had a reputation for pelting pedestrians below with water bombs.

Constructed between and to protect the city from invaders, this rampart crops up in the oddest places today. It is usually hidden by newer construction. Different portions have been well-preserved thoughout the centuries, however, because houses leaned up against them. In the s, the Vagenende family took over the premises, and ran it for more than fifty years until Buildings had to adhere to height and stone frontage requirements.

The strategic site and shape of this building placed at the corner was perfect to express monumental architecture that would become a model for Parisian apartment buildings until the time of Haussmann in the nineteenth century. On the other side of rue Dauphine, the same architect reused his model with identical characteristics. Its crossing shaped like the prow of a boat, the building rests on a solid base level surrounded by a balcony, and a heavy cornice crowns the building and hides the roof.

By its position and shape, this building, one of the most beautiful of its time, is reminiscent of the Flatiron Building in New York City. Before architect Antoine won a contest to design this building, the Mint—one of the oldest French institutions dating back to Charles the Bald in —had had successive homes. Antoine designed the building to stand at the widest portion of the Seine facing the Louvre.

He created offices on the riverfront, and workshops in the rear. The building is now a coin museum. Inside, beneath the dome, the mausoleum of Cardinal Mazarin rests once again—having lost its place temporarily during the Revolution. Before he died, Mazarin established a grant in his will to fund the construction of the College des Quatre Nations, designed to educate noble students from the four foreign regions that France had recently acquired: Alsace from Germany , Artois from Flanders , Piedmont from Italy , and Roussillon from Spain.

During the s, this building was one of many to be confiscated and transformed into prisons. Among hundreds of others, Dr. Guillotin, of guillotine fame, occupied a cell here. When Henry IV disavowed his first wife, Marguerite de Valois, she set up housekeeping across the Seine in a mansion she had built for herself. In , she founded the convent of the Petits-Augustins for the Augustinian monks and constructed, on her estate, a church and chapel known as the Chapelle des Louanges.

Its dome is the oldest in Paris. In , the museum was closed, renovated, and transformed into the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. This view from Pont-Neuf suggests the problems this project created for city authorities because the architecture had to respect the site of Pont-Neuf, rue Dauphine, and the riverbank alongside it. As an extension of Pont-Neuf on the Left Bank, rue Dauphine is one of the first real urban planning projects in Parisian history thanks to Henry IV who, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, first tried to impose homogeneous buildings of the same height and stone facades on a straight street.

These upper levels are reserved housing for university students who often experience difficulty in finding places to live due to the high demand for rental units in Paris. Two slightly different piers—one with carved horizontal lines and the other without—flank the entry gate. Dormers also cross the roof adding a horizontal balance.

The building typifies a time of research in French Renaissance architecture when vertical lines were still directing the shape of a building. Hennebique, who began his career as a stonemason, started experimenting with the properties of concrete. Discovering that it was preferable to iron because it permitted expansion, he devised a system to fix its reinforcement in place and patented the method in This geometric building marks one of the first applications of his method.

Francisque-Joseph Duret designed the energetic archangel at the center of the fountain. One of the few existant corner turrets in Paris, this one dates from the sixteenth century, and the octagonal shape of its charming tower makes this even a rarer sight. Beneath the surface lie the remains of an old Jewish cemetery dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, before Philippe Auguste and later Philip the Fair each confiscated the area and expelled the Jews.

This strange union lasted years, when the education of surgeons was finally merged with that of medical doctors. This neoclassical building has an inner court whose amphitheater contains Corinthian columns, a pediment, and a half dome. The merry monks abandoned their monastery just before the Revolution. Taken over by Revolutionary leader Camille Desmoulins, it became the headquarters for radical thinkers.

It was a gathering of like minds here on July 14, , that called for the deposition of the king. Today, the large ground floor hall is a venue for temporary exhibitions. At the time until the Revolution, surgery and medicine were separate and rival professions. So, medicine had its own amphitheater in the 5th arrondissement. The schools of Surgery and Medicine merged in , but surgery moved to a new location earlier, and this amphitheater became a drawing school in Today, the University of Paris uses it for its modern language institute.

The hotel now serves as a conference center for seminars and meetings. In , Beaumarchais premiered his Mariage of Figaro in the sumptuous interior of this theater, which is a neoclassical gem. The architects achieved a harmonious setting for their Greco-Roman theater by constructing buildings on either side of the plaza, to create visual balance. Hidden behind an alley, not far from Luxembourg Gardens, a small sculpture garden remains just as Zadkine had arranged it.

He gave the impression of being a worker, with his suit of gray velvet and his brown suede cap. He also wore big glasses to protect his eyes from the shards of wood and granite. Reminiscent of Moorish design, its lower level frieze also recalls the Roman origins of the Parthenon.

Perhaps as a reaction to the Modernist Movement that he opposed, Bigot created this monument to eclectic traditions. But its anachronistic presence also expresses its function as an institute for art and archeology.

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Four successive Cardinal Rohans occupied this family home. They also incorporated classic material and design elements to evoke the spirit of this ancient district. Most of these buildings were damaged when used for industrial purposes in the nineteenth century.

Finally declared a protected quarter in the s, the Marais now preserves and restores its townhouses. It also contains an Art Nouveau shop. Today, that building showcases the evolution of Paris and its artifacts from prehistory to the eighteenth century. On the ground floor, double columns support a second level of sculptures, more paired columns, and a pediment decorated with seated sculptures on top.

The original statues are the work of Robert Le Lorrain. Keeping the old, high roof behind the new one expressed family prestige. Pharmacie des Francs Bourgeois has changed ownership over the last two centuries, but has remained a pharmacy since Hung above the double doors, like curtains rising on an elaborate stage setting, it presents a stately and balanced composition, opening onto a forecourt and garden.

The inner building construction is brick and stone, and contains a staircase dating from the time of Henry IV. Fontenay was the object of royal envy as well, and ran afoul of the monarchy. Fontenay died before seeing his residence completed. Sometimes several families, as well as servants, occupied the various buildings and suites. Often, rooms were rented out to subsidize the construction. In Paris, the term has now become almost completely interchangeable, referring sometimes to an old mansion and sometimes to a temporary lodging for tourists.

Viewed from these gardens, the pediment depicts an allegory of Time, and its orangerie features a sculpted pediment of Truth. The society restored the residence to its former elegance. The grandeur of the place rests on its stone staircase that—supported by stone vaulting—is so light it appears aerial. About a hundred years later, Denis Quirot altered the street entry. A nineteenth-century modification changed the street front with the addition of one floor. This entryway gives access to two inner courtyards, one of which was a garden, probably added in along with the buildings in the second court.

Since then, its incarnations have included bathhouse, ballroom, and fol- lies theater. Before Haussmann demolished buildings in his town planning campaign, boulevard du Temple was a swinging area with theaters galore. It remains a theater. It passed through several hands before Charles Bernard acquired it, and it remained in the Bernard family until By , the City of Paris had purchased it and replaced the hotel with a primary grade school for young boys.

Bands of color on the bricks accent the floor divisions, piers, and windows. The growth of the doll industry coincided with the rise of commerce and the economic fortunes of the Third Republic, toward the end of the nineteenth century: Jumeau, a leading French porcelain doll manufacturer, produced about 10, dolls in By the turn of the century, that number exploded to about three million and included Parisiennes French fashion dolls.

In the s, the City of Paris bought the theater—in a state of total ruin by then—and rebuilt everything as it had been in the eighteenth century. Balanced by two linear side buildings, the theater—no longer in existence—was contained in the arched-windowed, central portion of this huge structure. Demolish the architect? This half-timbered fire hazard, once thought to be the oldest house in Paris, actually managed to survive since the seventeenth century—proof that the restrictions were regularly ignored.

Transformed into a prison during the Revolution, the original tower on the Square du Temple for a time held captive Louis XVI and his royal family: Marie-Antoinette, the Princess, and the young Dauphin. The king remained in the tower until his execution; Marie-Antoinette stayed for a year before her transfer to the Conciergerie; the Princess was there until her exchange for Republican prisoners, and the Dauphin withered away in an isolated cell until his supposed death.

Along with paintings by Chagall, Soutine, and Modigliani, it displays a wooden sukkah and furniture from an Italian synagogue. Paul de Beauvilliers, duc de Saint-Aignan, acquired the hotel in In , Jacques Chirac decided to convert it to a museum of Judaism. As happened with many other Parisian buildings, additions and alterations shaped changes in this structure over centuries.

When it was originally built in the first part of the seventeenth century, the church had only one aisle; a second was added early in the nineteenth century but was destroyed during road construction mid-century. Additional modifications included construction of a nave and choir, completing this amalgam of centuries. In a dual role, IRCAM promotes and supports high technology research within the industry, and it produces concerts and workshops for the public.

Out of deference to nearby housing and respect for the scale of the neighborhood, the aptly named architect Piano placed most of the music studios underground, within this brick and metal annex to the Centre Georges—Pompidou. In a bold and controversial move, the architects relegated all normal building infrastructure to the outside of the complex: Launch-pad—like metal scaffolding wraps around the outside of the rectangular building and provides structural support.

A great escalator enclosed in glass tubing inches up the side of the building like a caterpillar, revealing an exciting view of Paris. A meal on the rooftop is worth the trip alone. This colorful complex of external guts is itself an exhibit. The huge arches retain the traditional shape of commercial buildings, on this headquarters for the trade union that governs grocery and food stores. In , Nicolas Faure expanded it with an additional parcel of land on rue du Temple. Then, he changed the entrance to the street and built two rental houses on each side, partly to finance the project.

He turned the logic of the hotel upside down: The old garden became the courtyard, and the courtyard was transformed to a garden with a new wing on its side. Jean Aubery occupied the home in , and then it belonged to Thierry Le Rebours. But part of the picture is missing, namely the nineteenth-century industrial occupation of the building.

Later in the fifteenth century, the convent of the Brothers of Charity occupied the premises. In , the Carmelite Order of the Billettes built the current church, which became a Protestant sanctuary in and survived the Revolution with its inherited, medieval cloister intact.

Completed in , this late Gothic, pillared cloister is the last of its kind in Paris. The house, converted to a day care center, at one time belonged to the granddaughter of Jacques-Coeur, silversmith to Charles VII. Jacques-Coeur, or perhaps his son, may have once owned it, but no records exist to verify such assumptions. The lower portion is stone; the upper, brick, was used as a building material for the first time in the Paris.

The slanted rooftop is capped with tiny dormers. The Guillemites, or brothers of SaintGuillaumede-Malval, who wore black robes, assumed control of the church a few decades later but not the name of the street. Though closed to the public, the portal facing rue Vieille du Temple is visible, and worth a visit for its relief sculpture of War and Peace by Thomas Regnaudin. Converted to apartments in the nineteenth century, the mansion is of brick-and-stone construction with a steep roof. In the early sixteenth century, an edict prohibited such frontage and stipulated that plaster cover any timbered framing to minimize the potential fire hazard these homes created.

The Le Brun ceiling still survives. From Polish Jews to Turkish baths, the strange destiny for this nineteenthcentury building awaited yet another odd turn: a luxury shop opened here in Celebrations of a more noble cause also graced this royal place. Additions and remodeled wings have altered the mansion since its early owners occupied it. The overhanging turret on the corner dates from , and the decorative portal featuring two putti dates from Originally conceived in as a monastery for the Jesuits, the church honored Saint-Louis alone.

Composed of two sides of freestone, with a mixture of sand and rubble filling the empty spaces, the remains of this enclosure were often preserved and concealed behind various courtyards and workshops around Paris. Noteworthy features include its interior seventeenth-century staircase and the Giovanni Gherardini fresco, The Apotheosis of Saint Louis, which adorns the cupola.

In trying to recreate the scale of traditional neighborhood residences, Cesari subdivided the building into five small sections, between which he positioned large, recessed bay windows. Floodlit and tiled, the inner courtyard space has a quiet ambience but with the odd sensation of being inside an aquarium. Because of its proximity to the river, the architects built the entire structure, except for the roof, out of concrete. The corner rises in the shape of a severe, rectangular tower as a reflection of the studious atmosphere inside.

The old duke loved dancing with young women of ill-repute under the arcades of Place Royale, now the nearby Place des Vosges, while he accommodated his young wife and her lovers by building them separate apartments within this residence. His daughter, the duchesse de Rohan, fooled around here, too, and had an illegitimate son.

A century later, Voltaire challenged the then-prince de Rohan who lived here to a duel, but Rohan had Voltaire thrown in prison instead. Their restoration preserves the original building configuration between the court and garden. Bofinger is famous as both the oldest brasserie in the city and, its website claims, the first Parisian restaurant to serve draft beer on tap.

This remaining portion of the arsenal served as a residence before being converted to a library. Originally, the duc de Sully lived here as the grand master of the artillery; then architect Boffrand enlarged it for a new grand master, the duc de Maine. For the late twentieth-century restoration, Yves Lion respected the original design and added modern extensions using contemporary material.

When Baron Haussmann cut streets in the mid-nineteenth century to modernize the city, he did so with the thought of perspective: He wanted a clear line of sight with awesome buildings on both ends of the street. If a building did not exist in the right place, he ordered one built. If one was in the way, he had it demolished. Haussmann preserved the arch, today the entrance of a private street. After this boring period, homes were deliberately rebuilt to make them fashionable, sensual, fascinating, and demonstrative.

This same view would have greeted Alsace-Lorraine refugees from the Franco-Prussian war. Fleeing to Paris in the s, many opened restaurants introducing their hearty country specialties to local residents. The subject of many paintings, engravings, and carvings, the elm motif decorated home furnishings, balcony ironwork, workshop signs, and four wooden choir booths within this church. It was not uncommon for a church to rent out apartments to increase its monetary position, and this is what happened here.

A cemetery once existed here as well. But when the houses were rebuilt in the mid—eighteenth century, it was closed, as burial was forbidden within town limits during this period. In , the City of Paris had plans to demolish these row houses, but Albert Laprade launched a preservation effort to save them.

It also mourns the demise of its own Templar leader who met with an untimely execution on the Pont-Neuf bridge. It seems the bar owner prefers royalty over Revolutionaries and, as one of about 75, royalists in Paris, waits for the return of the would-be Louis XX. It began as a wooden two-story town hall in , and went throught several incarnations. In , several centuries after the Norsemen devastated Paris, Philippe Auguste financed and encouraged redevelopment on the Left Bank to balance city growth on both sides of the Seine.

Business was already thriving on the Right Bank; on the Left, where earlier Christian sites existed, religious orders—primarily responsible for education in those times—taught classes in open forums. Theologians and intellectuals preached while standing on wooden benches in the vicinity of place Maubert and rue de Fouarre, and students plunked down seats around them, to absorb their teachings. Permanent colleges gradually replaced open-air learning and, in Robert—a scholar, chaplain, and confessor of Saint-Louis, who hailed from the village of Sorbon—established a college to house and educate poor students.

It became La Sorbonne, the seat of the theological faculty. Its size and reputation grew over the next several centuries despite its limited religious teachings in Latin. In , Cardinal Richelieu commissioned architect Lemercier to expand and rebuild the Sorbonne. The minister of education established new building regulations: rooms had to be well-lit from one side and buildings had to be raised sixty centimeters above the ground and constructed of brick and tile.

Thus it was easy to recognize these buildings with their stone foundations, the well-marked ground level of two materials, the large windows, and the use of brick and stone for the lintels and frames. Its spires and arcades, winding staircases and stained-glass windows, courtyard gargoyles and storytelling tapestries virtually celebrate Paris of the Middle Ages. The six-paneled Lady and the Unicorn—the most famous of the woven tapestries—is an allegorical work upon the six senses.

She would often give them books and extend credit to them. Unbeknownst to Julien, the pauper was Christ in disguise who ultimately redeemed Julien. Several earlier chapels existed here, prior to this small, rustic twelfth-century church, one of the three oldest in Paris. The owner, the grand panetier, baked bread for the royal court of King Philippe the Fair. In , it became a distillery, but a violent explosion in severely damaged it. Behind walls and a closed gate, a sober seventeenth-century building still stands, the oldest portion of which is the gate and two pavilions on each side that probably date from the sixteenth century.

High-ranking corpses were buried beneath the corridor, while the laity was dumped under the open spaces. Later, in the seventeenth century, when the arches were redesigned and closed off by stained glass, the clergy held meetings there, and a few resided above the arches. The architects designed the center courtyard and prayer hall to have a border of arched columns, and a marble patio and fountain. This collaboration between the French government and several Muslim countries respects the three traditional components of Islamic architecture: religion, culture, and commerce.

Supposedly, the fork was invented on this spot, in a sixteenthcentury inn. Half that many bottles of wine , are stored in ancient wine cellars beneath the restaurant. Composed of metal, brick, and glass, the facade features the industrial characteristic of a riveted metal framework.

Iron bars define the long, triple windows, and a thin, brick border surmounts arched windows at the ground level. Only the refectory remains. Founded in by the Abbot of Clairvaux, an Englishman named Etienne de Lexington, the order lost its mandate to the Citeaux Abbey in Reconstruction occurred periodically due to regular flooding and a first-floor fire in In the s, only the papal living quarters survived the new construction on rue de Poissy and boulevard Saint-Germain, when the remaining buildings were demolished.

Later, its grand lecture room accommodated large crowds for political meetings. Today, this simple church, with its pointed roof and tall steeple, serves a Romanian Orthodox congregation. Of note is the mosaic above the entry. Just after the completion of this building, the street was lowered by several feet, requiring the installation of a new doorway below the original.

The ground floor thus became the main level of the building. Female students receive training here today to prepare for higher education. He studied Greek, Hebrew, and Syrian, and collected botanical and mineral specimens.

In another stunning achievement for the age, architect Labrouste constructed this library, which predated and influenced the famous ironwork of Les Halles market pavilions, the railway stations, and particularly the National Library. Typically, then as now, the ground floor was reserved for commercial space while the upper levels were converted to living quarters. Currently, a cultural bookstore occupies the ground level, with apartments above.

An academic committee oversaw the development plans; and, therefore, the building design incorporated about fifty different laboratories. One was sunk thirty-six feet below ground, to keep a constant temperature. It first occupied the premises here in , but relocated in ; and this building now houses the Ministry of Research and Technology, and other government offices.

The former college courtyards have, in part, become a public garden with a reflecting pool and a delightful walkway that links rue Descartes to rue du Cardinal-Lemoine. The last rood screen, or stone choir, in Paris is preserved in near-perfect condition inside this church.

Before pulpits existed, rood screens provided a place to read the Gospel. This screen dates from , and Beaucorps designed it to leave the nave fully visible. Also noteworthy within the interior of the church are the organ case, the pulpit, the winged female sculpture, and the elaborate spiral balustrade. He lived and commissioned a church with a dome and portico in monumental Gothic style. Et voila, the art-house cinema was born. In the s, Truffaut shot a scene here, when he directed Jules et Jim.

The interior, renovated in , has Dolby sound and seating for , plus a balcony. Inspired by Italian renaissance, Gueri then depicted deer and wild boar on an ochre background surmounted by an unrestrained floral and fauna pattern.

The residents of this boring, prefab complex, however, have a lovely view across the angled street, overlooking a small patch of green and toward more interesting Haussmann stone apartments. The book trade continued to thrive on this street, however, throughout the seventeenth century. Today, this tall, narrow building, constructed in Rococo style for coin exchange controller Claude Dubuisson, houses the Abbey Bookshop—a Canadian-owned English- and French-language bookstore.

After a fire destroyed the interior, Joly—with the aid of an engineer and optical experts—devised an ingenious system of projection using a periscopic device. With a projection room situated lower than the screen, this mirrored system still functions today, perhaps the only one Europe. It was the first, in , to show films in their original English-language format without dubbing, thrilling English and American communities in Paris. The street is aptly named for microbiologist Louis Thuillier, a student and collaborator of Louis Pasteur.

Like the aperture of a camera lens, mechanized panels on the photosensitive windows regulate the intensity of light in the building, while the aluminum varies the shadows, thus producing a lattice-screen effect reminiscent of early Muslim architecture. This building was an Arab-French collaboration under President Mitterand, in which architects from nineteen Arab countries participated. She wanted a mansion reminiscent of the Pitti Palace, her former palatial home in Florence, Italy.

While the stone rustication indeed resembles that of her Italian palace, the grand proportions, the simplicity and the classic entre cours et jardin styling of the building are all French sensibilities. She also commissioned Peter Paul Rubens to create a series of paintings, now in the Louvre, on the cycle of her life. In , during the Day of the Dupes uprising against her, she fled this palace, never to return. In the next century, the Revolution confiscated it to use as a prison.

With its tennis courts, jeux de boules, tree-lined paths, beautiful gardens, pony rides, toy boats, and plenty of people-watching positions, this is definitely a democratic park, original intentions notwithstanding.

Occupying the premises is a shop that buys and sells antique dolls. The structure has five levels, plus one added probably at the turn of the last century. Toklas and held court with writers and artists. Her large, ground-floor apartment welcomed Hemingway, a frequent visitor whom she took under her tutelage. Art Nouveau flourishes abound on the building as it undulates from the corner down both sides of the street.

The building is occupied today by the Tati chain. Of particular interest is the portal with a Rococo cartouche above which Bonnot mounted a cornice balanced by two ornamental stone vases that offset a window. On the upper level, two decorative, oval windows flank the central rectangular one. But that rural setting did not last for long, as the city expanded quickly. Though its unadorned windows show only slight variations and its central pediment contains no decorative sculpture, the structure is beautiful in its simplicity.

He was commissioned to enhance the apse of the Pantheon during the Third Republic. Although the upper story reflects the same style, it is probably a nineteenth-century addition. Perhaps it is a metaphor for the artist-residents who might be attempting to break through the rigidity of society with their art.

Halfway between tradition and modern construction, a layer of fine brickwork conceals the concrete frame of the apartments. He achieved a vertical emphasis with a central staircase that is enclosed by glass panels and capped with a rotunda. The exaggerated chimneys add to the impression of architecture rising to new heights of expression.

Always in competition, these restaurants drew intellectuals from the political arena as well as the arts. The first owner, Libion, harbored Russian political exiles, including Trotsky and Lenin. Such international artists as Picasso, Modigliani, Derain, and Max Jacob were also among the patrons. Simone de Beauvoir was born upstairs in this building in Once upon a time, La Rotonde offered one of the best places to people-watch.

In real life, this magnificent combination Art Nouveau and early Art Deco hotel has also attracted the famous and infamous. And, during Occupation, the Nazis set up Gestapo headquarters here. Seven years later, a real estate developer took control of the property and expelled them. A new cultural forum opened here with broader ambitions and eventual support from the Ministry of Culture.

In , Lucernaire Forum received official recognition with the label, National Center of Art and Essai, for the creative work it still undertakes. Since then, several different models have been designed to service the public. Often located at subway entrances, these newsstands open like small books each day to service Parisians and tourists. This particular, forest green kiosk dates from around , and stands in front of a massive building from the early twentieth century.

Over time, a mismatched structure grew, the church compensating for this lack of unity in design and style with its imposing proportions: Ordered sets of Doric and Ionic columns support two successive levels, above which a balustrade borders a terrace. Shaped like spiraling ram horns, the Ionic capitals support an entablature with a small, triangular pediment above the central portal.

The state partially paid for another building opposite the square, which architect Godde designed in a neoclassical style with additional influences from Italian palaces. Seminarians used this building until a decree separated church and state.

Today the Ministry of Finance occupies the premises. Prior to its current occupant, the Paris-based Institut Tessin—named for the seventeenth-century Francophile architect of Swedish origin—occupied the building. By , it had evolved into a bistro, but retained its simple menu, affordable prices, antique mirrors, and old tiles. Between and , James Joyce dined at this restaurant when money from his literary reviews arrived from Dublin. The bistro also attracted nineteenth-century writers Verlaine and Rimbaud, twentieth century author Richard Wright, and numerous others in the arts.

Its design features an angled pavilion, a rotunda, and two wings. Above a simple ground floor, decorative windows open out to a balcony. A bronze attribution crowning the central door indicates its original mission as le Cercle des Libraires—a member association and union that brought together varied professionals to protect mutual interests and private properties.

Part of the completed space was then rented to engravers and printers. After the building was remodeled in , the Ecole Nationale du Patrimonie—the historic monument division of the Ministry of Culture—moved in.

A permanent covered market with a double-tiered roof was built nearby in Damaged by fire in , it was redesigned on the square as an arched structure. Rebuilt on this same site in the late twentieth century, from the outside the current covered shopping arcade resembles the early nineteenthcentury Saint-Germain marketplace.

However, inside, brand-name chain stores and other modern shops, and other contemporary facilities occupy the retail space; and it is only the overall structure of the interior that bears even a faint reminder of the medieval fairs of long ago. Overall, it combines Romanesque and Gothic features: Its nave, transepts, and three bell towers reveal Roman origins, while its flying buttresses and stained glass owe their style to Gothic influences.

They resettled in Paris, where they opened this eatery. Originally, they named their brasserie Edges of the Rhine, but customers habitually referred to it by the name of the owners, and that stuck. Its Belle Epoque interior features exotic ceramic designs by Leon Fargue. In , Marcellin Cazes bought the restaurant, expanded it, and, in , received the Legion of Honor for having the best literary salon in Paris.

Literary and theater groups still meet here. Even when air-raid alarms sounded, they pretended to leave, but then continued writing upstairs. Picasso and Chagall exchanged political views and matchbook doodles. Allegedly, in the twelfth century, Pope Alexander III himself passed through the door in this manner to enter the abbey. Now, Bel Ami occupies two renovated buildings: a typically austere construction from the eighteenth century and an industrial workshop structure from the nineteenth century.

Designer Grace-Leo Andrieu, the same woman who remodeled the Montalembert Hotel, recently completed an interior renovation. Although shops fill the ground level of these buildings today, doorways at the crossroads of numbers 1, 2, and 2 bis once led to the main courtyard of the Abbey.

In the 18th century, administrative houses for the bailiffs, civil and criminal judges, and police force were situated at the angle of these streets. A hundred years later, Francis and David Holder bought the period restaurant and began expanding. Its mostlywindow exterior curving around the corner gives weightlessness to the large and weighty structure. Situated at a corner, the place also seemed ideal for mischievous students who had a reputation for pelting pedestrians below with water bombs.

Constructed between and to protect the city from invaders, this rampart crops up in the oddest places today. It is usually hidden by newer construction. Different portions have been well-preserved thoughout the centuries, however, because houses leaned up against them. In the s, the Vagenende family took over the premises, and ran it for more than fifty years until Buildings had to adhere to height and stone frontage requirements.

The strategic site and shape of this building placed at the corner was perfect to express monumental architecture that would become a model for Parisian apartment buildings until the time of Haussmann in the nineteenth century. On the other side of rue Dauphine, the same architect reused his model with identical characteristics. Its crossing shaped like the prow of a boat, the building rests on a solid base level surrounded by a balcony, and a heavy cornice crowns the building and hides the roof.

By its position and shape, this building, one of the most beautiful of its time, is reminiscent of the Flatiron Building in New York City. Before architect Antoine won a contest to design this building, the Mint—one of the oldest French institutions dating back to Charles the Bald in —had had successive homes. Antoine designed the building to stand at the widest portion of the Seine facing the Louvre. He created offices on the riverfront, and workshops in the rear.

The building is now a coin museum. Inside, beneath the dome, the mausoleum of Cardinal Mazarin rests once again—having lost its place temporarily during the Revolution. Before he died, Mazarin established a grant in his will to fund the construction of the College des Quatre Nations, designed to educate noble students from the four foreign regions that France had recently acquired: Alsace from Germany , Artois from Flanders , Piedmont from Italy , and Roussillon from Spain.

During the s, this building was one of many to be confiscated and transformed into prisons. Among hundreds of others, Dr. Guillotin, of guillotine fame, occupied a cell here. When Henry IV disavowed his first wife, Marguerite de Valois, she set up housekeeping across the Seine in a mansion she had built for herself.

In , she founded the convent of the Petits-Augustins for the Augustinian monks and constructed, on her estate, a church and chapel known as the Chapelle des Louanges. Its dome is the oldest in Paris. In , the museum was closed, renovated, and transformed into the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

This view from Pont-Neuf suggests the problems this project created for city authorities because the architecture had to respect the site of Pont-Neuf, rue Dauphine, and the riverbank alongside it. As an extension of Pont-Neuf on the Left Bank, rue Dauphine is one of the first real urban planning projects in Parisian history thanks to Henry IV who, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, first tried to impose homogeneous buildings of the same height and stone facades on a straight street.

These upper levels are reserved housing for university students who often experience difficulty in finding places to live due to the high demand for rental units in Paris. Two slightly different piers—one with carved horizontal lines and the other without—flank the entry gate. Dormers also cross the roof adding a horizontal balance.

The building typifies a time of research in French Renaissance architecture when vertical lines were still directing the shape of a building. Hennebique, who began his career as a stonemason, started experimenting with the properties of concrete. Discovering that it was preferable to iron because it permitted expansion, he devised a system to fix its reinforcement in place and patented the method in This geometric building marks one of the first applications of his method.

Francisque-Joseph Duret designed the energetic archangel at the center of the fountain. One of the few existant corner turrets in Paris, this one dates from the sixteenth century, and the octagonal shape of its charming tower makes this even a rarer sight. Beneath the surface lie the remains of an old Jewish cemetery dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, before Philippe Auguste and later Philip the Fair each confiscated the area and expelled the Jews.

This strange union lasted years, when the education of surgeons was finally merged with that of medical doctors. This neoclassical building has an inner court whose amphitheater contains Corinthian columns, a pediment, and a half dome. The merry monks abandoned their monastery just before the Revolution. Taken over by Revolutionary leader Camille Desmoulins, it became the headquarters for radical thinkers. It was a gathering of like minds here on July 14, , that called for the deposition of the king.

Today, the large ground floor hall is a venue for temporary exhibitions. At the time until the Revolution, surgery and medicine were separate and rival professions. So, medicine had its own amphitheater in the 5th arrondissement. The schools of Surgery and Medicine merged in , but surgery moved to a new location earlier, and this amphitheater became a drawing school in Today, the University of Paris uses it for its modern language institute.

The hotel now serves as a conference center for seminars and meetings. In , Beaumarchais premiered his Mariage of Figaro in the sumptuous interior of this theater, which is a neoclassical gem. The architects achieved a harmonious setting for their Greco-Roman theater by constructing buildings on either side of the plaza, to create visual balance.

Hidden behind an alley, not far from Luxembourg Gardens, a small sculpture garden remains just as Zadkine had arranged it. He gave the impression of being a worker, with his suit of gray velvet and his brown suede cap. He also wore big glasses to protect his eyes from the shards of wood and granite.

Reminiscent of Moorish design, its lower level frieze also recalls the Roman origins of the Parthenon. Perhaps as a reaction to the Modernist Movement that he opposed, Bigot created this monument to eclectic traditions. But its anachronistic presence also expresses its function as an institute for art and archeology.

An all-boys school until , when girls joined the younger classes, it went completely coed in So, this building became a maternity hospital with seventy-four beds when inaugurated; it eventually expanded to hold beds. Brass markers inside testify to famous folk who frequented the establishment back then; they include Baudelaire, Verlaine, Balzac, and Chateaubriand. Scott Fitzgerald. Composed of 7, tons of wrought iron and 2. Most stopped be- fore reaching the summit, but Eiffel hiked the full 1, steps to the top, where he and whatever hardy officials accompanied him there hoisted a flag, thus inaugurating the structure.

Eiffel encouraged its use as an experimental scientific site and as a radio broadcast tower, in hopes of ensuring its survival past its originally intended twenty years, and the strategy worked: Today, the high platform continues to support various antennae including those used for television. Protected from oxidation with several layers of paint, the tower is repainted every seven years by a team of twenty-five painters.

Roux-Spitz shaped the face of the building by applying touches of geometric forms to the kind of bay windows normally reserved for traditional-style living rooms. He developed different shapes for each and even left an open space between them. Only the white marble medallions above the main floor windows remain unadorned. The empty spaces—originally intended for decorative elements from friendly nations—attest to the fragility of alliances.

Most were carted off to the guillotine. Since , his monumental home, which has an arched courtyard and dominant Corinthian colonnade, has served various purposes; the Ministry of Labor has occupied the building since The frontage, modified by a peculiar glass bay window, overhangs a recessed ground level and gives onto a vine-covered forecourt. Shaped by the border of the surrounding buildings, the lot of the inner court appears as a truncated triangle.

At twenty-three, he announced that he would govern France on his own. The Sun King spent thirty-five years of his reign at war, racking up military victories. As a patron of the arts and modernization, he also constructed new buildings. This entrance leads to a magnificent courtyard that was used by old and infirm soldiers.

This enormous complex sits opposite the Eiffel Tower, built over a hundred years later, and serves as a visual bookend for the land extending from Champ de Mars. Gau nonetheless initiated a resurgence of neo-Gothic churches throughout Europe. Perhaps the controversy proved too stressful, however, as he died before the completion of the building.

The project was given to his assisant, Ballu, who changed the design for the towers and added many sculptures to the portal. The Revolution sparked a need for swift communication and construction of additional lines. By , however, five hundred permanent stations existed in France. During the Revolution, the state confiscated the palace and added a large, semicircular hall for the Council of the Five Hundred.

Later, in , architect Joly remodeled the meeting hall that is now used for the French National Assembly. Beheaded at the guillotine despite his sympathies with the Revolution, he was buried in the cemetery of Picpus, in the 12th arrondissement, along with other victims of the Revolution.

While he was alive, he ran up enormous debts and could not afford the mansion he was building, and so had to lease the property. The next owner was Claude Lenthereau, a mere wigmaker who had passed himself off as the marquis de Beauregard. Oversized Ionic pillars support two interior levels, and a simple balustrade trims and hides the roof. From the s until the s, the words and public antics of this singer, songwriter, actor, and provocateur shocked and pleased audiences.

When he died in , his home became a cult attraction. For the interior, he designed a north lobby, a domed vestibule, and a central, grand iron-and-glass vaulted complex. The duc de Lauzun inherited the estate, but he was guillotined during the Revolution, despite being a hero in the American War of Independence.

Jean Cocteau, Henri Matisse, and lsadora Duncan worked here and, in , sculptor Auguste Rodin rented the ground floor. Respecting the elegant architecture of the original building, their renovation successfully integrated modern innovations with history, encompassing restoration of the antiques collection that came with the mansion.

As japonisme was then the rage in Paris—thanks in part to the Impressionists—he, naturally, built her a pagoda. Shipped in pieces from the Far East, reassembled in Paris, and plunked down in the midst of a residential district, this carved temple trumped the all-things-Japanese craze with its stone figures of dragons and lions and Buddhas and birds. In , it was converted to an art house cinema.

The hotel owes its name to the comte de Thorigny, Jacques de Matignon, who purchased it during its construction. Since , various statesman, diplomats, and politicians have lived here. Statesman Talleyrand occupied the premises in The Austrian-Hungarian embassy took it over between and ; and, in , it was purchased by the state. Since , the prime minister has resided here. Thirty years in the making, the arch was finally completed fifteen years after his death.

After World War I, returning soldiers marched beneath the arch in celebration, and it became the site of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Later, Nazi soldiers also stomped through it defiantly, during their occupation of Paris. On clear evenings, tourists crowd the observation deck to take in this ritual, as well as for one of the finest degree views of Paris at dusk.

In , she bequeathed it to the State. Small, private gardens are often hidden just behind buildings and beyond doors. Designed to bring more light into apartments, courtyards also once served functional purposes, such as a place for the care of horses and for staff-run repair shops. As part of an evolutionary process, many of these workshops were eventually converted to artist studios.

When this road was first used, it was chiefly known as leading to the village of Roule. This eighteenth-century church, named for Saint-Philippe of Roule, evokes the architecture of ancient Rome, using as its model a Classical basilica. Influenced by a trip to New York City where buildings achieved that objective by sheer massive proportions, Bechmann and Chatenay produced one of the biggest buildings in Paris of the s—occupying 60, square meters.

They also imported much of the fittings of their ultramodern interior from America, including the central heating system, the electrical devices, and elevators. The imposing building holds 1, workers, and also accommodates a large shopping arcade. This is a striking structure whose strong proportions symbolize strength. When she died in , the marquise left the mansion to the City of Paris, as her legacy.

The doomed market had been constructed on a narrow street, 30 feet wide and feet long, and had contained twenty-two stores. Composed with a wooden frame covered by bituminous cardboard, it was a virtual tinderbox. The fire started in a small room, probably where an early film was being projected. Over 1, people, mostly aristocracy, were trapped; people were injured and died. Today, this church serves an Armenian community.

Most of the construction dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. One house from this period, originally located in a city called Moret, was transplanted and rebuilt here, and is an amusing example of Classical Revival architecture: It resembles a small castle, complete with its two pointed towers.

In the mid—nineteenth century, Kouzmine—architect to the imper-ial Russian court and member of the St. The crypt was restored from to , and its interior frescoes depict the Christianization of Russia. It first opened its doors for the —08 season. During WWII, concerts continued and receptions were held here to honor soldiers and victims of the war.

Today, the 1,seat Salle Gaveau hosts piano recitalists and chamber music groups, and occasionally even orchestras. This symmetrical building features a flat center with astrological carvings above the entrance, flanked by a line-up of vertical windows and stylized balconies which create the impression of columns.

A rooftop garden softens the geometry. It is easy to imagine a gentle tap that would send these stacked angles falling in the opposite direction like dominoes. Loo Building Ching-Tsai Loo came to Paris at the end of the nineteenth century and opened a shop, selling objects he imported from China.

He distinguished himself as an antique dealer, with galleries in Paris and New York, and was an expert in the field of Oriental art. Originally built as apartment buildings and an art gallery, this red Chinese pagoda-styled building still houses his collection of East Asian objects and furniture. The meter 75 feet high, ton monument, a gift to Charles X from Mohammed Ali, Viceroy of Egypt in , had originally marked the entrance to the Amon Temple of Luxor, and is over 3, years old.

Its transport to Paris took more than two years and required the construction of a special boat. By the time it arrived in Paris, Louis Phillipe was king. Prior to this, the square, initially known as Place Louis XV, celebrated the king with an equestrian statue. In , he bequeathed this house and gardens, along with his entire collection of art and furnishings, to the Union des Arts Decoratifs—with the stipulation that the name of the museum must honor his son Nissim, who had been killed fighting for France during World War I.

Its layout of gardens surrounding the house demonstrates a British influence in the use of the property. Resting on a high base level, the piers between the windows of the three stories above are decorated with patterns of colored marble, enamel from Venice, and mosaics.

Business was preeminent, and this building served as prime advertising about the continent. Somerset Maugham—whose father worked at the Embassy—was one of the babies born there. Architect Ballu designed the structure in Louis Seize shape and style with a stage, a rotunda, and a turret. Unlike other palaces built for members of the aristocracy, the Grand Palais—constructed for the Universal Exposition—honored art, and as such became a showcase for emerging artists.

Architect Girault designed both as temples to art and culture. But unlike the Grand Palais, built for the display of changing exhibitions, the Petit Palais was intended from the start to be a permanent museum. It is organized around a semi-circular courtyard garden and its impressive facade—grand porch, ionic columns, and dome—resembles the Invalides on the other side of the Seine.

Other patrons have included Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet. In the s, restaurant was sold to fashion designer Pierre Cardin who transformed it into an Art Nouveau museum and authentic cabaret. Legend has it that Madame de Pompadour would commission his aniseed vinegar by the barrel.

World famous for its Dijon mustard, packaged in a squat jar with a black label, this wood-trimmed gourmet shop opened on the prestigious place de la Madeleine in , carrying on the condiment tradition started in the eighteenth century. From those humble beginnings, he rose to found the now-famous Parisian luxury food enterprise.

Scott Fitzgerald in the s and was also a famous site for historic and cultural affairs: The British and Americans used it during World War I; preliminary work on the Versailles Treaty occurred here; Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Dwight Eisenhower stayed here; Germans used it as headquarters during World War II; and in postwar years, it was a gathering place for such celebrities as Orson Welles and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.

As Leonard was a frequent guest in the elegant woodpaneled suite, one of his pianos still graces the living salon. He settled on the site of a medieval parish church that had been transformed into one dedicated to Madelaine, but the Revolution interrupted construction. The temple was left without a dome or bell tower. Inspired by the Louis Seize, the marble decoration of the current frontage dates from ; it features two bronze heads of elephants, and two of tortoises.

In , he installed the first bakery to have a furnace within view of customers; and in the late s, he added to the original range of breads, tea service and pastries. The original frontage with columns and mosaics has disappeared, but the interior of polychromatic marble, figurative mosaics, and ceramic paintings remains intact. Mollard, whose Art Nouveau brasserie flourishes today, despite its current fast food occupant at the ground level.

In , Charles Garnier won a city competition for his grandiose design with statues and pillars of marble and colored stones, anchored in a huge quadrangular space. The satin and marble interior matches the opulence of the exterior and dazzles the eye with its magnificent foyer and stairway, and its restored auditorium features a seven-ton crystal chandelier and a Marc Chagall ceiling painting.

Located just at the border of the 8th and 9th arrondissements, near place de la Madeleine, La Maison du Miel is a honey of a store amid other shops that spe- cialize in offerings for the epicure. Espousing the health and nutritional value of honey, this store has dispensed the golden nectar since And the square attracted writers, singers, musicians, artists, and actors. Its awesome height measures almost feet. And from the department store terrace, you can catch an exceptional view of Paris.

It was gutted by the Fire of , which consumed the old opera house and other buildings that included the original Au Petit Riche. But, in , the restaurant reopened and still serves traditional fare. In , artist Paul Delaroche moved into this particular house, right next door to painter Horace Vernet, who lived at number 5.

In front of its monumental porch, three statues personify Faith, Hope, and Charity. Today, the museum recalls those times, with its careful restoration of his home and garden, and of one of his studios. The double-decker studio and upper two levels that he had added to the original structure, became a museum in The artful window display on rue Laffitte beckons you to sample a treat, still prepared by hand with meticulous care, and using original nineteenth-century recipes.

Purchases are weighed and wrapped with the same attention to detail as had been given when painter Claude Monet satisfied his craving for bonbons here. In the mid— nineteenth century, most rental apartments favored simplicity of style; for this particular one, however, architect Renaud deliberately created a sumptuous design that resembled a private mansion, to attract wealthy tenants. Vintage tins, apothecary jars, boxes, baskets, and burlap sacks spill over with marzipan biscuits, cookies and crackers, bonbons and spiced breads, chocolates and caramels, colorful liqueurs, honeys, and confitures.

All this and more, in this old-fashioned store. Nonetheless, he deserves special mention for the former entrance no longer in use that was crowned by a marquee formed by a block of glass. Originally used as a wallpaper workshop for the company of Maison Leclaire, founded in , this glass-and-metal building now warehouses surgical and dental supplies, behind its large, iron-framed windows. A large, sculpted figure graces the triple-arched entrance of this building, and two other sculptures flank its triangular pediment.

The architect purposely centered this entrance on an axis with rue Rougemont, to maximize its visibility and leave a lasting impression. In , the Impressionists—rejected by traditional salons—defected from the mainstream and first showed their unheralded masterpieces on rue Peletier, a few streets away. The bistro within this courtyard opened the same year that the Impressionists scandalized the art world. Unfortunately, the entire massive building resembles a metal accordion, with its fan-like folds extending down both sides of the street.

Believed to be innovative in the s, this building appears merely dated, rather than serving as an example of successful cohesive design incorporating the old and new. In , Gare du Nord became the gateway to and from the north. Ironically, this increased space gave it the ability to send a hundred thousand French to their death during World War I; and to deport Jews east to concentration camps during World War II.

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