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Bello bi touchwood investments i forex nedir

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As well, galleries and alternative spaces across the island will organize exhibitions in salute to the Triennial. As a fundamental part of this 4th Triennial, an educational program has been designed whose aim is to develop and nurture creative thinking through participatory activities aimed at a variety of audiences and focusing on the exploration and collective recognition of the aesthetic experience.

The project will feature activities that go beyond looking at art and entering the classroom as passive and hierarchical experiences. This opening summit will bring together internal and external audiences of the 4th Triennial, and is aimed at promoting a discussion of the contemporary image, and the image in general, as social experience. Pulsar is a new artist run, not-for-profit space located in Antwerp. Each month we feature works by local, international, established or emerging artists.

A platform is offered for artist curated installations and exhibitions, encouraging a wide range of disciplines and practices. Artist: Emilio Chapela. Esta caverna es un umbral. Un pasaje a otros mundos, una nueva forma de ver y sentir. La cueva es un dibujo expandido, una textura gigante. Unos siendo los otros. Artist: Marcius Galan.

O universo da geometria costuma ser encontrado em sua pesquisa. The artists selected for this exhibition have turned to the representation of history not just as material itself but also as means by which to criticize how history is constructed. They are not just interested in the past tense or simply reviving archival strategies, but in putting the past in relation to the present and the future, creating overlapping temporalities that bring disparate moments together.

Currently, that moment continues to be the most important; it is the one that makes the difference between points of view. Photography as a technique has rapidly shifted from the dark room into digitalization. The expertise one needed to have in physics for the light aperture, along with the chemistry knowledge required to reveal the images have all but faded away. Technological advances allow many of us to carry a camera in our pocket.

The way in which we approach them, and the stories that these images tell us, are not from a specific moment; but rather from the combination of several moments: to click, to develop, to manipulate, and finally, to single that moment and to make its invisibility present. The exhibition consists of 27 pieces, which presentation starts from a photographic aspect challenging its more orthodox definition as it returns to an academic classification.

In reality the manipulation of an object within its context gives it a particular placement, which is one of the more evident features of portraiture. The human figure is revisited in the gestures of Alexandra Grant United States, The pin-up style female nude, behind a strip that reminds us of DVD titles, gives a new meaning to the idea of mixed media.

While New York is often considered the birthplace of this genre, street actions had also taken hold in Latin America, and relationships between Latin American and U. Latin American artists who sought exile from dictatorships or had been awarded grants came to New York, while many U. While the Civil Rights Movement and Vietnam War protests provided the backdrop against which street works emerged in the U. Artist: Erica Muralles Hazbun. Artist: Gabriel Sierra. By modifying and extending the guiding information of the exhibition space, Sierra will restructure the lower level galleries, effacing and confusing distinctions between the architecture, the institution, and the works that comprise the exhibition.

The combination of alternative and existing floor plans, signage, and objects in the space all refer to the codes for viewing and maneuvering through the context of an exhibition. This indexical accumulation makes it unclear exactly where the exhibition begins and ends, bringing into question the semantics of the various navigational prompts within art institutions. The exhibition structure asks that the visitor adjust to its new form. Artist: Elena Damiani. Artist: Paula de Solminihac.

Officielle October , Paris, France. The exhibition is an extension of this dialogue into the galleries of the Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit via artworks suggested in dialogue format. The individual artworks touch upon themes such as geography, history, urbanism, memory, colonialism, architecture, war, modernism, social inequality, regionalism, and power.

It allows the viewer a glimpse into a reality that may seem geographically near, but is in many ways far away and unfamiliar. This glossary will be published in the exhibition catalogue along with a conversation between the curators, texts on all of the artists, images of the exhibited artworks, and a roundtable discussion featuring a number of curators based in Latin America.

A range of public programs and educational activities will run concurrently with the exhibition, including a public conversation with the curators, lectures by some of the participating artists, film screenings, and performances. Artist: Marco Maggi. He draws with paper on the walls in the main space, and presents an installation of pencils in a separate area.

It is a superficial discipline that allows oneself to take distance from the depths of thinking in order to de-multiply an empathy for the insignificant. Ideas have the tendency to become fixed and aspire ultimately to the status of ideology. A portable kit composed of thousands of elements cut-out from self-adhesive paper becomes an insignificant alphabet folded and pasted onto the walls during the months preceding the exhibition.

The diminutive papers are disseminated or connected following the traffic rules and syntax dictated by any accumulation of sediments. Some areas throughout the gallery are infected with color, the edge of the wall in red, blue or yellow, like the margins of a misprinted sheet of paper. The colonies of stickers on the walls enter in dialogue with the light upon them.

Myriads of shadows and infinitesimal incandescent projections aim to slow down the viewer. The main ambition of the project is to promote pauses and make time visible. The trajectory of these Soviet era color pencils is frozen, almost going backward in time. Inside the room, two individual panels of cutout stickers face each other. These small referential stickers act as words cut out from a larger message, recoding the original context. His work has been exhibited extensively throughout the United States, Europe, and Latin America in galleries, museums, and biennials.

His first monograph was published on this occasion. In , he received the Premio Figari Career Award. Artists: Claudio Vera and Martin Pelenur. It is embedded in human nature to be thoughtful and innovative for survival. Such primordial concerns with existence have continued through ancient times into contemporary civilization.

To investigate Vera and Pelenur in this vein brings to light the association of physical and cerebral conditions, which are key to the balancing act that humanity must perform throughout time. Focusing on the notion of abstraction in twentieth-century and contemporary Belgian art and the varying sources of influence and inspiration among the artists of two generations, Tuymans has selected fifteen artists whose work either articulates a relationship to abstraction or takes as its cue the definition of abstraction.

Although the artists themselves have emerged from different periods and motivations, a clear formal relationship between the selected works is apparent, and thereby reveals a current and earlier interest in abstraction that has not lost its relevance over recent decades. Luc Tuymans, himself a figurative painter who constantly seeks to extend the traditional boundaries of his practice, has specifically selected these artists for the individual nature of their practice and the paradoxical way each of them uses their medium.

Presented in the two gallery floors of Parasol unit, their works collectively investigate the potential, formal and conceptual tensions within the notion of abstraction. Works by the earlier generation of artists represented in the show can be loosely situated within geometric abstraction and abstract constructivism, influenced by artists such as Piet Mondrian — and groups such as De Stijl founded and the ZERO movement of the s and 60s, as well as the American Colour Field painters.

Ultimately, this exhibition highlights the diversity of artistic practice within abstraction, while revealing intergenerational influences and allowing viewers to explore and be challenged by the depth and limits of abstraction. Artist: Mario Navarro. Navarro extracts fragments from the exhibition space thus creating voids and duplicates that that echo each other. The artist understands the void as a loss or as something missing, but as a place where it is possible to multiply reality over and over.

The void works just as another constructive element that operates by pointing to the limits of forms and things. These Filters are a constellation of parameters that circumscribe multiple ideas, which will be touched upon to both imagine and realize a diversity of practices. The exhibition is structured in three sections that address mobility in the early 21st century through a variety of research approaches: formal, political, and metaphorical.

Artists: Felipe Mujica and Herbert Weber. Fronzoni —has greatly influenced the visual, sensorial, and experiential aspects that distinguish her work. The artist has stood out as one of the most innovating artist of contemporary geometric abstraction. Her multidisciplinary work conjugates light, sound and contemporary criteria of space and use of materials, with some formal concepts of the traditional legacy of optical and geometrical abstraction.

In her work, the artist proposes a dialogue of visual and sensorial perceptions with space, transforming geometry and abstraction into nature for the senses. Quatro relevos e sete desenhos completam a mostra. Esto es, un renacimiento inventado por el siglo XIX para proyectar sus propios deseos y frustraciones. Un plan para organizar el crecimiento de la ciudad y separar sus distintas funciones de manera racional. How come some features of the old Enlightenment have crept back and are now being revisited in art, activism, and theory?

Why now, after just about a century problematizing, questioning and opposing its legacy? Perhaps it is an ever more economized, fragmented, privatized, and surveilled existence where, for instance, taxpayers are forced to compensate for the crimes of financial speculation and the gap between the rich and the poor is rapidly increasing.

It now becomes enticing to return to some fundamental notions and phenomena inherited from the struggle for universal emancipation: the light of reason and rationality, the individual subject, and the public sphere. They point to a wish to explore vision from its very basics—as if to try to see anew, to radical transformations of desire and to challenges to ownership and property relations as we know them.

And to do so while not losing sight of the future, in the midst of parallax views, in light of the hyper-contradictions of our time. A future beyond pre-emptive and algorithmic forecasting. Art has after all this capacity to function as part seismograph and part sniffer dog, detecting things not yet seen, gelled and shaped in other parts of society, creating new imaginaries.

Whether utopian or dystopian, or an unclear mix of the two. These basic notions in radically mutated forms seem to indicate a future affected by an emerging movement toward a new enlightenment, conscious of the violent heritage of the old one in whose name atrocities have been committed over the centuries.

Thus, three strands of thought and action have crystallized within the framework of Future Light : non-penetrating light, the individual subject as reworked by the politics of queer-feminism and its polymorph desires, and the public spherereconceived through and as commons and commoning. Within contemporary art, instead of the penetrating light that gives clarity and transparency, there is the reflected and refracted light that creates opacity, abstraction, and shadows.

It is the light that goes on and off, that does not serve as a searchlight and yet is able to nurture new beginnings. Besides conditioning human visual perception, its new forms—for example the low-power LED light—are having other literal effects on the look and taste of plants as well as the physical and medical conditions of humans and animals.

Furthermore, the future remains a point of orientation in many of the artworks. All this is being played out in the group exhibition at the MAK. Existing paintings, videos, sculptures, and drawings by seventeen artists is making up an installation without walls but with plenty of natural light. Theory and practice in the name of LGBT and queerness have for some time reshaped notions of the individual, subjectivity, and desire. If traditional notions of gender rely on heteronormative patriarchal formations of desire, then this linchpin is now being challenged in ways hitherto unseen, affected by synthetic extensions of identity such as hormonal drugs.

The installations convey filmed performances where the tensions between the individual and the collective carry a high degree of theatricality. While curtains and fumes create opacity, glitter and wigs indicate glamour. The characters who feature in these dramas are consciously multi-sided, defying normality, including the law and economy.

Neither being entirely historical nor present, they project ahead in a truly anachronistic manner, to new and unrealized forms of enjoyment. It will be released as a limited printed edition in September In a new film Marysia Lewandowska is exploring the commons as experienced through the kindergarten as an early testing ground for sharing, belonging, privacy and withdrawal.

Artist: Diana de Solares. Artist: Christian Camacho Reynoso. Artist: Ricardo Alcaide. Artist: Lucila Amatista. From a distance, the stacks of thousands of sheets of paper 24, total that are set out in a grid onto the floor suggest a landscape, circuit boards, or an architectural model for an imagined city. He creates a patchwork of lines that impart a sense of movement across the surface of the piece.

Marco Maggi was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. The Uruguayan pavilion is one of the twenty-nine national pavilions located in the Giardini della Biennale. La segunda parte muestra dos vertientes, la emocional y la intelectual al enfrentarnos con la responsabilidad de formar el futuro. Even at its inception and during its heyday in the mid-sixties and early seventies, conceptual art was difficult to define.

No one knows who started it, which artist did what and when, what were his or her philosophy, goals and policies. None of those present remember much; each person has its own history and scholars and critics have been left to try to make head or tail out of the movement—among them, many who did not live through those times and did not witness those events.

That is why American curator and art critic Lucy R. They rest directly on the floor or hang from the ceiling, casting dancing shadows on the wall. The works of Edgar Orlaineta, also suspended from the ceiling like a Calder mobile, have the appearance of a three-dimensional puzzle with each element playing a vital role in the final composition.

This practice dictates that the circle should be drawn with a single stroke, which once made cannot be altered. The gesture highlights the character of its creator and the context of its creation in a short and contiguous period of time. Traditionally this type of painting is done in black ink on very thin white paper. The accumulation has formed a heap of sand, in the form of a volcano, burying the papers supposed to be archived there.

With its continued air movement the fan erases them so that others can make them again. Using film, video and photography, the artist often introduces the relations between architecture and city-planning with regard to history. Because the legacy of The Jamaica Letter has often been used to support any manner of political tendency, the artist has it read out loud by residents of a poor Caracas neighborhood, themselves leaders of different political groups chavistas and anti-chavistas.

These protagonists do not understand English, so the reading swiftly turns into a form-focused performance, a parody of a charisma-free discourse which seems devoid of meaning, but where we rediscover the corporal language and the intonation usually adopted by leaders. The artist proposes a deconstruction of the political discourse, keeping just the elements and codes to do with representation—the body language and the vocal intonation which punctuate the film.

Commissioned by the Goethe-Institut in , Yamaikaleter was screened at the 54th Venice Biennale in He lives and works between Madrid and Caracas. He was awarded the prize of the Rockefeller Foundation, Bellagio, Italy, Artist: Guido Ignatti.

Su secreto ya no existe. La verdad depende de que demos con algo que nos obligue a pensar y a buscar lo verdadero. Es precisamente el signo el que establece el objeto de un hallazgo, el que ejerce sobre nosotros esta violencia. Ideas y Valores. Working together over a two-year period, Open Sessions artists participate in ongoing studio visits and discussions, punctuated by small group exhibitions at The Drawing Center, as well as other self-organized shows in New York and abroad.

Artist: Miguel Rothschild. This year marks the twenty-first edition of the Rohkunstbau exhibition. The notion of transition serves as the focus of the examination of apocalypse. Every end brings a new beginning. This choice of theme for the XXI. In previous exhibitions artists have been invited to address themes of Power , Morals , and Revolution , now followed by Apocalypse for Artist: Gabriel Acevedo Velarde.

Estado Sincopado es mi proyecto de banda musical, hasta hora de una sola persona, yo. Gabriel Acevedo. Folding is the action through which a line turns into a figure, a plane becomes tridimensional, and a painting becomes an object. And beyond all these actions, we see how representation becomes presentation. This exhibition presents the work of Latin American women artists from the s through the present day, showing the different ways in which they worked with abstraction and geometry to explore the space of the artwork and that of the spectator, as mediated by the body.

Latin American abstraction has gained recognition worldwide in the last decade. In all of these avant-garde scenes, women artists gained—not without struggle—a place of recognition and a social circle in which they could develop their profession with relative tolerance.

Still, except a few exceptions like Gego, Lygia Clark and Lygia Pape, it is mostly male artists we see represented in museums and art history books. This exhibition does not intend to resolve that problem, which is of a much larger scale, but aims to present some of their production and to explore the formal and creative connections among this diverse group of artists from the continent.

This show also chooses to escape the historical understanding of abstraction, which is referred to here not as the Post-war movement but more broadly as a creative strategy that has continued through the decades.

The Venezuelan artist, who was a pioneer of abstract art in Venezuela along with her husband Alejandro Otero, focused on a sensorial use of color in abstract compositions to achieve the autonomy of painting. A similar emphasis in color is seen in Acrylic No. The case of Regina Aprijaskis exemplifies the difficulties of being a woman artist and of combining work and personal life.

Other works in the show leave color aside and refer to the white monochrome also with the means of exploring geometry and space. The Argentine is represented with her work Untitled Line , in which her finger is photographed as interrupting a line, one that transcends the frame of the work onto the real space of the wall. The urban space is also the canvas chosen by Brazilian conceptual artist Anna Bella Geiger, whose video Passagens II shows her body creating diagonal trajectories in the grid-like formation of the steps of a stairway.

In the exhibition we also encounter more expressive uses of abstraction, where experimentation with materials led to more free-flowing forms. Trinidanian artist Valerie Brathwaite opts for anti-geometric shapes in her Soft B odies , a series initiated in , where the hanging and floor fabric sculptures play fluidly between the borders of figuration and abstraction.

After all these decades, geometry is still very much present in the work of younger artists. Others adapt geometric abstraction into new formats, like the wood piece Untitled Free Construction No. Finally, Mariela Scafati goes back to the original questions of abstract painting in her works Tu nombre completo and Nueve minutos exactos , both from , which literally —through bondage ropes— and conceptually —by transforming them into objects— tense the possibilities of what a painting can be: not a representation but an object, a body itself.

These interactions between the artwork, its surrounding spaces and the bodies that interact with it are present through the sixty years in which these artworks were created. The formal explorations initiated by the historical avant-gardes have not, as proven by the younger generation, exhausted themselves.

This group of women artists from Latin America offer a wide range of answers to these questions, all personal but also collective. The line and the plane not only folded but became the body, expanding the shape of art above and beyond. These historic objects have gained the status of icons. It is a testament to their enduring power that they now catalyze a generation of artists too young to have experienced modernism firsthand.

The notion of modernist design and architecture had its genesis in Europe, particularly during an intense decade of experimentation at the Bauhaus beginning in Weimar, Germany, in Modernism was the pure and true mode in which to design everything from typography to furniture to architecture. When architects, those removed by several generations from the birth of modernism, came to maturity as designers——Frank Gehry, Charles Moore, and Robert Venturi——they challenged all that modernism had embraced.

Their vocabulary included fanciful embellishment, applied color, decorative patterning, and references to historical styles. Now, over 90 years after the revolution at the Bauhaus, modernism continues to spark a passion in designers and collectors. The prices of signature objects of the classic modernist era are soaring, and its buildings are being restored and valued as historical monuments. Although vintage Eames rockers have been integrated into contemporary high-end living rooms, they are quite different in these new eclectic contexts.

Using classic elements in new configurations, these artists are making original works of art that comment on the claims of the past in light of the complexities of the present. The artists in this exhibition, most of whom were born in the s, adopt the actual vocabulary of the modern movement to question the content of its style and its relationship to history.

Their work challenges the tenets of modernism head on. Often ironic and witty, the works in this exhibition offer a thoughtful critique of innumerable issues that extend across the fields of design and history. She brings found objects together in space and across time, and her works establish a tangible record of ephemeral relationships encountered.

Bill and Horni produce work by assembling smaller collages, which later become part of a larger collage. They only determine a final result after countless trials and manipulations to the images physically and digitally.

Together the dishes though legible as food when close up appear as strange planets or discs in space. Some of the dishes are isolated and then completely removed, leaving a ghostly blank. He draws these images without magnification; in order to reduce eyestrain, he rests every ten minutes.

The end result is a work of extraordinary detail that appears to be a pattern from a distance, and speaks of the passage of time and the link between the microscopic and the infinite. The dense textile of woven and knotted, colored electrical wires, forms a series of functional circuits that distribute four channels of sound to the numerous speakers interleaved in the weaving. Artist: Barbarita Cardozo. Visual art has always been closely associated with storytelling.

In Western culture, painting and sculpture initially evolved to illuminate narratives of religion, patronage, and power. Over the centuries, genre scenes, still lifes, and portraits—often created as intricate allegories for religious or historical subject matter—became popular as the narrative role of art expanded.

In the twentieth century, with the advent of abstraction as a radical break with the past, many artists associated with the avant-garde rejected the figurative and, hence, eliminated explicit narrative content.

The s witnessed a resurgence of figurative art, much of which harked back to expressionistic styles of the s and s. During the s, a generation of younger artists embraced the concept of storytelling to articulate the politics of identity and difference, investing both abstract and representational forms with narrative content.

Most of the works on view, however, were created after and offer an expansive view of the new paradigms for storytelling forged during the past ten years to communicate ideas about race, gender, sexuality, history, and politics, among other trenchant themes. For these artists, storytelling does not necessarily require plots, characters, or settings. Rather, narrative potential lies in everyday objects and materials, and their embedded cultural associations. In projects created through extensive research, acts of appropriation, or performance, the artists in Storylines uncover layers of meaning, turning to individual experience as a means of conveying shared stories, whether real or fictional.

The recent narrative turn in contemporary art cannot be separated from the current age of social media with its reverberating cycles of communication, dissemination, and interpretation. Seemingly every aspect of life is now subject to commentary and circulation via digital text and images. As a means of celebrating this dynamic, the museum has invited writers to contribute reflections—in prose or poetry—on selected works in Storylines. Engaging the rich historical relationship between literature and art, the resulting polyphony signals the diverse interpretive potential that lies within each object on display.

Visitors may access these texts using the Guggenheim app or in booklets located throughout the museum. Throughout her career Lucia Koch has become known for her interventions within existing architecture, either through her use of sculpture, photography, video or colored filters. In this, her second exhibition with the gallery, she will intersect the entire space with a gradient printed on fabric — something that moves in space but is constant, subtle, transformative and never repeating.

Lucia Koch b. They break down barriers to create new mythologies. In another direction, cultures borrow from, adapt, and change each other in myriad ways. Artist: Bernardo Ortiz. Haciendo uso de soluciones formales que van desde sobreponer dibujos, intervenir los soportes con distintas capas de gouache o perforaciones, contrastar colores afectando la legibilidad de las palabras, o reuniendo trazos hechos a mano con impresos — al igual que trazos precisos con pinceladas despreocupadas— el artista busca acercar lo conceptual a lo material.

The Biennial of the Americas is the third iteration of this international festival of ideas, art and culture in Denver, Colorado. Today we stand on shifting ground, with one foot in a new geological era and one foot lingering on the structures of the past. The Biennial of the Americas will dive deep into our present circumstances, seeking to understand contexts, conditions, and challenges across the western hemisphere today. Artistic program Artists featured in the Biennial of the Americas from North, South and Central America and the Caribbean create visual art, music and dance in response to current issues and questions.

They address specific situations where they live, as well as concerns shared across borders such as violence, environmental issues, technology, and social justice. Program highlights The artists in the central exhibition of the Biennial of the Americas, Now?

Aimed at nurturing creative links and deepening artistic dialogue across the Americas, the program focused for on connecting Denver and Mexico City through a series of ten-week residency exchanges run by contemporary art organizations ArtPlant and SOMA. New this year is the Biennial Pavilion, a site for talks, workshops and performances, programmed with events throughout the summer.

Artist: Francisco Ugarte. The exhibited pieces have an interest in documenting changes within the natural environment in a specific time frame. Therefore, they are not meant to be observed necessarily from beginning to end, but to be seen like a scene through a vain. Using a variety of media including site-specific interventions, video, installation, sculpture and drawing, his work can be understood as a phenomenological exercise in which reality is comprehended through contemplation and perception of things.

Las artistas responden precisamente a este modelo familiar y lo invierten. My Buenos Aires at la maison rouge continues a series of exhibitions that showcases the art scene in cities worldwide. The series was launched in summer with Winnipeg, Canada, followed in by Johannesburg, South Africa. The mere mention of tango or beef, of Borges or Maradona, of Argentinean beauties will plunge anyone, even someone who has never set foot in the city, into dreamy nostalgia. The visual and cultural familiarity that greets a European visitor can disappoint those in search of instant exoticism and pre-packaged emotions.

Buenos Aires is a child of immigration, whether voluntary or forced; a city haunted by absence. To live there is to accept estrangement and to overcome loss. Seductive, Buenos Aires is no less sombre. The public protests that arose following the crisis have shown a capacity for counterpower that has no equivalent in the history of modern nations.

Even in the throes of crisis, strikes and the pillaging of recent decades, Argentineans continue to wield sarcasm, dark humour and irony as a remedy against resignation. Authors and actors from all disciplines have in them this extraordinary and also determined capacity for reinvention. Artists have responded to the lack of infrastructures and learning opportunities by throwing open their studios, hosting charlas group discussions where ideas can be brought out into the open.

Those who do manage to enter the global art market willingly put their own money into supporting local creation. The grant endowed by painter Guillermo Kuitca, for example, gave an entire generation of artists between and access to a studio, and to critical and technical support with which to develop their work. Little by little, the art scene is moving away from the centre. New venues are opening in the north, such as Hotel de Inmigrantes.

Further north still, the Haroldo Conti Memorial Cultural Centre includes a sculpture park that pays tribute to the men and women who disappeared during the dictatorship, and a cultural centre showing contemporary art. The disgruntled still march on Plaza de Mayo while artists have begun to install works under the obelisk. The direction it will take remains to be seen. The Patronage Law has forged stronger ties between business and the worlds of art and culture by encouraging the private sector to become involved with projects of cultural significance for the city.

My Buenos Aires runs counter to the romantic vision of Buenos Aires. The exhibition moves back and forth between political and private, public space, the domestic and the unconscious, exploring themes such as instability, tension and explosion, masks, encryption and the strange.

Along their way, visitors will encounter remnants of facades, mutant scaffoldings, car bonnets, motorway junctions, burned-out houses and headless statues. They will sink into a waking dream inhabited by strangely unnerving doubles and faceless people falling from the sky, only to wake in the muffled folds of a stucco wedding cake. With more than sixty artists working in all media, from installation to painting, sculpture, video and photography, four generations are represented.

More than 15 of them will travel to Paris to work on in situ installations. My Buenos Aires is an invitation to plunge into the mystery of Buenos Aires without attempting to resolve it, and to experience the unsettling strangeness of its multiple personalities. The sculptures are presented in dialogue with American minimalist sculpture, not as a continuation of it, but as an exploration of its aesthetics and its socio-economic structure from an artistic and intellectual space.

Escobar sculptures contrast with the austere minimalist works by inserting the industrial object, which had a fairly significant presence in contemporary sculpture in the s. Minimalism was born in the sixties and is geographically focused on the island of Manhattan, New York. A purely American movement, Minimalism refers primarily to a type of sculpture or three-dimensional works made beginning in the, which emphasize the abstract and downplay the expressive, avoiding any embellishment or decoration.

Among the most renowned exponents are Donald Judd, Ron Bladen, and Tony Smith who exploited industrial mass production and Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, and Robert Morris who chose to present the objects, as they were indistinguishable from found objects, generating an art that could be classified as non-art because of its aesthetic ambiguity. Still Life No. But Escobar contaminates the minimalist spirit of his work with the addition of industrially manufactured objects that are easily recognizable as basketballs and baseballs.

The Duchampian readymade is also evident in the works that have a closer relationship with the austere sculpture of Andre. Equilibrio No. They are examples of a type of unadulterated sculpture. Their genesis is wood that Escobar found in a local sawmill and used as is, changing its configuration by rigging beams and square blocks in a vertical or horizontal orientation. The presence of basketballs and soccer balls balancing precariously on a fairly sophisticated play of balance is amusing and contrasts with the severity and lack of expressiveness of the wood.

The spherical shapes temper the rigidity of the straight lines. The same applies to Balance No. The balls subvert the geometry of the work by allowing a glimpse of the negative spaces beneath it; its hard surface is turned into a kind of false floor that precludes a direct physical relationship with the work because one cannot stand firmly on it. Untitled No. The irregularity of the hoe handles reveal their hand-made origin: a found object used by Escobar to create a work which, despite its uniqueness, it has a relationship with Minimalism in the use of the repetition of forms.

Untitled 1 leans against the wall with the top of the hoe handles forming a straight horizontal line that contrasts with the bottom, which seems undulating and disorderly. While for Andre the transformation of the materials was unnecessary and the use of raw unadulterated materials essential in his questioning of what and who makes a work of art, Escobar is determined to destabilize again and again these and other principles of Minimalism from a non-hegemonic perspective and in relation to more recent artistic trends.

The exhibition is completed by ten drawings made with cinnabar pigment and graphite on paper and four small paintings on wood. The series entitled Dibujo que no obedece al contorno No. Their solidity and forms have a certain kinship with certain sculptures by Tony Smith, as they do not easily reveal themselves but require time and attention as any work that is based on visual perception. The use of cinnabar pigment, employed by the Maya in ceramic painting, bestows them a unique and valuable attribute for the rarity of the material and its use in contemporary art.

With this Escobar attempts to open a dialogue that is pending in Central America, and certainly in Guatemala since the cultural disruption caused by the armed conflict that began in the sixties. Artist: Alice Quaresma. The current exhibit of Alice Quaresma is one of the most interesting ones, not only for its unstable and migrant character in the photographic process, but also for embodying, in a poetic and unique way, some pungent issues to the contemporary artist.

In particular, we can highlight those that lean towards relationships, identity issues, uprooting, sense of permanence and displacement, among other powerful traits within her work. Graduated in painting in London, she began to experiment with photography in college, and then went through a phase of self-portraits and other phases of still life in the studio setting, with equipment and strategies focused on an impeccable technique.

Later she got back to painting and, from there, managed to deconstruct her own photographic process using elements of other plastic arts and visual researches, guided by a formal detachment. I will always use materials, which I have not yet tested. At the moment, I have been using a lot of paint, oil sticks and colored tape. Then a more experimental approach comes in, as advocated by Oiticica and his peers, and that helps Quaresma in building a particular path, in which there were times when Demand, Hofer and Becher were decisive, but they stand just as some of the modules that constitute her work.

Hand Gestures bring more intuition and less control. The materiality brings moments of surprise by enriching the texture over the flatness of the photo paper. And there is this feeling of being a foreigner , from continuously dealing with the idea of not belonging and with the careful, yet not painful, construction of an affectionate memory, which can have great concreteness links , but also, only in images and records, something evanescent, undone.

Artist: Clarissa Tossin. These works manifest the development of a poetics that employs a wide range of strategies in order to address contemporary issues. The publication has been made possible by a fellowship from the California Community Foundation. The exhibition will reveal contrasts between Geometric Abstraction, with its idealistic and formalist characteristics, and more personal, exotic and political forms of expression.

Works include a video of a flying body crossing the US-Mexico border in a semi-circle trajectory, a ceramic turtle resting over a neo-geo-style cube, and a group of photographs of Minimal-like sculptures and paintings with the artist fashionably posing next to them, among others. Indeed, a line connects two points, A and B, start and finish, end and beginning; lines are defined by this function of connection, even as they continue to move past the points they connect.

The artists in the exhibition use the languages and conceptual frameworks of modernism and abstraction to suggest poetic connections: between people, between historical referents, between political experiences, and between places.

The line as connector becomes a way of skillfully addressing fraught histories, and of weaving a set of relationships. The works exhibited demonstrate a strong relationship to materials and their histories, from the scrap metal of Guatemalan buses, to the thick, sooty texture of an archival photograph transferred to aluminum, to the fabric retrieved from vintage radio speakers.

The exhibition title playfully alludes to palmistry; the connection is meant to highlight the actions of the hand, implicit in the creation of the work. Artist: Richard Garet. Then the artist will remove the audio leaving just the moving image signal creating an experience of sound through vision that would change and pulsate according to the properties of the sonic composite. The viewer then is pulled into lavish landscapes of continually reconfigured color and mood.

Moreover, objectifying the ordinary and reinventing the character of found mundane things in life is very interesting to me. Click here to see video. More info here. How does it travel? She tracks materials, ideologies, and bodies that travel by foot, by car, by plane, and by her own hand.

Using two primary nodes, Brazil and the United States, Tossin finds generative ground in transpositions that yield compelling misregistrations. His project consists of a group of constructions to stand in or to walk over, which relate abstractly to the idea of inhabiting different moments of space and time.

The exhibition features a cyclical title that changes hourly:. Sierra is intrigued by the language of man-made objects and the dimensions of the spaces in which we live, work, and think. His practice employs a variety of techniques — from sculpture and spatial interventions to performance and texts — to examine how the human body functions in relation to its environment.

Trained in architecture and design, and drawing on the history of Latin American Modernism, Sierra connects the perception of forms and materials to the construction of language, communication, and knowledge. By inviting visitors to walk over and among the constructions with no determined path, the artist sets up a series of areas that refer to the transitional space of the antechamber.

They are not destinations in themselves, but passages of experience leading from one to another, momentary neutral zones. Like the various constructions Sierra offers, this shifting title experiments with the ways in which environments, and the exhibition in particular, are perceived across time. An exhibition catalogue featuring essays by Douglas Fogle and Irene V. Small and documentation of the installation is forthcoming. The abstraction proposed here moves away from modernist utopian ideals and pure aesthetics, to dialogue with industrial and popular culture, daily life, inner struggle, politics and gender.

Magdalena Atria is exhibiting free abstract compositions entirely made with plasticine. Bonzo es cada una de las casas y todas a la vez. Artist: Chiara Banfi. Artist: Edgar Guzmanruiz. Damit thematisiert er die Erkenntnis ganz direkt, dass wir uns verdoppeln in dem Augenblick, in dem wir uns verlieren. Und der wird sodann gerissen, ausgerechnet von Aktaions eigenen Hunden. Das Schicksal wendet sich gegen den, der es fordert ohne Konsequenzen zu bedenken.

Alle Technik, die unser Leben erleichtern soll, bleibt nur so weit sinnvoll, als sie humanen Zwecken, ja sagen wir es: Idealen dient. Artist: Pablo Rasgado. He uses a variety of familiar materials—drywall, glass, tape, florescent bulbs, dirt, spiderwebs—to focus on that which is just beyond ordinary perception.

In a sense, each work is a clock, recording decay and change over time. Deceptively simple, the works constitute a compendium of phenomena just beyond the grasp of material experience. Pablo Rasgado b. He lives and works in Mexico City. After more than five and a half years and countless collaborations, exhibitions, presentations, excursions, concerts, workshops, lectures, derives, debates, talks, screenings, discussions, performances, bike rides, fairs, encounters and legendary parties, Proyectos Ultravioleta is moving to its new space in zone one of Guatemala City.

This first exhibition in our new home showcases the works of the 15 artists represented by the gallery. In order to mark the occasion, we invite everyone to join us, chase away the bad omens, commend ourselves to favourable luck, and touch wood. Those arriving on their bikes can park inside our lot. Those who would prefer to come by car can park around the corner, on 11 ave between 20 and 21st street in front of Agrochina.

Y los que prefieran el carro, pueden parquear en el estacionamiento de a la vuelta, sobre la 11 ave entre la 20 y 21 calle frente al Agrochina. This phenomenon is all around us. Not only as content and evidence of life but also as the mechanics that filter into aesthetics through constructs that are created in response to the felt world.

Artist: Ivelisse Jimenez. Why Abstract Art? Artist: Marcolina Dipierro. Hay en toda la obra de este artista una gran influencia musical. Esto es lo que la flautista argentina Patricia Da Dalt ha hecho con un grupo de obras de Macaparana que forman parte de la muestra.

The artists will moreover venture beyond the physical boundaries of the space and open it up for new and unknown dimensions. As a result, the exhibition will exert a seductive lure and provide aesthetic pleasure by receiving and integrating each of the forms on view.

At the same time, it will arouse suspicion and a feeling of uncertainty about what else will appear. The line between the utilitarian function of the architectonic space and a fictional, non-utilitarian one is very fine, and sometimes it is hard to tell where one ends and the other begins.

In the installation Frieze II, the wall looks as if it was being deliberately peeled away to expose an unknown source of light. Room II raises questions about the condition of historical memories and their contemporary character. A marble floor structure running across entire gallery seems to allude to the foundations of another building. Perhaps the form refers to a building of the past, now existing as no more than a trace? Or why not think of it as an announcement of possible future events?

The Cabinet, Credenza and Bedside Table form a series of objects distributed throughout the gallery. Each of them features the finest palisander veneer. If at first sight they look like elegant pieces of furniture, on closer inspection we discover that the objects are non-functional. What is more, they have been perforated with perfectly round holes which lead the gaze right through to the other side. This singular gesture not only opens the objects up to new dimensions, but also emphasizes their non-functional character all the more strongly.

A literal act of perforation, well known from everyday situations, means nothing more than the end of validity, and turns the furniture into useless objects but beautiful sculptures. The catalogue is available at the gallery as well as in bookstores worldwide. Selected by Drawing Room directors Mary Doyle, Kate Macfarlane and Katharine Stout, each of the participating artists was invited to make an original drawing in any medium on an A4 sheet of paper. You Simply Destroy the Image.

Several artists from far-flung locations such as Peru, Brazil, and Norway, are traveling to Mana to create their installations on-site. Marco Maggi will represent Uruguay at the upcoming Venice Biennale, opening to the public on May 9 and on view through November 22, The Uruguayan pavilion is one of the 29 national pavilions located in the Giardini della Biennale.

Composed of linear patterns that suggest circuit boards, aerial views of impossible cities, genetic engineering or nervous systems, his drawings are a thesaurus of the infinitesimal and the undecipherable. Saying that the world is myopic sounds depreciative: a planet without perspective, moving forward without any clear sense of direction. Marco Maggi, on the contrary, claims and prescribes myopia as the extraordinary ability to see from very close.

Nearsightedness allows one to focus carefully on invisible details, it challenges the acceleration and the abuse of long-distance relationships characteristic of our era. After a farsighted 20th century with solutions for everyone and forever, it is time to stimulate our empathy for the immediate and the insignificant.

A portable kit composed of 10, elements cut out of self-adhesive paper becomes an insignificant alphabet that the artist will fold and paste onto the walls during the three months preceding the biennale. The diminutive papers are disseminated or connected following the specific traffic rules and syntax dictated by any accumulation of sediments.

The colonies of paper sticker on the walls enter in dialogue with a custom lighting track provided by Erco. Myriads of high-definition shadows and infinitesimal incandescent projections will aim to slow down the viewer. The only ambition of the project is to promote pauses and closeness.

Las especificidades de los materiales llevan a cabo un desdoblamiento del espacio por medio de una serie de transparencias y reflejos. Phaidon, Latin- American Artists, ed. Exit y Megastructures-Reloaded, ed. The bit of boiled veal that followed was an improvement, although anything but a captivating dish. Goatcheese, hard and salt, and with a flavour that left no doubt as to the source from which it came, made up the frugal fare.

I returned to the 'chimney-corner and smoked in silence, now peering up the sooty cavern where the wind moaned, and now watching the clear-obscure effects of the dimly-lighted room. Presently a trap stopped outside, and in walked the aubergiste, accompanied by a sprightly little man who I afterwards learnt was a pedlar.

Monsieur le maire was not exactly a polished gentleman he took no notice of me after the first searching glance. He made an unpleasant impression, but this wore off when 1found that he was a well-meaning man, who had not cultivated fine manners. Why should he have cultivated what would have been of little or no use to him? These rural functionaries are just like the people with whom they live. Of course, he was a poacher himself when reposing from his theological and philosophical studies.

After all, poaching in France generally means nothing more immoral than neglecting to take out a gun license, and to respect the President's decrees with regard to the months that are open and those that are not. On my way to bed l saw in a corner of the staircase a spinning-wheel of the pattern known throughout Europe. The next morning 1 made friends with the pedlar, who was about to start upon my road; and' who offered to give me a lift in his trap as far as La Roche Canillac.

This personage, however, was not allowed to have much voice in the matter it was his spouse who represented his interests in the bargaining battle that was now waged- with deafening din and much apparent ferocity for three; quarters of an hour. The little pedlar was used to this kind of thing, and was quite prepared for the fray.

When the lady offered him, after much-de-- preciatory fingering of the chosen material, twothirds of what he asked for the stuff that was to be made into a pair of winter trousers for the mayor, he spun round and jumped like a peg-top just escaped from the string. Then he raged and swore, said he was being mocked at, dabbed his hat on his head, and made a pretence of gathering up his samples and'rushing off.

When 1 returned, the haggling was over, the hostess and the pedlar were on the most affable terms, and there was not a sign of the recent storm. Presently the pedlar, myself, and the innkeeper's son-a young man who had received his education. Here and there, near the village, were small fields of buckwheat in the midst of the heather and bracken.

M y companions explained that each commune was surrounded by a considerable extent of moorland that belonged to it, and that any native of the commune had the right of selecting a piece, which became his absolute property after he had cleared. Quite an Arcadian state of things this, were not the conditions of nature such as to chill the ambition to acquire such freeholds.

Three years of back breaking labour are needed before the land is fit to be put to some profitable purpose. And then what does it yield? Buckwheat, and perhaps potatoes. AIthough the peasants have the faculty of extending their landed property in the manner described, the consideration of means generally stands in the way. They cannot afford to work and wait three years Their existence is truly wretched, and if it were not for the luxuriant chestnut-woods, which cover the sides of the narrow valleys or gorges with which the barren plateau is deeply seamed every few miles, the population of the region would be more scanty than it is, for the chestnut goes far to sustain the people through the worst months of the year.

The plough used upon these moors, on the causses of the Quercy, and in some other districts where the barrenness of the soil has kept the inhabitants for centuries imprisoned within the circle of their old routine, is one of the simplest that the world has known. I t differs but slightly from the one figured in the most ancient of Egyptian hieroglyphs, and is really the same as that which was used in Gaul under the Romans.

Two pole's forming an obtuse angle is the rough shape of it. The wedge-like share is a continuation of the pole that is held by the ploughman. Oft'en on the causses, where loose stones are inseparably mixed with the soil, the entire plough is of wood. We passed through the village of Marcillac, near the head of one of the valleys. The soil was. There were, moreover, pleasant gardens with fruit-trees and flowers. Oleanders were blooming outside some of the houses.

But we had no sooner risen upon the plateau again than the moor returned, and for seven or eight miles it continued unbroken. The ground was slightly undulating, and amongst the gorse and heather were scattered innumerable juniper bushes. On approaching La Roche Canillac the road descended into a very deep valley by so many turns and windings that I was thankful to be in the pedlar's cart, especially as the mid-day sun smote with torrid strength.

But the scenery was of exquisite beauty, and this valley will remain in my memory as one of the most charming 1 have ever seen. Luxuriant woods, flashing water, savage rocks, emerald-green patches of meadow, little mills by the riverside-l should add nothing to the picture by saying more. Upon the rocky hillside was the burg of five hundred inhabitants.

My companions took me to an old auberge whose exterior was not promising, but which was, nevertheless, yvell supplied with food, and had a good cellar. The meal served there was the best that had fallen to my lot for several days. The sun had lost all the ardour of mid-day w hen l took leave of the pedlar and the mayor's son. I had hoped to reach Argentat by the Dordogne that night, but I had stayed too long at the inn for the plan to be practicable so 1 set off down the gorge of the tributary with the intention of taking my luck at a village called St.

I was soon in the shade of the chestnut forest, where boars were said to be plentiful. As time went on, the scenery became more solemn and awe-inspiring. Pines that looked very gloomy in the late afternoon mingled with the chestnuts, while black rocks, faintly flushed with heather towards the sky, reared their jagged outlines above the sombre foliage. All the while the water in the gorge moaned or roared.

I t was growing very dusk when the walls on either hand rose like the sides of a pit. I t was the angelus. H ow often has this clear, solemn, heart-touching, and consoling sound been to me what a familiar beacon is to the doubting mariner Only wanderers in desolate places know the sentiment that it carries through the evening air. More welcome than ever before did it seem in this black gorge.

Turning a bend of the torrent, I stood in a glow of ruddy light that streamed from the yawning mouth of an open-air oven that had recently been filled with dry broom and kindled for. Here was a fresh delight, for there is nothing more cheering, more full of homely sentiment in the dusk, than the view of such a blazing oven. This, then, was the village of St. Bazile de la Roche, to give its full name. I t could scarcely have boasted a hundred houses.

There was one miserable little inn, kept by a widow. There 1 had to pass the night, unless 1 preferred a cave or a mossy bed under a tree. The poor woman managed to find a piece of veal, which she cooked for me. I t seemed to be my lot now to eat no meat but veal. As 1 sat down to this dish and a bottle of wine, two men at another table were eating boiled potatoes, without plates, and drinking water. The contrast made me uncomfortable.

There is some reason in the selfishness that avoids the sights and sounds and all suggestions of other people's poverty and pain but those who take such base care of themselves never know human life. Half a litre of wine that, at my wish, was set before him made him exceedingly cheerful. The inhabitants of St. Bazile, he said, were all very poor, their chief food. Before the vines a little further down the valley were destroyed by the phylloxera and mildew, the people were much better off.

Then there was plenty of wine in the cellars, but now St. Bazile was a village of water-drinkers. The only distinguishable voice of the night was that of the stream quarrelling with its rocky bed just below. Before me was the high black wall of hill and forest, above the ragged line of which flashed the swarming stars. The angelus sounded again at four in the morning. Before seven 1 was out in the open air. H e was probably too poor to pay a sacristan. A little later he was in the pulpit catechising the children, and preaching to the older parishioners between whiles.

A boy and then a girl would stand up, and in answer to questions put to them would recite in an unintelligible gabble the catechism they had learnt. While waving his arm in a moment- of rhetorical excitement, he let his book fall upon an old woman's head. The children were delighted, and everybody laughed, including the poor old soul, who had seated herself under the pulpit so that she might hear well.

I t was evident that the people of S t. H e was a strong man, over sixty years of age, and he spoke with a rich southern accent. U nder his sacerdotal earnestness there was a sense of humour ever ready to take a little revenge for a life of sacrifice. There are many such priests in France.

The influence of the plains was overcoming that of the highlands. The warm rocky slopes on each side of the valley were covered with vines-alas! There was no hope for them. On the level of the river were fields of maize, now ripening, and irrigated meadows intensely green. There were beehives, fifteen or twenty together on the sunny slopes, and as 1 went on, the signs of human industry and ease increasing, I saw petunias climbing over cottage doors.

There was a steep descent to Argentat. The town lay in a wide valley by the. Dordogne, in the midst of maize and buckwheat fields and green meadows, the surrounding hillsides being covered here with chestnut woods, and there with vines. I met a woman returning from market w ith melons in her basket. Truly 1 had come into a different climate.

At the small town, made pretty by the number of its vine trellises, I lunched. The inn where I stopped is not worth describing but it gave me a dish of gudgeons caught in the Dordogne that deserved to be remembered. I did not remain long at Argentat, for 1 was determined to reach Beaulieu that night. A little out of the town some girls whom I passed on the road looked very suspiciously at me out of the corners of their eyes, and reminded me that another whom I had met that morning higher up the valley took to her heels at the sight of me.

About a mile from the town 1 found the Dordogne again. I t had grown to quite a fine river since I last saw it in the ravines below Bort. Here most of the grass was dried up, and the freshness of the highlands was gone. Still the valley was shut in by steep cliffs. Brambles climbed about the rocks, where the broom also flourished, although tangled with its parasite, the dodder.

Looking up. The valley became again so narrow that the road was cut into the escarped side of the cliff, for the river ran close under it. A woman with bare legs and bare chest-really half naked-trudged by with a heavy bundle of maize upon her head, followed by a couple of red-haired children, their perfectly-shaped little legs browned by the sun and powdered with dust. H ow beautiful are. Old and new causes working together are often more than a match for that most marvellous force in all animal and vegetable lifethe love of symmetry.

Resting upon a bed of peppermint, blue with flowers, under an old wall, whose stones were half hidden by celandine and roving briony loitering dreamily upon a wide waste of sunlit pebbles, watching the flashing rapids of the river where it awoke from its calm sleep to battle with the rocks which had resisted incalculable ages of washing, the hours glided by so stealthily that it was evening when I reached a village which was still eight miles or more from Beaulieu.

H e did not need it, for, as he confessed, he had been clinking glasses with unusual zeal that day. H e was a very droll fellow, a striking type of the Southerner, whom it was difficult to look at with a serious face, and whom no one with any sense of humour could really dislike, notwithstanding his immense vanity and his immeasurable impudence. He had a thick black beard, a long, sharp nose, dark eyes full of mischievous mirth, and cheeks the colour of red wine.

He wore a stiff new blouse with a red collar-the badge of his office-and a straw hat like a beehive. The whole of the way to Beaulieu his tongue was not still a minute. He told me stories of his bravery and his love adventures with a most amusing accent and intonation.

H is swagger, his gestures, and his elocutionary power were amazing. He would stop walking, and, placing his stickwhich he called his trzQue under his arm, would speak in a tragic stage-whisper then, clutching his trique and flourishing it over his head, he would burst out into a roar of laughter that made the dogs bark in the scattered farms for miles around. Once, when we were passing under high rocks, he shouted. This was either the effect of vibration or of the sudden movement of some bird or other creature that he had startled far above us.

If you had only seen them,' he said, 'outside the church, all with their noses lifted in the air Grand Dieu What noses. Long before we reached Beaulieu I had had more than enough of the wild spirits ,of my comic postman. On entering the town he insisted upon taking me to a hotel which he said he could recommend to me with as much confidence as if I were his brother. Then he left me but l' had not seen the last of him. H e presently returned, while I was enjoying the luxury of a quiet and well-served little dinner.

There was no getting rid of him, short of telling him plainly to go, and this r could not do after having accepted his companionship on the road. H e devoured'all the mushrooms, 'expressing his astonishment between whiles that I did not. When daylight returned 1 found Beaulieu a pleasant little town lying under hills covered with chestnut woods, and at a short distance from the Dordogne.

I ts name, however, was probably given to it on account of the fertility of the soil in this bit of valley, where the cliffs that enclose the Dordogne on each side fall back, and, by allowing a rich alluvium to settle in the plain, give the husbandmen a chance of growing something more profitable than buckw heat. Beaulieu was once the seat of a powerful Benedictine abbey.

The original monastery was founded in by Charles le Chauve, who placed it under his protection. There is nothing left of the monastery but much of the abbey church, which. The interior is not remarkable, but the large and elaborate bas-relief of the Last Judgment which fills the tympanum of the portal is considered the nl0st precious example of mediaeval sculpture in the Bas-Limousin.

The face of the Saviour, expressive of something above all human passions and motives, shows a really Gad. The fantastic spirit of the age is well set forth in the tortured forms of the horrid reptiles and fabulous beasts carved in relief upon the massive lintel, and filling also the broad border at the base of the tympanum. The same spirit finds even stronger expression in the demon figure, so grotesquely longdrawn out, carved upon the sealloped pillar that" supports the lintel.

The abbey was pillaged by the Huguenots, who lit a fire in the choir, which de. As children, did we not long to get at the horizon's verge, to touch the painted clouds of the inorning or of the sunset ay, and to grasp with our outstretched hands that reached such a little way the blood-red glory of the sun itself The garden, with its glowing tulips and its roses haunted by gilded beetles, became too small to satisfy the mind of infancy fresh from the infinite.

Surely, 1 thought, when I was again in the open country beyond Beaulieu, 1 must have carried something of my childhood on with. The road at first led up vine-covered slopes towards the west, where the waysides were blue. A priest astride upon a rough old cob passed me, his hitchedup sozctczne showing his gaitered legs.

French rural priests are generally rubicund, but this one was cadaverous. He would have looked like Death on horseback, swathed in a black mantle, but for the dangling gaitered legs, which spoilt the solemn effect. A very curious figure did he cut upon his shaggy, ambling steed. On the top of the hill was a village, in the midst of which stood a little old Gothic church with a gable-belfry, and hard by was a half-timber house, its porch aglow with climbing petunias.

Beyond this village was a deep valley, the sides of which were covered with chestnut-trees. On ascending the opposite hill, I took a by-path through a steep wood, thinking to cut off a long turn of the hot and dusty road. It led me into difficulties and bewilderment.

The path disappeared, but I went on. After climbing rocks densely overgrown w ith brambles, which left their'daggers in my skin, I reached the top of the hill, and saw before me a. Although it was the middle of September, the sun blazed above me with the ardour of July, and the rays were thrown b'ack by the bare. These arid rocky places, sQ characteristic of Southern- France,'have a poetry of their own that to me is ever enticing.

I love. There 1 find something that approaches companionship in the prickly juniper,- the narcotic hellebore, and the acrid spurge. And these plants likewise love the places where the world has remained unchanged by man. The heat, however, was too great for me to linger upon this shadeless hill, where every stone was warm, and the reflected glare was almost as blinding as that of the sun itself, which. Having crossed another valley, after much casting. I t was a dilapidated, apparently owl-haunted building, with a dovecote tower over grown with ivy, and was half surrounded by a wall, whose tottering, ornamental pinnacles told a story of comparative grandeur that' had come to grief i n this remote spot.

The farmer had been winnowi. The only. She sent me off in another direction. I walked on, I know not how many miles, without coming t. There was no water consequently not a bird was to be seen or heard. But there were myriads -of flies, and too many hornets for my comfort, for some of them followed me with impertinent curiosity. I confess that 1 do not like hornets. W hen 1 see them, they remind me of the story of a donkey told me by a man in these parts.

H e in his youth saw an unlucky ass that, quietly browsing, unconscious of indiscretion, disturbed a hornets' nest. Suddenly the animal showed symptoms of unusual exciten-lent, which became rapidly more violent, until, after some amazing antics, first on his front-legs and then on his hind-legs, he rolled over on his back, and kicked violently at the sky. H is master knew what had happened, but stood lamenting afar off, not daring to go to the rescue.

All nature now appeared to be baking. E ven the blackberries, which l ate by the handful 'to slake my raging thirst, were warm. A long, straight 'road that 1 thought would never end brought me at length to Vayrac, where there was a good inn. Months passed before I continued from this point my journey on foot.

The spring had come, and the face of nature was wondrously changed. The roadsides were bright with daisies and the gold of the ill-appreciated dandelion. I t was April, and from near and afar came the warbling of nightingales. They moved amongst the new leaves of almost every shrub and tree. A very abrupt ascent through thickets brought me to the tableland, w here the turf was flashed with splendid flowers of the purple orchis.

From the waste land the sombre junipers rose like scattered cypresses in a cemetery. But elsewhere, where the position was accessible from the valley, it. On the northern side this rampart can be followed for a considerable distance without a break. I t is not composed of ,loose stones of various sizes, like that of the Celtic city at Murcens, but of small flat stones neatly laid together, with layers of mortar between a circum-.

The wall appears to have been six or eight feet thick. The line of it now only rises very slightly above the edge of the plateau. I met a peasant who owned the highest part of the tableland, and who managed to'grow crops upon it. There were holes, too, for the nails which held them to the roof. The peasant told me that his father, while digging rather deepl.

A visitor to the Puy d'Issolu, many'years ago, was allowed to take these remains aw ay, together with a quantity. He never came back. The view. Here' it was warm, like June weather in England there wiriter still reigned upon the snowy hills. Standing against the riorth-western horizon were the high towers of the vas t-feudal fortress of the Viscounts of 1'urenne.

N o lover of the picturesque would waste his time by going there. Looking at the spot, it is easy to understand how it all happened. A tunnel such as he describes exists, and the stream flows through it. N apoleon I I I had the subterranean gallery cleared, and its artificial character was proved by the dis.

I t has now been nearly filled up again by the calcareous deposit of the water. This is assuming the Puy d'Issolu to have been Uxellodunum. The most convincing material proof that the two places are the same was furnished by the discovery of the tunnel but some strong corroborative evidence is to be found in local names..

De Bello Gallico,' Lib. But an educated native of Vayrac, whom I chanced to meet months after my visit to the Puy d' I ssolu, furnished me with some local testimony which appears to be of value in connection with a subj ect that has given.

The French name for the stream at the bottom of the valley already mentioned is derived from the Romance one, Lo Tourmento. How solemnly still seemed this spectre-haunted spot in the quiet evening 1 There was the groaning. What a'wonderful thing. Above were the Celtic heroes defending their last rock with the obstinacy of despair, and ready to accept death in any form but that of thirst and here were the veteran legionaries exposing themselves day, after day to the burning pitch, the stones, and the arrows of the defenders, with that disciplined courage and unwavering resolve to conquer which made Rome the mistress of the world.

What frightful business was that, and what a heap of hands inust have been buried ,somewhere, either upon the table-. But Nature says. I passed the night at St. Denis, a modern place brought into existence by the line to Toulouse. At the auberge the evening was enlivened by dancing.

The next morning I was on the road to Martel, with nightingales and blackcaps singing all around from blossoming quince and hawthorn and copses filled with a gold-green glimmer, until I reached the bare upland country. Upon the barren causse, besides the short turf, the gray ribs of rock, and scattered stones, little was to be seen but dark little junipers, tall broom, not yet in flower, hellebore, with bright tufts of new leaves and evil-looking green blossoms edged with dull purple, and the numberless gilded umbels of the spurge, which in springtime lend.

At wide. The stranger marvels to see such substantially-built houses in the midst of such sterility but he finds the explanation when he has time to consider that there are so many stones lying about that, where it is possible to plough, the peasant heaps them up in his field, or makes walls that are little wanted.

H aving reached the top of a knoll, I saw beneath me many old tiled roofs whose lines ran at all angles, and above these rose the massive walls of a half-fortified church, and various towers or fragments of towers. I was looking at Martel. According to legend and local history, Charles Martel, after defeating the Saracens near this spot, caused a church to be built on a piece of fertile land a few miles from the battlefield, and dedicated it to St.

A town grew around church and monastery, and was named Martel in honour of the founder. In the early days of the Crusades, when princes and barons rivalled one another in virtuous zeal, a Viscount of Turenne decreed that inhabitants of Martel who were convicted of sinning against the marriage tie should be dragged naked through the town.

The charter that contains this enactment treats of villeinage also, and orders that whoever has a man for sale within the limits of the viscounty shall fix the price, and shall not change it afterwards. I n the market-place is a house a portion of which was once included in a building that has now nearly disappeared, but which is known to every inhabitant as the 'palace of Henry I I.

On one side is a broad chimney-place, just such as we see now all through Guyenne, even- in the towns. There is a local legend that -he was followed by two monks, Who contrived to put poison juto his goblet but whether he was poisoned or died of dysentery at Martel, as the chroniclers. An indubitable testimony of the English occupation of Martel is the heraldic leopard of the Plantagenets. The English were never loved by the Martellois. The people of this district are strong in their attachments, and perhaps even stronger in their animosities and prejudices.

Moreover, the greater number of the so-called English who kept a considerable part of Aquitaine in continual terror for three centuries were natives of the soil. All the men of Martel who could carry arms joined the forces of King John, who was defeated by the Black Prince at Poitiers.

The consuls of Martel had to pay heavy ransoms for their fellow6. Notwithstanding the disaster at Poitiers, the Martellois closed their gates and prepared for a siege, after having obtained from the V iscount a company of crossbow-men to help them in the defence. But an English garrison was soon established at Montvallent, only a few miles off, and this fact seems to have demoralized the Martellois, who, after enduring a few assaults, surrendered the town.

The longest period of unbroken English possession of Martel appears to have occurred after this surrender. By the treaty passed between Henry I t was, moreover, provided that in the event of resistance on the part of his fiefs, the Viscount could apply to the English seneschal at Martel for armed assistance. The burghers were in the enjoyment of their political franchises from the year The more they tasted freedom the more the burghers fel t disposed to quarrel with the Viscount.

I n they sent a deputation to the Pope at Avignon begging him to ask their lord if it was his wish that the town should retain its privileges. The minutes of the municipal meeting, at which this decision was come to, are in existence, and they show how the Romance language was written at Martel in those days. Aymar de Bessa et P. Karti ano a Vinho far reverensa al papa per nom de la vila eque l'hi recomendo la vila.

There are people who can remember when the town was surrounded by two walls now only a few remnants of the fortifications remain. The church is exceedingly interesting. There are details indicating a very early origin-they may possibly have come down from the foundation but the structure in the main belongs to the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. The east end-the oldest portion-has more the character of a stronghold than of a church.

At the foot of the wall is a deep pool of water, which serves as the horse-pond for the town but it may originally have been part of a moat. In the tympanum of the twelfth-century portal is one of those bas-reliefs representing the Last J udgment upon which the artistic ambition of the early Gothic period appears to have been chiefly directed in this region.

This building, after the English left, was the residence of the seni-,schals of the V iscounts of Turenne down to the Revolution. In two of the rooms are chimneypieces very artistical1y carved in oak. Notwithstanding all the demolition that has gone on, bits of picturesque antiquity meet the eye everywhere in the old English town. Now it is a half- ruinous watch-tower, now the Gothic doorway of a thirteenth-century house, now a gateway that has lost its tower, but whose wounds are covered with yellow wallflowers in spring now a turret running up an entire front, with little windows looking out upon the quiet street, or some high-pitched roof curving inward under the weight of years and tiles.

The inn where I put up was like a hostelry of romance. Entering by a broad archway, 1 passed along a passage vaulted and groined, where corbelheads grimaced from" :dim corners climbed a staircase broad enough. This good woman had evidently no faith in new fashions she dressed as she did thirty years ago, and every dish that she cooked for me was kept warm by a pewter brazier filled with embers from the hearth. One of these dishes was a goose's liver half roasted, half stewed, and sprinkled with capers.

I t is probable that 1 should have chosen my words with more circumspection had 1 guessed what an important person he was but as he wore a blouse, and was squatting upon a heap of stones which he had been pulling about, I underestimated his dignity.

That he united the functions of cantonnier and garde did not occur to me. H e sprang to. When he had calmed down a little 1 walked with him to the deputy-mayor, whose office was over a little shop. After hearing me and examining my papers, this gentleman was satisfied that I was not a very dangerous person, and he told me that 1 had better forget the incident. The fierce old man could not understand why 1 was released.

The deputy-mayor tried to calm him by observing that 1 had a right to be an E nglishman. The garde then walked out, looking very- hot and puzzled. From his childhood he had heard of the English as the worst tyrants that the region had known.

Was not the country strewn with the ruins of the fortresses they had built? To his mind they were more dangerous enemies than the Germans, who never came near Martel. I bear no grudge against the old man. He believed that he was doing his duty in arresting me, and if I had made more allowance for his age and prejudices the unpleasantness might have been avoided.

To him the old struggle with the E nglish was almost as fresh as if it had taken place in his father's time. A little below the point where 1 had crossed in search of the Ouysse 1 came to the small town of Souillac. This place, although fortified in the Middle Ages, played a much less important part in the wars of the Quercy than the neighbouring burgs of Martel and Gourdon.

I ts interest lies mainly in its twelfth-century church, and here chiefly in a very remarkable basrelief of the Last Judgment. This astonishing work of art is to be found not where one would expect it to be, namely, in the tympanum of the portal, but in the interior, against a wall at the west end, over a Gothic arch, whose transition from the preceding style is marked by a billet-moulding. The sculpture is in a high degree typical of the uncouth vigour of the period.

The two pillars supporting the arch are so carved as to represent figures of the damned going. A man and woman are descending to the abyss, he holding her by the hair, and she clasping him by the waist, the faces of both terribly expressive of horror that is new, and utter despair.

The meaning is plaig enough each was the cause of the other's doom, and the sentence of the J udge in the panel" above has united them in hell for all eternity. On the opposite pillar are another couple, also clasping one another but their faces express the blank and passionless misery of a doom foreknown. Monk or layman, he who designed the composition felt the necessity of giving this tragic warning to his fellow-beings.

One of the less conspicuous figures is going down head foremost in the company of an animal that looks very like a pig. This beast having been damned by ecclesiastical sculptors in France as early as the twelfth century, and probably earlier, it is not surprising that a polite peasant, when he mentions it by name, often excuses himself for his supposed breach of good manners by adding 'Sauf votre respect.

A few chairs and a single bench told that the people who came here to pray were not many nor rich. Most of the flagstones were broken, and the altar was almost simple enough to please a Calvinist. I t was the simplicity, not of intention, but of poverty.

Are such churches-Iost amidst the pensive trees, or bathed by the tender evening light upon the vine-clad hillside-doubly hallowed, or is it the poetry of old memories and ideal pictures stored away behind a multitude of newer impressions that lTIOVeS us like the wind-blown strains of half-forgotten melodies as w e pass them in our wanderings? Evening found me by the Dordogne, that flowed calmly in a salmon-coloured light, thrown down by a wasteful stony hill, itself lit up by a reflected glow of the sinking sun.

The meadows through which the little path ran were dotted all over w ith golden spots of lotus, and near the water the pale, pure yellow of the evening primrose shone against the darkening willows. The voices of unseen peasants, labouring somewhere in the fields so long as the daylight lasted, were carried up the valley by the breeze, just. Having slaked their thirst, the j ovial band of enthusiasts sprang upon their steel horses and dashed off into the darkness, where their voices were quickly lost.

While waiting for dinner, I found nothing so amusing as listening to a high dispute between the hostess and a travelling bv-tcher, with whom she had long had dealings, but whom she had lately deserted because she had found another who sold cheaper. The butcher called his rival a 'dirty sparrow,' but at length proposed to yield the sou on each pound of nleat by means of which the sparrow' had scored his victory. I n future all his meat was to be sold at eleven sous, and on these terms he was restored to favour.

Thus, by playing one man off against the other, the artful woman was able to save quite a pile of sous every week on her general expenses. The Frenchwoman of ordinary intelligence, whether she belongs to the north or the south, the east or the west, may be safely trusted to beat any man of her own race at bargaining.

This was not, perhaps, the fault of the inn, but of the Dordogne Valley. As soon as the day broke another enemy entered the field. The flies then awoke, refreshed but hungry, and detern1ined to make the most of a good opportunity. The house-flies of the North, when compared to those of the South, seem to have been well brought up, and trained to live with human beings on terms of civility, if not of friendship. The flies of Southern France must be descended from those that were sent to worry Pharaoh, and when one has lived with' them during the months of August and September, one can quite believe that their ancestors exasperated the Egyptian king to the point of promising anything so that they might be taken from him.

Many persons, however, contrive to prosper by hunting for tnlffles in the exhilarating company of pigs. I t is not in this fertile valley that they find them, but on the hillsides and stony tablelands, where the oak flourishes, but never grows tall. I passed almost at the foot of one of those darklywooded, precipitous hills or cliffs which now approach the water's edge and now recede for a mile or more in this part of the valley widening or diminishing the cultivated land accordingly as the rocky sides of the fissure resisted the washing and mining of the ancient waters.

On the top of the cliff stQod a high round tower the keep of a small feudal stronghold. I t is called the Tour de Mareuil. I ts position leaves little doubt that in old times its owners, like so many other nobles whose ruined castles crown the heights on both sides of the Dordogne, levied toll upon the boats that came! According to tradition, the English made frequent use of it. The tolls were an important source of income to the nobles whose fortresses overlooked the.

An old flat-bottomed boat, built for conveying men, asses, and other animals from one side to the other, lay off the bank, and two girls, who were in charge of a flock of geese as well as of the ferry, were willing to take me across. Presently she asked me if I sold writing-paper. After landing, I soon reached the village of St. Here I halted at an inn in the shadow of old walnut-trees. A few yards off, under one of the great trees, was a high wooden crucifix, around which some twenty or thirty geese were standing or lying down, all in a digestive or contemplative mood, and through the openings between the boles and the branches were seen the sunlit meadows sloping to the low willows and the tle.

From St. Having reached the top of the hill, 1 soon came in view of a picturesque mass of masonry with round towers capped with pointed roofs, and with Gothic gables hanging lightly in the air over dormer windows the whole. When quite near I found that the grove was a sombre little wood of evergreen oaks.

As a boy, while climbing here, he may have torn his hose into tatters, notwithstanding his precocious knowledge of Greek. The future churchman may -even have robbed a jay's nest on this very spot. What quietude and what deep shadow! Not a leaf stirred only a fiery shaft of sunshine forced its way here and there through the dark roof of unchanging green to the brown soil and t4e rampart's mossy wall. Although the present castle was raised when feudalism was nothing more than a tradition and a sentiment, the outworks, consisting of two walls, the inner one standing on ground considerably higher than the other, were of exceptional strength, and as they were originally, so they remain at the present day.

I passed through the outer and then the inner gateway, and, in my search for a human being, accident led me to the kitchen, which was very large and entirely paved with pebbles. Here I found the cook, who, I had been told, was the only person in authority at that time. Surrounded by four great walls, on which hung utensils that were rarely handled except for the periodical scouring, she looked as solemn as a cloistered nun.

Here is to be seen" his four-post bedstead" each of the posts a slender twisted column, the silk hangings and fringe looking very worn and faded after being exposed to the light of over two hundred years. Most of the furniture here and elsewhere is of massive oak, carved in the style of the seventeenth and eighteenth 'centuries.

From each side of the Dordogne Valley rose and stretched. I returned to St. As 1 had no need to hurry, I sat awhile in the late afternoon upon a low mossy wall, in the deep shade of a dripping. Above, the rock was lost in a steep wilderness of trees and dense undergrowth, which met the radiant sky somewhere where the eye could not follow.

The bell-like tinkle of water out of sight was the only sound until 1 heard a patter-. A flock of geese were moving homeward, followed by a woman, whose feet were as bare as theirs, and whose eyes were fixed upon her distaff and spindle.

She would not have noticed me had not the birds, true to their ancient reputation, given the alarm. A little later 1 had left the shadow of the wooded rocks and was on the margin of the river, which spread out broadly here between its shelving banks of pebbly shingle. Then, to reach by the shortest way the village where 1 intended to pass the night, I had to turn once more from the water and cross some wooded hills.

Here the jays mocked at the solemnity of the evergreen oaks, and the dark forest echoed as with the laughter of fiends. Chance taking me to a house that bore the sign of an inn, although it was at the back of a farm-yard,. I am waiting for dinner-seldom a cheerful way of killing time. I do not, however, expose myself to the risk of being irritated by the sight of my willing but mechanical hostess scraping the white ashes from the embers, parcelling out these into little heaps of fire upon the hearth, throwing salt into the swinging pot with a hand the colour of which may be distressing to the imagination, then tasting the soup an this, and m'uch- more, I leave her to accomplish in the -gathering darkness of the kitchen, and, sparing her the pain of lighting lamp or candle while there is still a gleam of day, 1 w ander out beyond the houses of the village to a quiet woodside, there to watch the coming of night, which, whether it be accompanied by wailing winds and storm-rack brimming with tears, or by that grand serenity which grows in beauty as the light fails, is always like the coming of death.

I n the clear-obscure, the brown and yellow rocks of bare limestone, at the foot of which is the small inn, seem to be drawing nearer. All their details become luminously distinct as the air grows darker, while the caverns gape like the black mouths of some stealthily approaching, monstrous, many'headed form.

Two men are still working in a field of tobacco, and they go on until lights flash forth from all the houses in the valley. Then they slowly move off into the dusk with their ox and waggon. All about the fields, where the night crickets are now chirruping and the flying beetles are droning, there is a general movement of life towards the villageof men carrying their mattocks on their shouldet Qr walking in front of the ox that has done his long day's ploughing, of women and children, geese; turke-ys, and sheep.

I w onder if the wooden cross beside the tobaccofield was put there to mark the spot where somebody. Vitus's dance-a room quite free from ornament,. I n this matter all depends upon the mood,. The dinner was as good as I had a right to expect it to be. A dish on which the hostess had evidently striven to use her best art was of orange mushrooms in a sauce of verjuice but the substantial one was a roast fowl-an.

One fowl, at all events, had had good reason to think it was an ill wind that blew me into the village,. It is a bad custom in rural France to kill fowls just when they are wanted for the spit. Not only is it unpleasant to think that a creature is not allowed time to cool before it begins to turn in front of the fire, but the art of cooking is placed ,at a disadvantage by the practice.

The French are stubbornly conservative 'in every-0 thing. As 1 felt the need of talking to-night, 1 fetched the farming innkeeper from his kitchen and per. This he did without wincing, but he soon returned the compliment by bringing out of a cupboard a bottle of clear greenish liquor, which he said was eau de vie de figues. It was something new to me. I t retained a strong flavour of its origin, and might 'have been correctly described as fire-water, for it was almost pure spirit.

All that he said was only confirmaof the opinion I had already formed from other testimony respecting the occupation of Adam when he had to struggle with nature outside of the terrestrial paradise. Let a man own as much soil as can till with his hands, let him have an ox, too, to help him he can only live at the price of almost ,incessant labour and rigorous frugality.

This is the normal condition of the peasant-proprietor's. The peasant who works seriously,' said the ifarmer, 'does not sleep more than four hours a night during the summer months. H e goes to -'bed at ten, and gets up at two. This would not. But for the rumbling of the thunder, the only sound from the mysterious world outside would have been the scream, now like the cry of a cat, now like a puppy's. Very different, however, was this little owl's cry from the madman's shout of the great eagle owl, which 1 had often heard in the rocky vale of the Alzon.

I threw open the window of my bedroom and looked out upon the night. The quivering flame threw an awful brightness into the great woods upon the tops of the hills. A few hours later I was wandering through these woods, which were now filled with another light that dried the dripping leaves. Some miles of forest, then cultivated slopes, and at length the Dordogne again. As 1 climbed the shadeless stony hill in the. At first glance nothing seemed to be wanting.

The towers, however, were ruinous in the upper part, and the battlements had disappeared. With the help of a local pork-butcher, who kept the key, 1 was able to enter the towers of this gateway. I n each was a guard-room of considerable size, and the men-at-arms while on duty there evidently found that in time of peace the hours lagged, for some of them had carved upon the wall with their knives or daggers crucifixes and representations of the Virgin and Child, all closely imitated from church sculpture, painting or window decoration of the Gothic period.

Many names are cut in Gothic character on the same walls a further proof that the vanity of man has ever sprouted in much the same way as now. The antiquary, because he has his own prejudices, perceives an abyss between the act of the Cockney tourist of to-day who carves his name upon an old tower or a menhir, and that of a man who five centuries ago, for no better reason than the other, left upon a guard-room wall a similar record of his passage.

The man of the. Enough of the fortifications of Domme remains to show what a very strong place it was in the Middle Ages. M uch of the wall where the town was not naturally defended by the high naked rock, forming a frightful precipice that no besiegers would have attempted to scale, has been well preserved.

Standing upon some bastion of this rampart, with the deep valley far below him and the sky above him, the wanderer may allow his fancy almost to convince him that he is really standing upon some 1 castle in the air. Towards the end of the year a truce was. The correct date of the capture of Domme appears to have been The men who treasonably delivered up the place were afterwards hanged by the French party when they regained possession of the stronghold.

I n the English again invested the rock, this time under the command of Robert Knolles. Tarde, who spelt all English names as he had heard them pronounced in the country, writes Robert Canole. The place was then so well defended, and success appeared so far off to the partisans of Edward III. Domme, however, fell into the English power again but in it was once more in the hands of the French. The motive of this ordinance is explained as follows: 'The wars had already rendered the country so desolate, that at Domme, where the ordinary number of inhabitants who were heads of families was a thousand, there were now no more than a hundred and twenty.

The people who had left had abandoned everything, and gone to Spain or elsewhere. From the bare and w indy hill 1 went down again into the quiet valley, where, when a few more miles were' left behind, I came to La Roque-Gageac, a village at the foot of high-reaching, rocks of fantastic outline, not far from the Dordogne. Many houses long ago seem to have climbed far up the warm limestone. And the spot chosen for the execution was immediately in front of a very old and interesting shrine, with gabled roof, surmounted by a rude Gothic crucifix.

One sees much that is anything but poetical in the romantie land of the troubadours. Near this strikingly-picturesque village is a cave such as one might read of in a stary of fanciful adventure. It is in a rock beside the Dordogne, where the river rests in a deep pool.

The entrance is under water, and it can only be reached with safety -by a good diver when, the sun shining at. A boy had made the dive successfully not long before my visit to this place, but he found so much to interest him in the cave while it was ligbted a little by the borrowed gleam from the water,. The child had not the courage to take a plunge into the dark gulf, where there was no beacon to guide him, and where he might have struck against the rock.

He therefore remained the rest of the day and all night in the cavern.. When the sun again lit up the passage leading from ,his pri. But the g rand old keep still rears its rectangular mass behind and far above the later masQnry, and when the evening sun shines upon it, the stones, no longer gray, wear again their bright colour of six or seven. On the opposite shore, above a shelving'. When the amber-tinted towers are seen through the haze of a summer morning against the background of wooded hill, one thinks that in just such a castle as this Tasso or Spenser would have put an enchantress, whose wiles, combined with the indolent influence of the valley, few pilgrim knights taking the eastward way to Roc-Amadour would have been able to resist.

I thought I would stop there until cooler weather came, and live meanwhile principally in the Dordogne. Despising the shelter which in more fashionable wateringplaces is thought indispensable, they lazily undressed and dressed in the open air with an appreciation of sunshine and regardlessness of apparel that was almost lizard-like in its freedom from conventional restraint.

The more I meditated the better I liked the idea of tarrying in a spot where Arcadian simplicity of life was so unaffectedly cultivated. At the auberge-the only one in the place-I learnt that there was but a single house still vacant, and that it was not a very beautiful one. The country had to be scoured for him, so that it was long before he showed himself.

While waiting, I went out and amused the fish in the Dordogne by pointing a borrowed rod at them, and tempting them with the fattest house-flies I could find but as soon as they saw the bait they all turned their tails to it. My angling was a complete failure. And yet there were multitudes of fish swimming on the surface the water seemed alive with them. I concluded that they were observing a solemn fast.

At length the fisherman returned, looking very hot and dusty, and of course thirsty. He was. He had cunning little eyes, and a mouth that seemed to have acquired from many -ancestors, and from the habits of a lifetime, a concentrated expression of rustic chicanery which told me that no business was to be done with him.

Even the villagers, who are not dainty in the matter of lodging,. I t gave me the same impression when I saw the inside of it but 1 closed my eyes to its drawbacks, because 1 had taken a fancy to Beynac, and this was the only furnished dwelling to be obtained there. But things did not settle down'this time quite so quickly as I had expected. I found that things settled down better when 1 was out of the way. But there was something that settled'down only too rapidly.

I n the wet season -it lost all modesty, made a lake that rose above the boards, and tried to find an exit by the back of the chimney. This explained why the fire needed two days' coaxing and blowing before it would burn, notwithstanding that our servant had been reared in the knowledge of such chimney-places and their humours.

At the end of the'first week one, had to stride or jump over half a dozen chasms to get from one side to another. About the same time four or five of the lower stairs gave way from rottenness, so that it needed no little agility to reach the bedrooms. But the heat was the worst tribulation.

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN CHINA AND INDIA DEVELOPMENT

John, l. Sir John Wray, l. Sir Thomas Barrington, l. Robert Goodwin, and Mr. Denzil Hollis, l. John Crew, l. Sir John Peyton, l. Sir William Strickland, l. Sir Thomas Savine, l. John Rolls, of Devon, l. John Hampden, l. William Jesson, l. Sir Edward Baynton, l. Thomas Lord Wenman, and Mr. Richard Winwood, l. William Spurstow, l. Miles Corbet, l. And that this intended Design might proceed, till the whole made up a considerable sum the Gentlemen of the County of Buckingham, freely offer'd unto the House of Commons, to lend l.

Hampden, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Winwood, and Mr. Whitlock, should return thanks to the County of Bucks from this House, for their kind offer, and acceptable service. That for Ireland, in behalf of which his heart bleeds, as he hath concurred with all Propositions made for that Service by his Parliament, so he is resolv'd to leave nothing undone for their relief, which shall fall within his possible power. And because his Majesty's removal to York from the Parliament, should not hinder the Supplies for Ireland, he, from Huntingdon, the 15th.

Upon which, his Majesty, from York, the 30th. To which the Parliament adds, The calling away of Sir Charles Lloyd, Captain Green, and others, in actual imployment against the Rebels, attesting, that the l. However, the Parliaments imploying the l. The want of which put the Lords Justices and State on many difficulties. Yet that something might seem to be done, there was an Order of the Commons House of Parliament, the 3d. That the Ministers about the City of London, should be desired to exhort the People, to bestow old Garments and Apparel, upon the distressed Protestants in Ireland; in reference to which, the 19th.

Upon which Proceedings, and the validity of the 6th. Article of those Prelate-Dignities, and learned men; the first General-Assembly at Kilkenny, sate the 10th. The Preamble to the Oath of Association. That the secular Clergy of Ireland, viz. That all Laws and Statutes made since the 20th. TO all Men, to whom this Present shall come. This our Commission to continue during pleasure. Given at Kilkenny, the last of December.

Was signed, Mountgarret, Hugo Armachanus. Gormanston, Johan. Plunket, Patr. Darcy, James Cusack, Jeffry Brown. All the subsequent Acts being derived from the Orders establish'd at Kilkenny, the 24th. The 10th. John Woodcock, one of the Sheriffs of Dublin, standing with his Cloak wrapped about him in an obscure place; in which posture he was apprehended, and brought before the Lords Justices and Council, to whom he confessed sufficient to be committed to the Castle the 23d.

Mac-Mahon, in Michaelmass-Term, the 18th. Afterwards he made a general Challenge against 23 that were Empannel'd for the first Jury; which peremptory Challenge was accepted, the Law allowing it: And the Prisoner for that time was discharg'd, with a Command to be brought again the next day; which was done accordingly.

Who answer'd, By the Old, and Order of Parliament. To which the Judge repli'd, That he acted by the old Seal, being made a Judge at that time. Besides, there is nothing saith he done in this Court by the new Seal; the Sheriffs are hereby a Charter that comes in from year to year, and there is no other Seal in order of Execution.

In as much as that Noble Person which observ'd this in some passion could not but take notice, That if all this were nothing, let it be so esteem'd! The Enemy in the interim having supplies of Men and Arms. However, in August this year, And now in respect that the State found great inconveniencies by the Protections, the Commissioners they had formerly given authority to, gave, the State of the Countrey being now far different from the Condition wherein it stood, 27 of October, The 25th.

The Summer being thus spent, the Winter apace drew on, and the Provisions of the County failing, where the Souldiers lay in Garrison in the Custodiums, the greatest part of them return'd to Dublin, where they took up their Quarters, to the great grievance of the Inhabitants: And now the differences between the King and his Parliament in England were grown so high, and their preparations to encounter one another in a set Battle so considerable, as upon that fatal day, the They arriv'd at Dublin the 29th.

There were three main things principally intended by this Committee, during their stay in Ireland. As for Tucker, he was the City's property, which every one improved to their own humour. Yet small Supplies coming in thereupon, the Lords Justices and Council order'd by another Proclamation, the 15th. We have great cause to praise God, for magnifying his Goodness and Mercy to his Majesty, and this his Kingdom, so manifestly, and indeed wonderfully, in that Victory.

By our Letters of the 23d. We hope that a course is taken there, for hastning thither the Provisions of Arms and Munition, mention'd in the Docquet, sent in our Letter of the 20th. However, we now desire, that that Money, if it be not already paid, may be yet paid to Mr. Anthony Tierens in London, or Mr. And so we remain. From his Majesty's Castle of Dublin, the 4th. March the 2d. The 4th.

The 11th. Being come within two miles of Ross, our Horse took 4 Horsemen of the Rebels, Prisoners, who inform'd us, that the Army of the Rebels lay then about 3 miles distant thence, being near Men. Shortly after my Lord Lisle came before the Town of Ross, and by a Trumpeter he sent to the Town, to have some one of Quality therein to come to treat with him, concerning the surrender of the same to the King's use, which they refused to do.

And then after a few miles riding further, the English Army appear'd at hand, which march'd on towards Ross, nigh before which that night a great part of our Horse and Foot lodged. The 18th. Both Armies being order'd against one another, Sir Richard Greenvile sent forth towards the Rebels a forelorn Hope of 60 Horse, commanded by Lieutenant White, which advancing towards 2 Troops of the Rebels, they seem'd to shrink from.

But so soon as the Officers of those Troops could reduce their Men again into order, my Lord Lisle and Sir Richard Greenvile presently pursued the Enemy with 2 Troops, and sent Sir William Vaughan with 2 Troops more to pursue others, flying away to the right hand. And having followed the chase of them about 2 or 3 miles distant from the Army, the Rebels having made their escape over Bogs, and un-passable Grounds for Horse our Horse were fain to leave them, and return to the rest of the Army, where the Cannon stood.

My Lords,. Therefore if your Lordships will be pleased to take us timely into your considerations, before our urgent wants make us desperate, we will, as we have done hitherto, serve your Lordships readily and faithfully. Hence with what countenance some gave it it was thought, the Rebels as to the bringing in of the Cessation, and their further Aims prevail'd more, than in all their Battels, Treacheries, and Surprizals.

About Easter, the Rebels, under Preston, besieg'd Baranokil; at which time even the 11th. But here we must acquaint you, that about November, May it please your Sacred Majesty. His Majesty hath expresly commanded me to give this Answer to this Petition. Upon the Petition of the Confederates of Ireland, his Majesty granted a Commission to the Marquis of Ormond, to meet, and hear what the Rebels could say or propound for themselves; by vertue of which, the Earl of St.

Shameless Soul! The Commission from his Majesty, that the Rebels might be heard, was brought over, and confidently delivered at the Council-board, the And upon the 8th. Given at Our Court at Oxford, the About the 1st. In which Expedition, Major Appleyard, May the 2d. The Lord Inchequin, the 28th. Whereupon Sir Charles Vavasor demurr'd upon it, and took order for what was needful, and called back the said Hutton and the Horse from the Mountain.

To this end, they made a Chain of Masts, Casks, and Iron, across that part of the Harbour next to the Fort, and planted strong Guards at each end of it; They prepared some few Ship-Guns, and a Morter-Piece, which was well cast by a Runnagate out of the Lord Forbes Ships, which afterwards they made use of at the Siege of Castle Coot; so that with much Industry rather then Gallantry, they at length got the Fort by Composition, its Relief coming too late into the Harbour; The event of which so much struck the Governour, as he did not many months after survive the loss.

William Brent, is a Person whom we have purposely sent over, to give us an account of your proceedings in a Business of this Consequence, to whom you may give credit, and by him we shall desire to hear from you, when you shall have any Matter of moment to send over unto us. Given at our Court at Oxon, the 3d. May it please your Most Excellent Majesty. From your Majesties Castle at Dublin, the 11th. The 12th. Certainly the Exigencies of the Souldiers, and State of Ireland were then very considerable, in as much as his Majesty not being able by any other expedient to remedy as he was perswaded their complaints, then by a Cessation, he to that end sends this Letter to the Lords Justices.

In which Business we require you to use all convenient expedition, and to give us a speedy Account, for which these our Letters shall be your Warrant. Given under our Signet at our Court at Oxford, the second day of July, in the 19th. Montgarret, Castlehaven Audley, Malachias Arp. Tuamen, Fr. Fleming, Arch. Plunket, Edm.

Fitz-Maurice, Patrick Darcy, Rob. Linch, R. In Answer to which, the Marquess of Ormond replyed, the 21st. Thus at present, more than by Letters, and the private Actings of some Men there was nothing further attempted in the Treaty, till the 26th.

Henry Tichborn. Given at his Majesty's Castle of Dublin, July 8. Dublin, Ormond, Roscommon, Bramston, Ant. Midensis, Tho. Rotheram, Jo. Temple, Fra. Montgarret, Muskery, Fr. Bealing, Torlo O Neile, Patr. Who reads this, may well think their Confidence built on other Grounds than appear'd.

Surely so impudent a Reply, never before without chastizement escaped the Pen of suppliant Rebels; nor indeed could some then have had the freedom of their just scorn and indignation should such expressions have been swallowed. During the respite of the Treaty for the Cessation, viz. All things tending to a Cessation, the State held it their best policy not to retain their Forces wholly in their Garrisons; and therefore though they had slender Provisions, and less Treasure to encourage the Souldiers abroad the 27th.

In Answer to which one readily writes this: Olim Roma pios truculenta morte beavit, Antiquos mores jam nova Roma tenet. Whilst these things were thought on in England, the People of Ireland who took a liberty at the uncertainty of Affairs were strangely divided, whether the Cessation should be concluded or no. During which Treaty, many difficulties arose; one whether in this or the former Treaty, I am not certain was much insisted on, viz.

How the several Indictments and Outlawries against the Irish might be repealed? After some dispute, at length Plunket one of the Irish Agents told them, He had found a Remedy; the Judges before whom they were Indicted might be summon'd to the Star-Chamber, and there be Fined. And there replied one who is seldom found to sign any Act of State till the Cessation was concluded all that are concern'd may be confident to find reparation.

This the Lord Chief Justice Shurley thought reflected upon him, who thereupon express'd much courage and integrity. And the Dispute fell: And the 15th. The publication of which, with the Articles, and his Majesties Motives thereunto, you may read in his Majesties Works, from fol.

Wherefore that the State might still steer by the same Compass they had hitherto done, they committed the Case to the Judges; who unanimously agreed upon the following Reasons for its continuance. ACcording to your Lordships Order of the xi. By course of Common Law it will be very difficult to be effected, for these Reasons following.

And yet the present Parliament will be discontinued, unless a Commission under the Great Seal of England to the now Lords Justices, or other the Chief Governour or Governours for the time being, be here before the 13th. Bolton Cancell. Shurly, Gerrard Lowther, Ja. Donnalon, Sa. And to the end they might not be frustrated of their Arrears, he commands their Debentors should be respectively sign'd, that they might take an effectual course to be paid the same by the Two Houses of Parliament that engaged them.

That you do consider and advise of the best means of Transporting the rest of Our Army in that Our Province of Leimster, excepting such as are to be kept in Garrison in Our Kingdom of Ireland and to that end We do hereby give you, or any one of you, full Power and Authority, to hire all Ships, Barques, or Vessels whatsoever, and to treat with any Persons whatsoever for the Loan, Hire, or Sale of any Ships, Barques, or Vessels, upon such Conditions as you, or any one of you, shall agree upon with them.

That in such time and manner as to you shall seem meet, you communicate to the Officers and Soldiers of that Our Army this Our intention, to make use of their known Courage and Fidelity in the defence of Our Person and Crown, against the unnatural Rebellion rais'd against us in this Our Kingdom, and against the like labour'd by the Rebels here, to be rais'd against Us out of Our Kingdom of Scotland. And you are to assure the Soldiers, that all care shall be taken, that Cloathes, Shoes, and other Necessaries be forthwith provided for them, after they are Landed here; and that care shall be taken for the Provision of such as shall happen to be maim'd here in Our Service; and for the payment of all their Arrears that shall be due to any of them that shall happen to be kill'd in the same, to their Wives, Children, or nearest Friends.

And you are to assure both Officers and Soldiers, that we will take special care to reward all such according to their Merit and Quality, that shall do us any eminent Service in this Our War, against this odious and most unnatural Rebellion. And for Our obedience in this, and every other of these Our Commands, this shall be to you, and every of you, sufficient Warrant. In the mean time, his Gospel gives us leave, in case of War, to sit down and cast up the cost, and estimate our power to go through with it; and in such case, where Prudence adviseth, it is lawful to propose Conditions of Peace, though the War otherwise might justly be pursued.

This wrought much on many. And it must be acknowledged, from the series of Affairs since, that the Irish in concluding the Cessation had a respect to their greater security and designs, those being thereby withdrawn to his Majesties service in England, which otherwise would certainly have oppos'd them.

And here I cannot but observe, that the Irish afterwards acquired much confidence, by a Bull of Pope Urban 's the 8th. Right Honourable,. YOur Lordships of the This kind of usage and contempt would constrain good Servants, though his Majesties Loyal Subjects, to think upon some course which may be satisfactory to them, being driven almost to despair, and threaten'd to be persecuted by the Roman Catholick Subjects, as they are now called.

And so I remain,. Ardmagh, 29 Sept. Receiv'd the 2d. Your Lordships humble and obedient Servitor, Robert Monro. Thus with the remembrance of our heartiest wishes unto your Lordships, we rest,. Armach, Jo. Clonfert, Th. Dublin, R. Beling, N. Plunket, Gerrard Fennell. And I will do my best endeavour to procure and re-establish the Peace and Quietness of the Kingdom of England. And I will neither directly or indirectly divulge or communicate any thing to the said Earl of Essex, his Officers, or any other, to hinder or prejudice the Designs of his Majesty, in the Conduct or Imployment of his Army.

Which that it may be taken by every Souldier, follows the Precept. By the Lieutenant General of his Majesties Army. Given at his Majesties Castle of Dublin, The Lords Justices and Council this while had a great task, and not so much as straw to the Work, the Confederates paying in the Money, viz. Psalm, and the last verse, Thou leadest thy People like a Flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron; upon which he paraphras'd exceeding elegantly; But, as Sir James Ware observes in his Life never receiv'd a Farthing of his Bishoprick.

And the Parliament there meeting at Dublin the 17th. In pursuance of which, an Oath afterwards was hammer'd; but some of the Judges dis-agreeing, it was never form'd. How much of this prov'd a Prophesie, their sad Experience knows, and the World cannot but take notice of. Soon after the Confederate's Agents were dismissed, the Protestant's Committee of Parliament who had managed their Scene with much Courage and Integrity drew off, with the King's Favour and Promise to do the utmost he could for them.

May it please your Lordships. Cooley, Will. Usher, Hen. Jones, Anth. Dopping, Will. Plunket, Theod. Schoute, Peter Wybrants. But that I may not o're-slip the Series of this Story, which, through a conflux of Matter, will sometimes unavoidably be disturbed, I must take notice, that the first Cessation being near determin'd, the 5th. About which time, the Earls of Thomond, Clanrickard, and St.

IF in the undertaking of a just Design it were onely requisite, that the Hearts and Consciences of the Undertakers were satisfi'd, we should not need to publish this Declaration; but lest our Enemies should traduce the candour of our Actions and Intentions, we have made this manifestation of them, which will acquaint the World with their Malice, and our Innocence.

But by Gods great providence, when the Rebellion brake out first, the Parliament of England was sitting, unto whom his Majesty communicated so much of his Power over this Kingdom, as we shall hereafter mention, and gave them great encouragement to prosecute the War against the Rebels, by granting Lands unto such as should adventure Money for the maintenance of the War.

Whereupon the Parliament who were most willing to advance so good a Cause sent us at first large Supplies, which had so good success, that the Divine as well as Humane Justice did proclaim them Rebels; for indeed God Almighty since the deliverance of the Children of Israel from the Egyptians never appeared so visibly as in this War.

And truly we may with Justice profess, that the Forces of this Province did feed as miraculously as fight, being never able to prescribe any certain way of subsistance for one month together; but when the poor Inhabitants were almost beggar'd, and no means for the Forces to subsist on left, a Cessation of Arms was made for a twelvemonth with the Rebels, which our necessity not inclination compelled us to bear with; and the rather out of a firm hope, that the Almighty, out of his infinite goodness, would, within that year, settle a right understanding between the King and Parliament, that then they would unanimously revenge the crying blood of so many thousands of innocent Souls; and until God blessed us with the sight of that happy Union, we might keep our Garrisons which otherwise we could not the better to enable them to prosecute so just and honourable a design.

And since those that die acting for the Gospel, are as perfect Martyrs, as those that die suffering for it; we cannot but with joy embrace any effect, that proceeds from so glorious a Cause. And the better to secure the Adventurers, his Majesty obliged himself to make no Peace with the Rebels, but with the advice and approbation of the Parliament of England; and by that Act, communicated to the Parliament that Power, which before was solely in himself.

Therefore if this War were onely Offensive, yet even slander it self must acknowledge us innocent, having so just a Cause, so pious an Intention, and so lawful an Authority; much more it being Defensive, and the Law both of God and Nature allowing every one to defend himself from violence and wrong. Moreover, the King must never expect any obedience from the Irish, but what proceeds either from their Interest, or Fear. Concerning the first, we declare, That although our necessities did induce us to submit, supposing the Cessation would have produced other effects, as is before mentioned; yet we had no power without Authority from King and Parliament joyntly to treat or yield to it; or if it had been in our powers, yet by the Rebels daily breaches of it, we are disengaged from it.

And he being committed upon this occasion, the Rebels apprehending their design to be discovered, with-drew their Forces. In a word, since they pretend the ground of this War to be for Religion, and that this is confessed by those who seem'd to adhere to us; what faith can be expected from such a People, whose Religion permits them to hold none with us? These, we take God to witness, are our intentions, and we beseech him to punish us as strangely, as hitherto he hath preserv'd us, if we decline at all from these Loyal and Religious resolutions; and we firmly hope, that the World will, by this Declaration, be as fully satisfi'd of the justness of our proceedings, as we our selves are; then though we all lose our lives in this Cause, we shall give our Friends occasion to rejoyce, and our Enemies to envy at so blessed an end.

Upon his revolt to the Parliament, he dream'd of sudden Supplies, but they were at that time so imbroil'd in business, as they had little leisure to consider of Ireland, and less means to help them, so as little was sent to him for eight or ten months after; but they made him Lord President of Munster.

What difference soever there was between some Towns and the Lord Lieutenant, yet for the encouragement of any that should bring Commodities to Dublin, Tredagh, Dundalk, Carlingford, Cork, Kinsale, or Youghal, for the relief of his Majesties Army and good Subjects there; a Proclamation pass'd at Dublin the 20th. About May, And that Affairs more probably might succeed, a general Assembly of the Confederate Catholicks, which consisted of all the Peers of that Party, and of all the Gentlemen and Burgesses of Corporation Towns, which was as lively a Representation of the whole Nation, as they could make towards the end of the year, viz.

For the expediting of which, his Excellency had had many and serious Invitations from his Majesty, as the most visible means then left to revive the Hopes he was reduced to: To which end, in June, before he had sent Mr. And in a Letter from an Honourable Person then at Denbigh, the 26th.

Bealing Esq a leading Member of, and chief Secretary to their supream Council, by whose means only he was sent into Ireland, even whilst the Treaty of Peace the utmost Grace his Majesty could vouchsafe his People was set on foot; an acceptable and loyal service! He arrived at the River of Kilmare, in a Frigat of 21 Pieces, and 26 Italians, of his Retinue, besides divers regular and secular Priests, the And amongst the Accounts of those Times, there is a List given in of some Arms, Ammunition, and Spanish Gold; but not hearing as yet of the Blessing they produced, we shall as to those Particulars confine our Pen, yet give you here the supream Council's Address to his Holiness, in acknowledgement of the Nuncio's Arrival.

Beatissime Pater,. That Colonel Fitz-Williams undertakes, for the sum of l. That upon the Landing of the said Men, there shall be advanced to the Colonel one months Pay for all the Army, according to the Muster, for the present support of the Army. That Colonel Fitz-Williams may be Commander in Chief thereof, and dispose of all the Officers, and only be commanded by the King, Prince, and—and qualified with such Benefits, as have been formerly granted unto your Majesty's Generals, that have commanded Bodies apart from the King's own Army, as the Earl of Kingston, and others, whereby the better to enable him in the Levies, as well as in the general Conduct of the Business.

That the Colonel may be provided with Arms and Ammunition, or with Money requisite for himself, to provide necessary Proportions for to bring with him. That the Army shall be paid as other Armies of the King. By the Lord Lieutenant and Council. That l. Sterling, be paid the King yearly, for the Court of Wards. That no Peer may be capable of more Proxies then two. That no Governor be longer Resident, then his Majesty shall find for the good of his People, and that they make no purchase, other then by Lease for the Provision of their Houses.

That an Act of Oblivion may be passed, without extending to any who will not accept of this Peace. That Commissioners be appointed, to regulate the Court of Castle-Chamber. That Maritine Causes be determin'd here, without Appeal into England. That the increase of Rents lately rais'd upon the Commission of defective Titles, be repeal'd. That the Commissioners have power to determine all Cases within their Quarters, until the perfection of these Articles by Parliament, and raise Men for his Majesty.

Plunket, Rich. That the Confederate Catholicks continue in their Possessions until Settlement by Parliament, and to be Commanded by his Majesties Chief Governour, with the advice and consent of the Commissioners, or any Five of them.

That all Customs, from the perfection of these Articles, are to be paid into his Majesties Receipt, and to his use; as also all Rent due at Easter next, till a full Settlement of Parliament. That the Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, and Gaol-Delivery, shall have power to hear and determine all Offences committed or done, or to be committed or done, from the 15th. At this Peace the Irish seem'd exceedingly enliven'd; but the shew thereof quickly vanish'd, and a cloud of Jealousie began again to cover the Land.

At that time, the Parliament of England having accommodated the Spaniard with Men; he, in lieu thereof, so temper'd the Irish, ever devoted to that Nation that the Spaniard having then an Agent in Ireland, he took them off from doing any thing effectual in our King's business. And shortly after the Nuncio prevail'd so much, that he united General Preston to his Army, at which time he took this Oath. They were not content not to suffer the Peace not to be proclaimed in Waterford, and to disswade the People from submitting to it: But by a Decree dated the 12 day of August, Given at our Palace of Nova Curia, the 18th.

A Decree of Excommunication against such as adhere to the late Peace, and do bear Arms for the Hereticks of Ireland, and do aid or assist them. Dated at Kilkenny, in our Palace of Residence, the 5th. May it please your Excellency,. We shall endeavour in our Ways to exercise Faith and Honour; and upon this thought we rest.

Your Excellencies most humble Servants, J. Preston, Owen O Neile. That the Council of State, called ordinarily the Council-Table, be of Members true and faithful to his Majesty, and such of which there may be no fear or suspition of going to the Parliament Party. That according to our Oath of Association, we will, to the best of our power and cunning, defend the fundamental Laws of this Kingdom, the Kings Rights, the Lives and Fortunes of the Subjects.

His Excellency is prayed to make Answer to the above Propositions, at furthest by two of the Clock in the afternoon on Thursday next. And the Marquis was still without other Engagement, than to do what he should judge most conducing to his Majesties Service.

And shortly after such animosities arose betwixt the Parliaments Commissioners and the Lord Inchequin, as doubtless if some Privy Counsellors had not interpos'd great inconveniencies would certainly thence have risen. Thus the Treaty with the Marquis not succeeding, the Commissioners from the Two Houses of Parliament return'd again to their Ships, about the end of November, and carried all the Supplies they had brought to the Parliaments Garrisons in the Province of Ulster, being much incens'd against the Lord Lieutenant for declining an entire union with them, and inclining as they said he did to a new confidence in the Irish: Yet they found but cold entertainment amongst the Scots.

At which time, Dr. The other, that the King was now in the hand of the Scots, who were not like to approve that Peace had been made, all that Nation in Ulster refusing to submit to it. And if they should be able to procure any Order from his Majesty to disavow it, the Lord Lieutenant would undoubtedly obey it. This was done about the end of November, And shortly after, General Preston desired the Lord Lieutenant, to march with as strong a Body as he could draw out of his Garrisons, towards Kilkenny, where he promised to meet him with his Army, that so being united, they might compel the rest to submit to the Peace.

And here, that you may have some Divertisement, you shall see in what condition Hereticks are to be buried; to which end, we shall present you with a Copy of a Censure, under the Hand of Nicholas, Bishop of Ferns, against Francis Talbot, who died a Protestant.

Mary's Church-yard, near to the Garden of the Parsonage. Given at the Fryers Monastery, the last of Decemb. Whereby it appears, let the most favourable Fucus imaginable be put upon it that though they released the Commissioners for the Treaty, as justifiable, yet Herod and Pilate were then made Friends, each Party consenting to dam the Peace. This last wonderful Act put a period to all Hopes of the Marquess of Ormond, which Charity and Compassion to the Kingdom and Nation, and his discerning Spirit, would fain have cherisht, in that in-evitable ruine and destruction both must undergo, from that distemper of mind that possessed them, and had so long boy'd them up, against his experience and judgement.

Richard Bealing; to Spain they sent Fa. Plunket, and Mr. Geoffry Brown; some of whose Instructions we shall here give you, that the Temper of that Council, and the Affections of those Men, what pretence soever veils their Designs may appear from the Instruments themselves. Kilkenny, You are to manage the circumstance of your Proceedings upon the Instructions, according as upon the Place you shall find most tending to the Avail of the Confederate Catholicks.

Roscotensis Fr. Edmundus Laglensis, Franc. Ardensis Episc. Patricius Ardack. Electus, Rob. Henry O Neal, Rich. Bealing, J. Bryan, Robert. Devereux, Gerald Fennel, Farren. You are to desire his most Christian Majesty, the Queen Regent, and Cardinal Mazarine, their Favourable and Friendly regard of the Affairs of the Confederate Catholicks, and to direct their assistance in what they may, to further the settling of the happy Peace of this Kingdom, with advantagious, and honourable Conditions, Commissioners being now sent, to conclude the same, if they may.

Owen O Neil accepted of the Condition, and with all possible speed, dispatched his Nephew Daniel, to the Supream Council at Clonmel, with a Letter containing his Advice, and another to the Bishop of Clogher, his chief Confident; to whom he sent Reasons at large, which ought to induce the Nation to desire such a Cessation.

When the Council receiv'd the Letter, and knew that the Lord Lieutenant expected an Answer within 14 days, they resolved to return no Answer, till those days were expired, and during that time, committed Daniel O Neil to Prison, that he might not return to his Unkle; and when the time was passed, they releas'd him, on condition that he should come no more into their Quarters. We have appointed this Instrument to be entred into both Houses, and under the hands of both Speakers to be presented to your Lordship.

Savage Dep. What effect this made upon his Excellency, you will here see. But to return. In conclusion, the Commissioners from the two Houses of Parliament having performed all that on their part was expected, the Marquis of Ormond delivered up Dublin and the other Garrisons into their hands the 17th.

However, he delivered not up the Regalia till the 25th. Before He came away, the Soldiers had receiv'd such a tincture of Mutiny, as Mr. Upon which, Jones seeing himself in this condition, march'd about the 17th. Of ours some were wounded, but not above 20 slain: Of Note, we lost only 2 Cornets, and one Captain Gibbs, who, over-heated in the Service, died in drinking Ditch-Water.

Nor had the effect of this Victory ended thus, but that Pay and Provision for the Army were so scant, as necessity inforced them to return to Dublin, where they were met with the News of l. Upon the arrival of this News, the House of Commons voted l. What if we be beyond any common measure afflicted and dismayed?

And now that our Adversaries have prevailed to deprive us, not only of all hopes of subsisting here in your Service, but have proceeded for to provide, that we may not live hereafter but out of your Favour. And so in discharge of our duties both to God and Man, we humbly offer to consideration, and remain. And when he had with less success than formerly issued his Excommunication, the 27th. And in doing hereof, no other Language shall be used, than what was part of a Memorial, delivered by an honourable and zealous Catholick, who was intrusted to complain of the in-sufferable Behaviour of the Nuncio to the Pope himself, which runs in these very words, speaking of the Nuncio.

He incensed the greatest and best part of the Catholick Nobility, and rendred the venerable Name of the holy Apostolick Chair, odious to the Hereticks, with small satisfaction to the Catholick Princes themselves of Europe, as though it sought not the spiritual good of Souls, but a temporal Interest, by making it self Lord over Ireland. By this Proceeding, Monsieur Rinuccini hath given the World an occasion to believe, that he had private and secret Commission to change the Government of Ireland, and to separate that Island from the Crown of England.

And I beseech your Holiness, if any King, not only Protestant but Catholick, had seen an Apostolick Nuncio to lord it in his Dominions, in such a manner as Monsieur Rinuccini hath done in Ireland, what Jealousies, what Complaints, and how many Inconveniencies would thereby follow?

Thus as to the Nuncio, from the Confederates themselves. By this it was resolv'd, and after sworn by all the Catholicks, never to lay down Arms, until the Roman Church was settled, as of old in Ireland, and the King secur'd in all his Priviledges, that of calling, and putting period to Parliaments at pleasure, with a Negative voice, being chiefly meant, and then in great hazard to be lost.

Ormond seeing himself out with the Catholicks, both because he had ill treated them, and by the violence exercised by his Army, no sooner return'd to Dublin, but he treated with the Parliament of England, for the delivery of the Towns he held; which was done accordingly. Coming after to London, where he expected to be gratified by the Parliament of England, proportionable to the service done them; but finding there no such disposition, he went secretly to the Queen at St.

In the interim, Owen Roe, judging, that he could not in conscience, joyn his Armies any longer with a Party, that called it self Catholick, and yet chas'd away the Nuncio, declar'd his separation from them, until they recal the Nuncio, and endeavour to obtain a Catholick Vice-Roy, and execute in all other points the Oath they had taken. He planted Garrisons upon the Frontiers of Ulster, to hinder the incursions of the Rebels, and he gave the Quarters the Scots had, to such of the British as he found faithful to the service.

This was about September, By the Lord Lieutenant General of Ireland. And that this our undertaking might not appear obnoxious to the Trade of England, but that we desire a firm Union and Agreement be preserved betwixt us, we do likewise declare, that we will continue free Traffick and Commerce with all his Majesties good Subjects of England; and that we will not in the least manner prejudice any of them that shall have recourse to our Harbours, either in their Bodies, Ships, or Goods; nor shall we take any thing from them, without payment of ready money for the same.

Whereas We have received several Informations from Our two Houses of Parliament, concerning your proceedings with the Confederate Roman Catholicks in the Kingdom of Ireland, the several Votes and Extracts whereof We do herewith transmit unto you and forasmuch as We are now engaged in a Treaty of Peace with Our two Houses, wherein We have made such large Concessions, as We hope will prove the foundation of a blessed Peace. As soon as the Parliament received this Letter, some were of opinion that it should be immediately sent to the Marquis of Ormond; yet others aiming at what afterwards was brought upon the Stage laid it as it's said aside: We find by the event it produced nothing, for the Treaty proceeded, a Peace ensuing; though as yet Owen Roe was so far from being reconcil'd to the Supreme Council, or any that adher'd thereunto, as he fell most violently in the end of November upon the Earl of Clanrickard 's Party, gaining Jamestown by Composition, and Drumrusk by the Sword, Rory Mac-Guire the prime Instrument herein with several other Officers and Common Soldiers, to the number of 4 or being there slain; Owen Roe 's Party afterwards putting all to the Sword, save Major Bourk his Wife and Children, cruelly harassing the whole County of Roscommon.

The 19th. But to proceed. The Sacred Person of our King the Life of those Laws, and Head of those Constitutions is under an ignominious Imprisonment, and his Life threaten'd to be taken away by the Sacrilegious hands of the basest of the People, that owed him obedience; and to endear the Quarrel to you the Fountain of all the benefits you have but now acknowledg'd, and which you may further hope for by this Peace, and your own Merit, is endangered to be obstructed by the execrable murther of the worthiest Prince that ever Ruled these Islands.

First, let me recommend to you, that to this, as unto all holy Actions, as certainly this is you will prepare your selves with perfect Charity, a Charity that may obliterate what-ever Rancor the long continued War may have contracted in you, against any that shall now co-operate with you in so blessed a Work; and let his Engagement with you in this, whoever he is, be as it ought to be a Bond of Unity, of Love, of Concord, stronger than the nearest Tyes of Nature.

In the next place, mark and beware of those, who shall go about to renew jealousies in you, under what pretence soever, and account such as the infernal Ministers, imploy'd to promote the black design on foot, to subvert Monarchy, and to make us all slaves to their own avaritious lusts. Away as soon and as much as possible may be with distinction of Nation and Parties, which are the fields wherein the seeds of those Rancour-weeds are sown by the great Enemy of our Peace.

Let it suffice, that as I wish to be continued in your good Esteem and Affection, so I shall freely adventure upon any hazard, and esteem no trouble or difficulty too great to encounter, if I may manifest any Zeal to this Cause, and discharge some part of the Obligations that are upon me, to serve this Kingdom.

That all Laws made in the Parliament of England since All Debts to remain as they were Feb. All Incapacities of the Natives in Ireland be taken away by Act. That the King take l. That the depending of the Parliament of Ireland upon England, shall be as both shall agree and stand with the Laws of Ireland.

That divers particular Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen, who have been as they conceiv'd wrong'd, shall now be righted. That all who had their Estates taken from them in Cork, Toughall, and Dungarvan, have restoration or Rent. That no Officer of Eminency in Ireland farm the Customs. That the Acts for prohibiting plowing with Horses by the Tayls, and burning Oats in the Straw, be null.

That Interest-Money be forgiven from The Commissioners for the Catholicks that treated, agree upon such as shall be Commissioners of the Peace, and hear all Causes under 10 l. That hereafter such Differencies as shall arise between Subjects, be determin'd by a Court in Ireland, not transfer'd to England. That the Roman Clergy, that behave themselves according to the Agreement, be not molested.

Lastly, That his Majesty please to grant what-ever else is necessary for the Roman Catholicks. And to that end, from the Congregation of the Presbytery at Belfast, the 15th. In the 5th. Article of the Covenant, we are sworn to endeavour the continuing the Kingdoms in Union, in which we desire your selves to be Judges, if the publishing of your Representations, be a probable way to observe the Oath. In the 6th. Thirdly, 'Tis affirmed, That the Power now governing in England, doth labour to establish by Law an universal toleration of all Religions; which yet was never done by them.

Lastly, The sad Consequences which will un-avoidably follow, if we pursue the Intention of the Representations, are these:. First, By declaring such an open War against the Parliament, we should deprive our selves of all Succours and Supplies out of England, which have been hitherto a great part of our subsistence. Thirdly, It will compel us, for our own preservation, to joyn with the Rebels, or desert this Kingdom. Here it's evident, that Sir Charles Coot could by no ways be brought on; yet the Peace being settled, his Excellency endeavour'd to work over Lieutenant General Jones to his Party; to which end his Excellency vouchsafed to write to him many Letters from Thurles, the He, by his Reply the About which time, Ireland came again to be seriously thought of by the Parliament, though hitherto it was in some respects made a Stale for several Designs then on foot.

In the interim, he gets Sir Theophilus Jones, who was sent to the Parliament from his Brother dispatch'd for Ireland with Quarters of Corn, and l. So that the Commissioners, advised and besought the Lord Lieutenant, to make a Journey in Person, to such of those Corporations, as were best able to assist him, and by his own Presence, Assistance, and Interest, endeavour to perswade them, to express that affection to the Peace, they had professed; And thereupon he went with a Competent number of the Commissioners, to Waterford, which gave l.

The Marquess encamped his whole Army at the Naas, twelve miles from Dublin, that he might maturely deliberate what was next to be undertaken, being now the middle of June. There was now very reasonable ground for hope, that the Parliaments Party would quickly find themselves in notable streights and distresses, when it was on a suddain discover'd, how very active and dexterous, the spirit of Rebellion is to reconcile and unite those, who were possessed by it, and how contrary soever their Principles and Ends seem to be, and contribute jointly to the opposing and oppressing that Lawful Power, they had both equally injured and provoked.

AFter my hearty Commendations, upon some Representations, that have been lately made unto us, we have thought fit, to send you down the ensuing Instructions:. That you cause the Articles of War to be put in execution, amongst all the Forces under your Command, whereof we send you down herewithall a Copy.

If any Person shall speak or act to the prejudice of his Majesties Authority, or Affairs, let him upon proof be forthwith Imprisoned, and his Estate secured, and an Information sent up to us of the nature of his Crime, that we may give further Order therein. If there be any Person whose Loyalty is suspected, let the Chief in Command upon the Place, administer unto him the Oath of Allegiance; and if he refuse it, let them secure both his Person and Estate, and send up an information to us, that we may cause proofs to be made against him.

Owen O Neil still continued his affection to the Parliamentarians; and when he found that his design of drawing the Marquis of Ormond 's Army from Dublin could not prevail, he hastned into Ulster, and upon the payment of l. But to look backwards. And then the Lord Lieutenant march'd with the remainder of the Army over the River of Liffy to the South-side, to a Place called Rathmines, where he resolved to Incamp, and from whence, by reason of the narrowness of the River, he might discourage an attempt of sending Relief into the Town by Sea from England.

And in truth, if he had come time enough to have rais'd a Work upon the Point, some interruption might have been given to that Enterprise; but it pleased God, that that very same day the 25th. However, the Marquis pursued his resolution, and encamped that night at Rathmines, and the next day made himself strong there, till, upon information, he was sure to receive an account of the state and condition of the Enemy, that he might better conclude what was next to be done.

And upon this Conclusion, the Lord Inchiquin departed towards Munster. Byrns Regiments of Foot which had been left at Finglass in Arms, and which had not seen the Enemy that day; upon which, the Lord Taaff us'd all possible endeavours to perswade them to attempt a Recovery of what was lost, which, in so great disorder of the Enemy which such success usually produceth was not reasonably to be despaired of: But the apprehension, jealousies, fright and terrour, was so universal, that he could not incline them to it, nor to do more than and that in great confusion to provide for their own security: Whilst the Marquis directed his Letters to them, ordering therein the one half of them to go to Tredath, and the other half to Trym, for the security of those Places, whilst himself went to Kilkenny to rally what he could of the Army, and to raise what new Forces he should be able.

This was the unhappy, and indeed fatal Defeat at Rathmines, by the Bishops at Jamestown, , thought so improvident and unfortunate, as nothing happen'd in Christianity more shameful. Yet in his Excellencies Letter from Kilcolgan the 2d. It was the first and onely loss that fell upon any Army or Party of which the Marquis had the Name and Title, and here he had no more than the name of the Supreme Commander, and these the whole Circumstances of it.

In this Battel were slain on the place, and in the Chace, about Soon after this Defeat, Jones was writ to by his Excellence, to have a List of the Prisoners he had taken from him. The 24th. Upon Friday the 30th. Moses saw the good Land, but never entred. At Dublin Cromwel refresh'd his Soldiers a few days, and intending to fish in troubled Waters resolv'd presently to appear before Wexford; which the Marquis of Ormond suspecting, upon Cromwel 's return from Tredagh to Dublin removed his Army from Castle Jordan down towards the Counties of Wexford and Kilkenny, there not onely to lie secure till Owen O Neil 's Army should come up to him, according to agreement, as you shall hereafter hear but also ready to be drawn into either Wexford or Kilkenny, as there should be occasion.

Cromwel according to his resolution the 27th. Their Officers and Soldiers should march out with flying Colours, and the other punctilio's of Honour. That all Free-men should have their Immunities and Liberties hitherto enjoyed, they adhering to the State of England. None to be disturb'd in their Possession. That no memory remain of any Hostility or distance betwixt the Parliament and those that kept the Town and Castle.

From this Torrent of Success and Corruption, no body will wonder, That Cromwel march'd thence without control, and took in Ross, a strong Town situate upon the Barrow, and far more considerable for Navigation than Wexford, the River admitting a Ship of 7 or Tun to ride by the Walls; of this Place Major General Lucas Taaff was Governour, who had with him a strong Garrison, re-enforced by Men, even in the fight of Cromwel 's Army, who when he came before it to save Blood, sent a Summons to the Town; which was answer'd suitable to his mind by the Governour: but the Great Guns sending in the next Summons, the Town was surrendred on condition the 19th.

To which Cromwel repli'd, That he medled not with any mans Conscience; but if by Liberty of Conscience was meant a Liberty to exercise the Mass, he judged it best to use plain dealing, and to let him know, where the Parliament of England had power, that will not be allowed. Ross being now in Cromwel 's possession, he caus'd a Bridge of Boats to be made under protection of the Town over the River Barrow, and the Army to sit down before Duncannon, a strong Fort commanded by Colonel Wogan; but the Place being so well provided of all Necessaries, it was judged convenient not to lose time about it.

And presently after Colonel Abbot reduced Enisteoge a little wall'd Town, about 5 miles from Ross to the Parliaments obedience. But to look back. And thereupon Owen O Neal made that Conjunction with Monk, as is before spoken of, and, about the very time of the Defeat at Rathmines, relieved Sir Charles Coot in London-derry, and thereby kept the King, from being entirely possessed of the Province of Ulster, which, but for that Action, would have been able to have sent strong Supplies of Men and Provisions, to the assistance of the Marquess.

When he came into the Town, he found Lieutenant General Farral engaged in a Design to take Passage, a Place seized on by Cromwel, when he had retir'd from Waterford, and which was an in-convenient Neighbour to that City. Whereupon he presently sent for the Maior of the Town, and shewing him the in-evitable danger their whole Party was in, which was the only Srength against any Enterprize of the Enemy if they were not instantly reliev'd, required him presently to send some Body over the Water, for the transporting from the other side of the River of a Regiment or two of Horse, with which he would himself endeavour to rescue them.

How apparent soever the danger and mischief was, and how visible and natural soever the remedy, all the Commands and Entreaties he could use, could not prevail to get one Body, or their Consent, that any of his Horse should be suffered to march through the Town, without which they could not go to their Relief. When he came within sight of the Town, he could discern a Party of Foot, marching in great haste and disorder towards him, being pursued by the Enemy's Horse, who had even over-taken them, having fallen upon the remainder, and either killed them upon the Place, or taken them Prisoners.

Of all which, when the Marquess was fully informed, he thought it time to depart thence, and to leave them to their own Imaginations; and so marched away with his Army, which after this Indignity, it was a thing impossible to keep them together; And because the Principal Towns refused to admit them in he was fain in the depth of Winter, to scatter them over all the Kingdom.

About which time, Colonel Barry who through the whole Scene had been intrusted by the Supream Council, to negotiate with the King, and was not ill thought of by the Marquess of Ormond had then licence from Cromwel, to visit his Wife and Family at Castlelions, under the Parliaments obedience, where he transacted through the Mediation of a noble Person many Concerns, to the composing of Differencies with the greatest; though what tended to an Agreement with Inchequin, would never in the least be indulged; and the rest then spoke of had a fate, not seasonably to be composed.

And it cannot be denied, but that those Bishops, and that part of the Clergy which were best affected, and knew the ways which were most conducing to the happiness of their Countrey, prevail'd so far, that the Conclusions which were made there, seem'd full of respect for the Kings Service, and wholsom Advice and Council to the People; They declared how vain a thing it was, to imagine that there would be any security for the exercise of their Religion, for the enjoying of their Fortunes, or for the preservation of their Lives, by any Treaty with, or Promise from the Parliament.

In a word, they said so much, and so well, that when the Lord Lieutenant was informed of it, and when he saw the Extract of their Determinations, he conceiv'd some hope, that it might indeed make good Impression on the People, and produce a very good effect: The Particulars of which here follows. And since Concluded. Decembris, And we desire that this our Declaration be Printed, and Published in each Parish, by Command of the respective Ordinaries.

Hugo Ardmachanus, Fr. Thomas Dublin, Thomas Casshel, Joan. Boetius Elphyn, Fr. Laonensis, Fr. Oliverus Dromorensis, Fr. Hugo Duacensis, Fr. Terentius Imolacensis, Fr. Ardagh, Oliverius, Deis Procurator Episco. Medensis, Dr. Hussey Procurator Episco. Ardfertensis, Fr. Joannes Cantwel Abbas, S. Crucis, Dr. Thadeus Clery Episcop. Procurator, Fr. Gregorius o Ferraile Provin.

Thomas Mackeyernane Provin. Walterus Clonfortensis Congregationis Secretar. Leaving the Laity offending in this kind, to be corrected by the Civil Magistrate, by Imprisonment, Fine, Banishment, or otherwise, as to them shall seem best, for plucking by the root so odious a Crime; The Execution whereof, we most earnestly recommend to all those having Power, and that are concerned therein, as they will answer to God for the evils that thereout may ensue.

This our Decree is to oblige within fifteen days after the Publication thereof, in the respective Diocesses. I do think there are differences and these differences demand different approaches. The short story is, by definition, concise in a way the novel is not. On the one hand, the short story is less unwieldy than the novel as a form. There is a built-in limit so everything needs to be more reigned in—the characters, the events, the trajectory if there is one.

This can be difficult; it requires precision and tolerates less imperfection. The novel, on the other hand, has more of a sprawl to it. There is space and time to digress, to go on little adventures. It allows the same thing to happen with the writer, too, to develop an intimacy with the environment and the characters, to inhabit their skin.

However, the length of the novel can make it more difficult to structure and shape. In short, there are risks to both forms and each have their own particular charms. The response to your book has been so positive — how does it feel? It feels tremendous, and I am incredibly grateful to readers and reviewers who have enjoyed the book and have had such generous things to say about it. But there is no doubt in my mind that I write because I want to be read, and not only by my friends.

Some writers maintain that writing is mostly editing — how much did your work change during the editing process? Editing my writing gives me enormous satisfaction. With short stories, I edit as I go. I leave it alone for a while, then go back and edit it yet again. I have a few readers I trust, and once I feel like I have the story where I want it, I share it with them.

Then I edit based on their responses. I write slowly, sentence by sentence word by word, comma by comma , so the editing does not normally involve a complete overhaul. In the case of The Hidden Light of Objects, once the collection was complete and I put the stories together in the order I wanted them, I revisited the stories again as part of a whole.

Although I already considered them part of a whole early in the process, reading them together highlighted aspects I might not have been sufficiently attentive to initially. Before publication, the book went through a final edit with an editor. I worked with Michelle Wallin, who was an ideal reader, both subtle and meticulous. I have no doubt the time for that will come. How did you find the Edinburgh Book Festival? Did you find unexpected readers, and have you discovered new writers?

It was fantastic to be surrounded by people who love books—eager readers who care about discovering new writers, who are sincerely interested in what they have to say. The festival was superbly organised, and I was happy to be on three panels. At the signing, I met a group of women who had read my collection in their book club. Needless to say, I was thrilled about that! I also presented on one of five panels organised by Raja Shehadeh on the experience of living and writing in the Middle East.

It was a pleasure to share that discussion with Selma Dabbagh, author of Out of It, and. Middle East Studies scholar and translator Marilyn Booth. My panel focused on Syria. It was a real pleasure to meet her in person and to hear her talk at the Festival. Labels facilitate categorisation, which may help sell books, but tends to obfuscate alternative understandings and more singular considerations. I might have more in common with a writer from, say, Iceland than I do with another Kuwaiti female writer, but slapping on the label will make that former similarity more difficult to identify.

One of the things literature can do, has always done so well, is cross divisions and traverse borders— geographical, temporal, even linguistic—and labels tend to make that harder to do. Do you think that questions about how autobiographical The Hidden Light of Objects are missing the point, or do you welcome them?

Reading fiction as autobiography limits what fiction can do. My personal experiences will undoubtedly affect my writing, but that does not mean what I write is reducible to autobiography. The special function of fiction is to invent worlds, to imagine alternatives to the present, to conjure up eccentric angles, to uncover unlikely connections, among many other fascinating things.

If we refuse to allow fiction to move beyond autobiography, we restrict the things fiction can do better than any other literary form. To my mind, that would be a shame. The interlocking stories — was that a conscious decision or an organic growth? A mix of both. By the third or fourth story I began to realise the stories would be linked. Certain images kept recurring, as did specific words, a tone, some of the characters, and, most importantly, the trope of objects.

All this gave me a strong sense that the stories were related and made sense together. I began to see them as lines that intersected. Each can be read independently, but, to me, they resonate and overlap in a way that works best together, contrapuntally, as it were. The first-person vignettes—narrated by Mina, a character who appears in a few of the stories—can be considered the invisible wire holding the collection together.

Each vignette is tangentially linked to the story that follows, but they are also connected to each other. Early into the process, I knew I was working on a collection, not individual stories, which is why I did not spend much time sending individual stories out for publication. I was quite surprised at the range and issues you wrote about — were you subject to censorship, whether external or internal, and was there ever a fear of a backlash?

I never self-censor and will always write exactly what I want. My concern must be my writing and fear plays no part in that. Do you think that writers have an agenda, a secret message to tell the world? Writers often have things of interest to say, and they do so in their own unique ways.

Great writers have a particular style, a way of expressing their specific take on the world. In my experience, however, readers tend not to like didacticism and are wary of being. The best books, I think, teach us indirectly, leave us with a perspective on life we had not thought about or encountered before. I like to feel I am not the same person after reading a book that I was when I started it. I suppose the same could be said about writing books as well.

Can you tell us anything about your upcoming novel? The form is polyphonic. The best advice I can give to students who want to improve their writing skills is to read as widely and as attentively as possible. If I have to narrow it down to one, my pet peeve as a professor is convoluted structure in a sentence or an entire essay a sure sign of convoluted thinking.

Tea Trails Sri Lanka boasts a long history with camellia sinensis, with over a thousand tea plantations on the island. It was a Scot who first brought the tea leaf to Sri Lanka; in the mid 19th century James Taylor travelled from Glasgow to Ceylon, as it was known then, to work on coffee plantations. It was he who came up with the idea to diversify the crop and soon he was working with Thomas Lipton, of Lipton Tea fame, to export tea all over the world.

Of course, he was soon pushed out when the coffee plantations caught a fungus that wiped out their entire crops and every Sri Lankan planter turned to tea, too. His legacy lives on, however, and I met one of his descendants at the Norwood tea plantation, a tea connoisseur by the name of Andrew Taylor who may be a distant relation of mine!

Old books live in glass cabinets, antiques and vintage photos decorate the walls, the staff are so relaxed about everything, the stress and rush of Gulf living seem like a distant memory. The tea plantation at Norwood is like stepping into the past. As we hopped off the train at Hatton, we began a car ride through the mountains, a serpentine journey up the slope. Even through my motion sickness, I could appreciate the beauty of the mountains. The pure serenity that emanates from the lake at the foot of the valley calmed my stress-addled soul.

After being in the Gulf for a few months without reprieve, the sheer verdancy of nature is always a surprise. The tea terraces give a structured look to the land quite similar to rice paddies , which is covered in tea shrubs that look like bonsai. It smells very refreshing. Complete with a private. We checked into our suite, marveling at the elegance of our four poster bed, the chaise longue, the beautiful porcelain bathroom and the French windows that opened out onto our private garden. We had arrived just in time for breakfast, a threecourse affair which started with eggs benedict and coffee, then were treated to delicious pastries beofre ending with a fruit selection that could have fed a small army, which we hungrily scoffed.

The large dining room and living room are open plan, surrounded by windows through which you can see the gardens and beyond that, fields and fields of tea. Sitting drinking coffee in the only building for miles, it felt as if we were the only people in the world. I will never take a cup of tea for granted again.

First of all is the backbreaking labour of picking the tea leaves, and then is the drying process, the roasting process which is incredibly precise and my favourite, the testing. Then, the tea is graded and goes to a tea auction in the capital of Colombo. A tea auction is my idea of heaven.

Each tea company, like Twinings. The tea you drink each morning could come from Norwood. Back at our digs, we had time to explore. The atmosphere in the luxury bungalow is that of the s. It was the monsoon season in Sri Lanka in July, and up in the mountains, the clouds drifted overhead ominously, occasionally showering us with a light drizzle, but for the most part, inspiring an ambience that encouraged us to curl up next to the fire.

After a late lunch, we decided to climb one of the trails with the aim of kick-starting our metabolism, so we could fit in afternoon tea. A greedy ambition, perhaps, but one that paid off. As we scaled the heights of the hill, the heavens opened. For those of us who find Gulf-living claustrophobic, Norwood Estate has many walking trails, some several miles long.

There is something to be said for getting back to nature and breathing in the clean oxygen, it makes you feel instantly rejuvenated and healthier. Especially as I nursed a cup of tea, using leaves picked from the tea bushes outside mere weeks ago. Even at its grittiest, the semi-serious buddy-cop drama never failed to frame the city as anything other than a millionaire's playground, where being beautiful was as potent a currency as the fat stacks of greenbacks you needed to live there.

These shows portrayed the city, and rightly so, as a glittering paradise where, if you have the wherewithal and some serious cash , your dreams can come true. In , she convinced Henry Flagler with a bag of oranges, as legend would have it to extend his Florida East Coast Railway from Palm Beach to Biscayne Bay in exchange for a portion of land on which to build the Royal Palm hotel. One of those vacationers, a realtor and automotive entrepreneur named Carl Fisher, saw the potential for development and high-end resort hotels.

The suburb in which the Biltmore holds court is one of the most desirable and expensive neighbourhoods in the whole of the US. He lost a great deal of power and influence, as did many, during the Great Depression of the s, and his contemporaries turned against him. His Coral Gables experiment, however, has stood the test of time and, as their property values continue to rise, the current residents appreciate his endeavour more than ever.

C r e at i v e Co n u r bat i o n While Martin has no doubt that the city he calls home owes a huge debt of gratitude to this handful of prescient pioneers, in the years since Ms. Miami Design District is one such project and the vision of a Carl Fisheresque entrepreneur who saw opportunity where only ramshackle red brick buildings once stood. Craig Robins started scooping up property in a rundown midtown Miami neighbourhood in the late s.

Cars will be valet parked, fine food will be prepared in the plethora of cafes and restaurants, while a boutique hotel will share residential space with chic, multi-million dollar condos. When the project is completed in , the Design District will be a status-affirming epicurean utopia.

From its monolithic skyscrapers, art deco palaces and wide boulevards, to its pastel-coloured, singlestorey suburbs, if nothing else, it is a wonderfully aesthetic conurbation. But there is so much more to it than the veneer of an attractive sun-soaked idyll; the city has a vibe that grips you from the moment you arrive and it hurts when you have to leave.

It has been built, demolished and rebuilt again, leaving a wonderful melting pot of cultures living amongst a myriad architectural styles. Striking art deco edifices seamlessly merge with the post-war musings of the Miami Modernist architectural movement MiMo , while s designs by Philippe Starke share the skyline with 21st century sentinels of glass and steel, moulded by the likes of Zaha Hadid. Against this backdrop, a languid, artistic temperament engulfs the city, which acts as a crossroads between North and South America as well as a gateway to the lackadaisical pace of the Caribbean.

From the Cuban jazz music that dances on the breeze in Little Havana, to the colourful street art of Wynwood, the city sways to its own unique tempo and, as such, has established itself as a global cultural hub. From Design Miami to Art Basel, the city, built on the inventiveness of a quixotic few, has become a Mecca for global creativity. Tickets are valid for one day only. Venue and exhibition information can be found at: www. The event is not just about the exhibits, either.

Meanwhile, Design Miami brings together influential collectors, designers, curators and critics from around the world in celebration of design culture and commerce. Together, Art Basel in Miami, now in its 12th year, and Design Miami, celebrating its tenth anniversary this December, draw around , visitors to the city.

Over of the world's leading art galleries participate in Art Basel alone, showing work from masters of modern and contemporary art, as well as pieces by newly emerging stars. Paintings, sculptures, drawings, installations, photographs, films and works of the highest quality are displayed in the main exhibition hall, while ambitious artworks and performances become part of the landscape at nearby beaches, Collins Park and SoundScape Park.

Domino park is the place where the old boys go to while away their day playing chess, dominos and cards. Be sure to try a traditional Cuban sandwich and shot of the local coffee, before stopping into the Cuba Tobacco Co. The Fontana's Chef Beppe Galazzi uses only local and farm fresh organic ingredients throughout the menu, which also offers a pretty comprehensive beverage list.

The Wynwood Walls After lunch, take a stroll around the colourful and artistic Wynwood neighbourhood, especially The Wynwood Walls art centre. It was conceived by the late Tony Goldman in He was looking to transform the warehouse district of Wynwood, and he arrived at a simple idea: "Wynwood's large stock of warehouse buildings, all with no windows, would be my giant canvases to bring to them the greatest collection of street art ever seen in one place.

The Wynwood Walls has grown into a major art statement, with a commitment to graffiti and street art, a genre that the late Mr Goldman believed is underappreciated and not respected historically. The regular season is short, starting in September and ending on December 28th, but there are still five home fixtures left, against the San Diego Chargers on November 2nd; the Buffalo Bills on November 13th; the Baltimore Ravens on December 7th; the Minnesota Vikings on December 21st and the New York Jets on the last day of the regular season.

There is a glut of great lounges, bars and clubs to choose from, either in downtown Miami or the bustling South Beach. While there are always new venues popping up along Collins Avenue, we recommend LIV at the iconic Fontainebleau hotel. Of course, fans of James Bond will recognise the name of the hotel, it being the first place gets one over on Auric Goldfinger, but it was also a regular haunt of Elvis, Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack, who were all spotted at the Fontainbleau in their hedonistic party days.

In the last couple of years, LIV has established itself as the quintessential South Beach nightspot, fusing the appeal of an ultra-exclusive lounge with the vibe of a high-energy party venue. V i l l a By Ba rto n G Ocean Drive The former home of Gianni Versace, who bought the property in and lived there until his death in , has been divided into ten luxuriously-appointed suites, all designed by Versace himself.

The hotel is the result of a. This resuscitated iteration comprises original rooms and 10 new luxury bungalow suites, each featuring the whimsical interior designs of Starck. The pick of the SLS, though, is the Penthouse Villa or Tower Penthouse Suite; fit for royalty, these elegant quarters are nothing short of spectacular. The Art Deco District is littered with trendy boutique and lifestyle hotels Built in the s and s to be a whimsical escape.

The lobby attracts an eclectic crowd of late-night minglers, as does the communal sushi bar, along with the back lawn and pool area, which pipes in underwater classical music. Those who stay can experience his opulent lifestyle, with the attentions of a personal butler at their disposal and the latest in cutting-edge technology mingling with luxuriant soft furnishing and custom-designed Frette linens.

While you can opt for familiarity of the big chain hotels like the St. Regis Bal Harbour or the W South Beach, both of which are excellent, before you pull the trigger on that WOW suite, we encourage you to check out these super luxurious and ultra-chic boutique hotels. Built in the s and s to be a whimsical escape from the Depression.

These lovingly-restored domiciles now court the jet-setting clientele that demand a unique and luxurious experience. Yohji Yamamoto and Fendi also have taken up residence. Maria Ruiz, director of community relations at Dacra, the company behind this ambitious project, is keen, however, to play down the importance of the retail aspect.

Formerly part of the mid-town neighbourhood of Buena Vista, which was built during the s, the Design District lies at the crossroads of many prominent Miami neighbourhoods, with the artsy Wynwood neighbourhood to the south, Little Haiti to the north, and the wealthy Upper East Side to the, um, upper east side.

Commercially, though, its the securing of flagship high-luxe retail outlets that will attract the most visitors. The brainchild of Craig Robins and his company, Dacra, the District will be fully LEED-certified and will feature public artworks from the likes of Zaha Hadid and Buckminster Fuller, while Robins has also emplyed the talents of architects like Alison Spear and Sou Fujimoto to help create a stylish nirvana.

As well as the high-price-tag retail experience, the neighbourhood will also offer art galleries, creative services, architectural firms, antiques dealers, restaurants and bars. An intimate, open air mall, top-name boutiques, over three floors, surround a central courtyard with koi ponds and palm trees. It was the location for a number of high-end fashion houses to not only open their first mall-based stores, but in some cases, their first stores in the US.

Approaching its 50th anniversary, Bal Harbour remains one of the few familyowned malls in the US, and still has a waiting list for retail space, necessitating an expansion to the third storey, previously reserved for offices. The mall boasts an enviable record in terms of productivity based on sales per square foot and has run at percent occupancy for the last few decades.

The expansion will enable it to defend that record against projects like the Design District, allowing for the addition of around 20 new stores. The mall also boasts world-class dining, with the likes of popular modern Japanese concept restaurant, Makoto, the brainchild of Chef Makoto Okuwa. Serving up contemporary and inventive cuisine based on traditional Japanese food, the restaurant is the culinary star of the area and enjoys a full house almost every night.

The Texas-based upscale casual dining restaurant, Hillstone, will be joining it in the next couple of months. As well as fashion, jewellery and fine dining, like much of the city, you will also find something for the artistically-minded.

The gallery houses the usual eclectic mix of paintings and sculptures, and mixtures of both, that you will find in other Opera galleries, but with the obvious nod to local tastes and artists, just like in Dubai, London, New York or Hong Kong. The manager, Victor Uphaus, is happy to let you come and get your shot of culture and browse at your leisure, while also being happy to assist with shipping of any items that may catch your eye back home to the GCC.

One of the biggest gastronomic hits to open in Miami in recent times is La Mar, a South American epicurean adventure for the taste buds. Peruvian food sits particularly well with me; its bold, powerful flavours have no truck with subtle intricacies, delivering a wallop of flavour that builds to a mesmerising crescendo, and lingers lovingly on the palette.

La Mar is a spin-off from the original, with a more casual approach to dining that serves a combination of Asian-Peruvian fusion, ceviche and anticuchos tapas along with Nuevo Andino New Andean fare, in a menu that offers a mixture of sharing plates and hearty main dishes. Today, Lima-born executive chef Diego Oka, who worked with Acurio in Peru before taking up posts at his restaurants in Mexico City, Colombia and San Francisco and then launching La Mar in Miami, has put together a lunch menu highlighting some of his signature items.

The first two appetisers demonstrate how a familiar dish can be transformed with the addition of a few new ingredients. A rustic-looking Quinoa Caprese sounds familiar enough: huge slices of heirloom tomato and hunks of buratta cheese, dusted with red quinoa and basil. But the essence of New Andean cuisine comes together in the final dish. The eponymous Paiche chorrillana is a large, meaty freshwater fish found in the Amazon basin that can grow to more than two metres long.

If this is what the Amazon tastes like, sign me up for the next departure. Ceviche is the cornerstone of Peruvian cuisine, and good ceviche is worth travelling a long way for. Slices of red onion add a crunchy texture to the soft, plump morsel of fresh tuna. The informal design and layout of La Mar reflects the casual dining menu. The large indoor space has separate ceviche and anticucho bars, both of which open up onto the restaurant, making the chefs part of the dining experience.

Even at 3pm on a Thursday afternoon, when the lunchtime rush a mix of hotel guests and businessmen from the neighbouring Brickell business district has died down, there is a pleasant buzz in the airy restaurant. Inside, La Mar is decorated in dark woods and aquamarine tiles reminiscent of fish scales, along with other artistic touches like a plant wall, and light fixtures that look like fishing nets.

The broad outside terrace overlooking the CBD and Biscayne Bay must be atmospheric at night, but during the day it boasts one of the best views in Miami. Desserts, though superfluous by now, are Key Lime Pie — a classic Miami dish enlivened with delicious chichi morada a zingy corn and spice-based purple sauce — and a Peruvian chocolate-covered popsicle made from lucuma a mango-like fruit from the Andes sprinkled with cocoa nibs.

It is whimsical and wonderful; a final hurrah to Andean ingredients and creative culinary design. And that is the takeaway message from La Mar: from traditional dishes to Nuevo Andean cuisine, Peru is a garden state with such variety in its fertile lands that there is no excuse for any shortage of flavour.

Living proof that casual dining does not mean a casual approach to cooking or ingredients, La Mar delivers a flavoursome flash of Peruvian cuisine to this, the most Latin of US cities. Then, once we arrived, the first few days of the trip were spent battling with crippling jetlag. Fortunately, you can help yourself in avoiding, or minimising, some of the body trauma associated with flying for long periods, through proper nutrition and simple exercises, including how you feel afterwards, alleviating the effects of Jet lag.

Alcohol and caffeine are major factors to consider when flying. Consumed at altitude, both alcohol and caffeine dehydrates you quicker than normal, causing headaches and nausea and a lack of energy. Alcohol will also give you a more potent hangover after being consumed on-board. Avoid this by keeping yourself properly hydrated whilst flying.

I would recommend drinking at least two cups of water per hour of your flight and limiting consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol. Where food is concerned, I recommend steering clear of salty crisps and nuts, as these can affect the salt balance within your blood and increases the chances of bloating around the lower limbs and hands. Look to consume protein-rich foods and limit carbohydrate consumption, as these tend to make you feel sleepy and somewhat drowsy.

Ideally, a meal on-board should consist of protein-rich meats, wholegrains for fibre, fruits. To combat bloating, swelling and pressure in your lower limbs, remove tight footwear for the duration of the flight. It will help to make you feel more comfortable. Hold this position for approximately seconds. Repeat on the left knee. Exercising on-board can be a very simple and effective way to limit the effects of flying, both physically and mentally.

Repeat and change direction several times. Then put both feet back flat on the floor, pulling your heels up whilst keeping the balls of your feet on the floor. Repeat several times. Repeat the movement times, alternating legs. Repeat on each arm times. Using your right hand, grab your left wrist and stretch it slowly to the right.

Hold for seconds and repeat several times each side. From there, lean the head back and roll back towards the right shoulder. Repeat this both ways times per side. Mark Paterson is a personal trainer and sports nutritionist at BE. FIT Qatar. For personal appointments or more information, contact him at befitqatar gmail. Concerns about Deep Vein Thrombosis DVT , a potentially life threatening disorder in which blood clots form in the deep veins of the body, particularly the legs, are usually attributed to long haul flights.

Other health concerns to be aware of whilst flying long haul are irritability and anxiousness; feeling faint; bloating and swelling around lower limbs, ankles and hands; dehydration; headaches and indigestion. A clip of the fringe Edinburgh native Laura Hamilton pays a brief visit to the city's eponymous festival. Set up by my great-uncle in the s, The Edinburgh Festival is something of an institution. The biggest festival in the world, it is a festival of everything.

The whole town erupts with colour in August. People flood in from all over the world, and the price of everything skyrockets. Actors, comedians, dancers and general eccentrics can be seen wandering around in full costume. There are thousands of shows on, everything from big name orchestras on huge stages to amateurs performing in a cupboard.

It should be. BJ Nojokes. Resting on his laurels, the Harvard education film star and comedian simply read short stories from his book, a mildly amusing venture which raised a few laughs, but all-inall, was rather tame. One of the surprises of the festival was Joe Bor. We took a gamble at the Free Fringe, and with low expectations and a heavy wallet, I sat down for an hour to watch the Londoner. His set was solid, his comedy persona charming, yet self deprecating and his audience interaction was confident and self-assured, without bullying the hecklers.

His inept Irish rage against technology and the foibles of human nature see him lying on the ground in frustration, while the audience laughs and wonders if they are witnessing a nervous breakdown. It was the Free Fringe that actually produced the most talent.

The Free Fringe Reinforces the idea that All Humans are creative. When forced from our of our comfort zones and onto a stage for an hour, we can all create a strange and magical show. It was, however, those which I paid nothing to see at the Free Fringe, put on by an eclectic range of people A Pint and Two Halves being the best , that reinforced the idea that all humans are creative. When forced from our of our comfort zones and onto a stage for an hour, we can all create a strange and magical show; or induce the audience into cringing and trying to hide in their coat in second-hand embarrassment.

For the more artistically minded, there is plenty of culture in Edinburgh and the National Galleries on Princes Street are full of the best of Scottish and international art. I would, however, recommend a visit to the National Portrait Gallery.

A Victorian building that. Currently an exhibit on John Ruskin, the 19th century art critic and painter, who has gone down in history as holding some slightly naive views when it comes to the fairer sex, is showing. John Ruskin: Artist and Observer is no less intriguing than his personal life. W h e r e to S tay: If you do not happen to have access to a mews house in the New Town complete with its own staff aka: parents , and the idea of renting one to partake in the real Edinburgh experience,.

The Balmoral, for example, through which auspicious doors many prestigious personages have walked, is a fine example of five-star Scottish hospitailty. So much so, apparently, that it allowed JK Rowling to commit an act of graffiti to commemorate finishing her yarns about the boy wizard. The hotel is considered in equally high standing as that of The Balmoral, despite the fact that Ms. Rowling has not defaced any part of it yet. MW rarely, if ever, puts a foot wrong. Every year the company unveils outrageous profits and the reason is simple: it designs and builds cars that people love to own and drive, for all manner of reasons.

BMW takes carefully calculated risks. This is uncharted territory, not just for BMW but for the car industry in its entirety. The i8, claims BMW, represents the future of the performance car — and the company has been spending tens of millions of dollars making sure it can steal a march on the competition, even building an entire new factory in Leipzig and a plant for carbon fibre production in Washington, USA. BMW calls it a supercar and certainly the basics are there.

It also has a striking body constructed from carbon fibre and composites, making it incredibly light and stiff. However, there are a number of things about the i8 that would ordinarily deny it supercar status. Yes, this supercar has half the cylinder quota of most BMW 3 Series. For example, for ultimate performance, you can choose for everything to work together at the same time, or you can simply cruise around in all-electric mode.

These charging stations can be mounted on your house or garage wall and are quite funky to look at. But, crucially, they also charge the i8 much faster than would be possible with the standard charging cable. Only supercars can do this — things are looking up.

It has all the visual characteristics of a desirable sports car, with a long wheelbase, short overhangs and a mean, solid stance. Every curve, crease, channel, dip, bump or flat expanse has been designed that way for a reason: maximisation of efficiency, which has resulted in a drag coefficient of just 0. Starting the i8 is an exercise in zero aural drama. Silent electric propulsion soon gives way to a pleasing rush as the air passes over the cabin, however, lending it an appealing jet fighter vibe.

And that engine, despite its specification, sounds utterly terrific — gruff and raucous, like a proper sports car should. Its performance is sorry about this electrifying. Unstoppable torque thrusts the car with tremendous force, with or without the engine. This is, in light of the quantum leap the rest of the i8 represents, merely nitpicking because right here and right now, it really does feel like the future of the performance car. If the i8 right now is anything to go by, it could completely alter the supercar forever.

He is oft-remembered for his adrenalineinducing duel with Ayrton Senna from behind the wheel of a WilliamsRenault at the Hungarian Grand Prix, but these days, former F1 driver, Thierry Boutsen , gets his kicks closing multi-million dollar deals.

With the regional market for private jets hitting triple figures in the last five years, his latest venture, Monaco-based Boutsen Aviation, is looking to catch the updraft of a lucrative market trend here in the GCC. He chats to SLT about his days behind the wheel, modern F1 and how his eponymous business is taking flight. Now you are in high-level business, have you discovered that hardness that might have been lacking in the past? It may have looked so because I never had the most competitive car.

But if you look closely at my results, most of the time I have beaten my teammates, whoever they were. So, I don't think that I lacked a ruthless streak, I just had no opportunity. This suggestion may also have come from the fact that I have a quiet character, outside the car, but in the car it was not the same!

Driving and flying have some similarities: speed, noise, danger… but also some big divergences, like flight preparation, situation awareness and anticipation. In a plane you have time to react if anything goes wrong, in an F1 car you have milliseconds to make decisions that could be life-threatening. You drove at a time when the safety levels in cars and around tracks is terrifying to think about.

At the same time, the sophistication of technology used nowadays is quite breathtaking and allows incredible performance and handling. What do drivers of a different era think about modern F1? Like everything in our modern life, technology has taken over human capacities. In my early days in F1, we did not have computers. The car was hand-designed by the engineer and the driver was a key element for the development of the car.

I studied mechanical engineering, and I think that the capabilities I had as a result allowed me to have a better dialogue with the engineers. More than once, I progressed an almost un-drivable car to a potential "rostrum-car:" Arrows in , Benetton in , Williams FW13 I hardly qualified in Jerez, then won in Australia 4 races later. You were known as a keen pilot, and now you own an aviation brokerage.

In light of this, and the fact you drove in F1 for a living, could you imagine what it would be like to work a job that is not also your hobby? And why did you not stick to roles in motorsport, as so many others have done? I must say that I really wanted to change horizons. In motorsport, you are in a very small microcosm, you meet the same people all the time, talk about the same subject, continuously answer the same questions from journalists and sponsors, but as long as you enjoy driving and accept the physical risk of getting hurt - or worse - it is ok.

However, once I reached a certain point, I decided to develop my other passion, which is aviation. The transition was easy and I enjoy what I am doing now as much as I enjoyed motorsport before. Which career is the more thrilling, and how do they make you feel: fending off Ayrton Senna at Budapest in or sealing a big aviation deal?

Selling a big aircraft like an Airbus ACJ, for example, is as thrilling as winning the most difficult race! Do you still sell planes to F1 racers? Once I reached 10 sales, I decided to expand and started to explore the rest of the world. To date we have sold aircraft ranging from Cessna Citation to Airbus, in 50 different countries. Do you feel the drivers before you would look down on your generation the way the current generation admires your era?

It is sad… Which constructor do you support now? Four years after you retired, Williams went on the wane after being one of the most successful constructors for many years. Do you see Williams ever returning to its former glory after so many years without challenging? Like in all businesses, and mainly in Motorsport, you have cycles. Take Williams, McLaren, Ferrari, even Red Bull; they may have three, maybe four or five, very good years, then another team takes their place.

It is just a matter of time before they come back and win again. Of course, I am a big fan of Williams and I hope they will win a few races this year! To see the current roster of aircraft Boutsen has for sale, visit www.

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