Therefore, our study aimed at investigating the kinetics of pathological alterations to clarify the pathogenesis in calpox virus infection. Following intranasal inoculation with two different viral doses, common marmosets were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post inoculation. Collected tissue was screened using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and virological assays. Our data suggest that primary replication took place in nasal and bronchial epithelia followed by secondary replication in submandibular lymph nodes and spleen.
Parallel to viremia at day 7, virus was detectable in many organs, mainly located in epithelial cells and macrophages, as well as in endothelial cells. Based on the onset of clinical signs, the histological and ultrastructural lesions and the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of the virus, the incubation period was defined to last 11 days, which resembles human smallpox. In conclusion, the data indicate that the calpox model is highly suitable for studying orthopoxvirus-induced disease.
Full Text Available Interest is rising for animal modeling of pathological gambling. Using the operant probabilistic-delivery task PDT, gambling proneness can be evaluated in laboratory animals. Drawing a comparison with rats, this study evaluated the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus using a PDT.
As probability decreased, subjects showed a great versus little shift in preference from LLL to SS reinforcer. In conclusion, the marmoset could be a suitable model for preclinical gambling studies. Quality of common marmoset Callithrix jacchus oocytes collected after ovarian stimulation.
The common marmoset Callithrix jacchus is an experimental animal that is considered suitable for the creation of next-generation human disease models. It has recently been used in the reproductive technology field. Oocytes can be effectively collected from female marmosets via ovarian stimulation with injections of follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and human chorionic gonadotropin hCG.
Additionally, IVO oocytes showed abnormal cytoskeletal formation. It is concluded that IVM oocytes maintain normal function, whereas IVO oocytes would be affected by aging and other factors when they remain for a long time in the ovary. The common marmoset Callithrix jacchus is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases AIMID , such as rheumatoid arthritis RA and multiple sclerosis MS.
The animal model for MS established. An overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Jagessar Anwar ; M. Vierboom Michel ; E. Blezer Erwin ; J. Bauer; B. Kap Yolanda. The animal model for MS. New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections are urgently needed. We isolated a fully human neutralizing antibody, MCA1, from a human survivor. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody that completely inhibits MERS-CoV replication in common marmosets.
Inflammatory fibroid polyp in the duodenum of a common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. A month-old male common marmoset had a firm and white-colored mass in the duodenal wall. The cut surface was smooth and grayish white in color. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferation of spindle cells with an oval to spindle-shaped nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a loose myxoid or fibrotic background.
Most of the lesion displayed no specific growth pattern whereas some of the cells concentrated around the vessels and created an onion-bulb structure. Additionally, marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, mainly eosinophils, was observed throughout the lesion. Collectively, the authors diagnosed the mass as a lesion that corresponded to an inflammatory fibroid polyp IFP in humans. IFP is defined as a mesenchymal proliferation composed of spindle stromal cells, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, and is currently classified as a nonneoplastic lesion.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous IFP in nonhuman primates. Quantification of hair cortisol concentration in common marmosets Callithrix jacchus and tufted capuchins Cebus apella. Quantifying cortisol concentration in hair is a non-invasive biomarker of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA activation, and thus can provide important information on laboratory animal health.
Marmosets Callithrix jacchus and capuchins Cebus apella are New World primates increasingly used in biomedical and neuroscience research, yet published hair cortisol concentrations for these species are limited. Review of the existing published hair cortisol values from marmosets reveals highly discrepant values and the use of variable techniques for hair collection, processing, and cortisol extraction.
Shaved hair samples were collected from the upper thigh during scheduled exams and analyzed via methanol extraction and enzyme immunoassay. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly different between marmosets and capuchins, with marmosets having higher concentrations than capuchins.
The incorporation of hair cortisol analysis into research protocols provides a non-invasive measure of HPA axis activity over time, which offers insight into animal health. Utilization of standard protocols across laboratories is essential to obtaining valid measurements and allowing for valuable future cross-species comparisons.
Density, proportion, and dendritic coverage of retinal ganglion cells of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus jacchus. Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of M and P cell mosaics of the common-marmoset retina. Ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely from optic nerve deposits of Biocytin. The labeling was visualized using horseradish peroxidase HRP histochemistry and 'diaminobenzidine as chromogen. M and P cells were morphologically similar to those found in Old- and New-World primates.
Measurements were performed on well-stained cells from 4 retinas of different animals. We analyzed separate mosaics for inner and outer M and P cells at increasing distances from the fovea 2. M cell density decreased towards the retinal periphery in all quadrants. P cells represented a smaller proportion of all ganglion cells in the nasal quadrant than in other quadrants, and their numbers increased towards central retinal regions.
The M cell coverage factor ranged from 5 to 12 and the P cell coverage factor ranged from 1 to 3 in the nasal quadrant and from 5 to 12 in the other quadrants. These results show that central and peripheral retinal regions differ in terms of cell class proportions and dendritic coverage, and their properties do not result from simply scaling down cell density.
Therefore, differences in functional properties between central and peripheral vision should take these distinct regional retinal characteristics into account. Endocrine and cognitive adaptations to cope with stress in immature male and female common marmosets Callithrix jacchus. Full Text Available Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features.
Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Our studies on brain plasticity combine hormonal and behavioral approaches to investigate stress-coping mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates.
Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This is an important experimental model in Psychiatry, since we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from infancy to puberty, with females showing higher levels that extend to adulthood. Immature males and females at 6, 9 and 12 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation, depending on age, but similar in terms of range of variation between sexes.
Additional evidence showed that during juvenile to sub- adult transition males buffered the HPA axis during chronic stress. However, animals under both acute and chronic stress performed poorly on spatial cognitive tests and evidence from the literature that they respond better to social tasks indicates that new approaches are necessary to take advantage of this experimental model. These findings increase the potential of also using this experimental model during development, such as in adolescence, and strengthen the importance of sex as a part of experimental protocols that study neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and mood disorders as well as associated therapeutics.
From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase TH and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase AADC. TH-immunoreactive IR neurons but not AADC-IR neurons were observed in the olfactory tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris.
In contrast, AADC-IR but not TH-IR , small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus.
However, these neurons were located in the marmoset , but not the rat substantia nigra. The present results indicate that the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the brain of the common marmoset is unique and different from that in humans and rodents. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P enzymes in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and common marmosets in preclinical studies for humans.
Cynomolgus monkeys Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys and common marmosets Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P P enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P enzymes.
This research update provides information on genetic polymorphisms of P enzymes in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset like human P enzymes. Information on rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta , another macaque species used in drug metabolism studies, is also included for comparison.
Among a variety of cynomolgus monkey P variants investigated, typical examples include individual pharmacokinetic data for efavirenz and R-warfarin associated with cynomolgus monkey P 2C9 formerly 2C43 and 2C19 2C75 variants, respectively, and for R-omeprazole and S-warfarin associated with marmoset P 2C19 variants.
These findings provide a foundation for understanding the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in non-human primates as preclinical models and will help to further support understanding of molecular mechanisms of human P function. In addition to these polymorphic P enzymes, effects of aging on some drug clearances mediated by cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P enzymes were found in elder animals or animals pretreated with rifampicin.
A lack of immunocompetent-small-primate models has been an obstacle for developing hepatitis C virus HCV vaccines and affordable antiviral drugs. Seven marmosets were inoculated intrahepatically with HCV NS2 to -4A chimera RNA for primary infection or intravenously injected with chimera-containing serum for passage infection.
Six of seven HCV NS2 to -4A chimera-infected marmosets exhibited consistent viremia and one showed transient viremia during the course of follow-up detection. All six infected animals with persistent circulating viremia presented characteristics typical of viral hepatitis, including viral RNA and proteins in hepatocytes and histopathological changes in liver tissue.
Viremia was consistently detected for 5 to 54 weeks of follow-up. FK immunosuppression facilitated the establishment of persistent chimera infection in marmosets. An animal with chimera infection spontaneously cleared the virus in blood 7 weeks following the first inoculation, but viral-RNA persistence, low-level viral protein, and mild necroinflammation remained in liver tissue.
The specific antibody and T-cell response to HCV NS3 in this viremia-resolved marmoset was boosted by rechallenging, but no viremia was detected during 57 weeks of follow-up. The chimera-infected marmosets described can be used as a suitable small-primate animal model for studying novel antiviral drugs and T-cell-based vaccines against HCV infection. Chimpanzees have been used as a reliable primate model for HCV infection. Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects against laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice and common marmosets.
Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of edaravone, a free radical scavenger on laser-induced CNV. CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation to the subretinal choroidal area of mice and common marmosets. Edaravone was administered either intraperitoneally twice a day for 2 weeks or intravenously just once after laser photocoagulation. The effects of edaravone on laser-induced CNV were evaluated by fundus fluorescein angiography, CNV area measurements, and the expression of 4-hydroxynonenal 4-HNE modified proteins, a marker of oxidative stress.
Furthermore, the effects of edaravone on the production of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species ROS and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF -induced cell proliferation were evaluated using human retinal pigment epithelium cells ARPE and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, respectively. CNV areas in the edaravone-treated group were significantly smaller in mice and common marmosets.
These findings suggest that edaravone may protect against laser-induced CNV by inhibiting oxidative stress and endothelial cell proliferation. Subventricular zone SVZ progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia bRG , occur at high relative abundance in the SVZ of gyrencephalic primates human and nonprimates ferret but not lissencephalic rodents mouse.
Here, we analyzed the occurrence of bRG cells in the embryonic neocortex of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, a near-lissencephalic primate. The proportion of progenitors in M-phase was lower in embryonic marmoset than developing ferret neocortex, raising the possibility of a longer cell cycle. Fitting the gyrification indices of 26 anthropoid species to an evolutionary model suggested that the marmoset evolved from a gyrencephalic ancestor.
Our results suggest that a high relative abundance of bRG cells may be necessary, but is not sufficient, for gyrencephaly and that the marmoset 's lissencephaly evolved secondarily by changing progenitor parameters other than progenitor type. Pre-evaluated safe human iPSC-derived neural stem cells promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury in common marmoset without tumorigenicity.
Behavioral analyses were performed from the time of the initial injury until 12 weeks after SCI. Notably, no tumor formation occurred for at least 12 weeks after transplantation. Expression pattern of wolframin, the WFS1 Wolfram syndrome-1 gene product, in common marmoset Callithrix jacchus cochlea. Patients show mutations in WFS1, which encodes the amino acid protein wolframin. Although Wfs1 knockout mice develop diabetes, their hearing level is completely normal.
In this study, we examined the expression of wolframin in the cochlea of a nonhuman primate common marmoset Callithrix jacchus to elucidate the discrepancy in the phenotype between species and the pathophysiology of Wolfram syndrome-associated deafness. The marmoset cochlea showed wolframin immunoreactivity not only in the spiral ligament type I fibrocytes, spiral ganglion neurons, outer hair cells, and supporting cells, but in the stria vascularis basal cells, where wolframin expression was not observed in the previous mouse study.
Considering the absence of the deafness phenotype in Wfs1 knockout mice, the expression of wolframin in the basal cells of primates may play an essential role in the maintenance of hearing. Elucidating the function of wolframin protein in the basal cells of primates would be essential for understanding the pathogenesis of hearing loss in patients with Wolfram syndrome, which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutics. Educational treatment to support social development of children with autism spectrum disorder ASD is an important topic in developmental psychiatry.
However, it remains difficult to objectively quantify the socio-emotional development of ASD children. Here, we examine the potential for psycho-cognitive ASD therapy based on comparative evaluations of clinical human and experimental animal models. Our observations of ASD children vs. Identifying psycho-cognitive elements in early neural development, human newborn infants in neonatal intensive care unit as well as a New World monkey, the common marmoset , also prompted us to focus on the development of voluntary movement against gravity.
In summary, striking behavioral similarities between children with ASD and domestic chicks' socio-sensory deprivation models support the role of multimodal sensory-motor integration as a prerequisite step for normal development of socio-emotional and psycho-cognitive functions. Data obtained in the common marmoset model also suggest that switching from primitive anti-gravity reflexes to complex voluntary movement may be a critical milestone for psycho-cognitive development.
Combining clinical findings with these animal models, and using multivariate integrative analyses may facilitate the development of effective interventions to improve social functions in infants and in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Johnson, Reed F. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality.
Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography CT , with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication. Study in adult rats and marmosets ].
In adult rats and marmosets , a PNG bridge was used to joint the injured cervical spinal cord to a denervated skeletal muscle longissimus atlantis [rat] or biceps brachii [rat and marmoset ]. The spinal lesion was obtained by the implantation procedure of the PNG. It was thus demonstrated that host motoneurons of the cervical enlargement could extend axons all the way through the PNG bridge as: a in anaesthetized animals, contraction of the reconnected muscle could be obtained by electrical stimulation of the grafted nerve; b the retrograde axonal tracing studies indicated that a great number of host cervical neurons extended axons into the PNG bridge up to the muscle; c many of them were assumed to be motoneurons double labelling with True Blue and an antibody against ChAT ; and even alpha-motoneurons type C axosomatic synapses in HRP labelled neurons seen in EM in the rat ; d numerous ectopic endplates were seen around the intramuscular tip of the PNG.
In larger cavitation spinal lesions rat , foetal motoneurons contained in E14 spinal cord transplants could similarly grow axons through PNG bridges up to the reconnected muscle. Taking all these data into account, it can be concluded that neural transplants are interesting tools for evaluating both the.
Oxytocin and vasopressin enhance responsiveness to infant stimuli in adult marmosets. The neuropeptides oxytocin OT and arginine-vasopressin AVP have been implicated in modulating sex-specific responses to offspring in a variety of uniparental and biparental rodent species. Despite the large body of research in rodents, the effects of these hormones in biparental primates are less understood. Marmoset monkeys Callithrix jacchus belong to a clade of primates with a high incidence of biparental care and also synthesize a structurally distinct variant of OT proline instead of leucine at the 8th amino acid position; Pro 8 -OT.
We examined the roles of the OT and AVP systems in the control of responses to infant stimuli in marmoset monkeys. We administered neuropeptide receptor agonists and antagonists to male and female marmosets , and then exposed them to visual and auditory infant-related and control stimuli.
Intranasal Pro 8 -OT decreased latencies to respond to infant stimuli in males, and intranasal AVP decreased latencies to respond to infant stimuli in females. Across species, the effects of OT and AVP on parental behavior appear to vary by species-typical caregiving responsibilities in males and females. Use of alternative plant resources by common marmosets Callithrix jacchus in the semi-arid caatinga scrub forests of northeastern Brazil.
The common marmoset Callithrix jacchus is amply distributed in the Brazilian Northeast, but little is known of its ecology in the semi-arid Caatinga scrublands. The present study provides the first detailed data on the composition of the diet of C. While exudate sources were gouged at all four sites in a manner typical of the species, fruit was the principal component of the diet at the main study site during most months, and a number of unusual items were eaten, including leaves, and the reproductive parts of cacti and bromeliads.
These plants are rarely recorded in marmoset diets, but are common in caatinga habitats. Leaves were ingested during 5 of the 8 months monitored at the main study site, reaching Three species of cactus provided both flowers and fruits, while the terrestrial bromeliad, Encholirium spectabile, provided nectar Approximately half of the plant species and three families identified in this study had not been recorded previously in the diet of Callithrix.
Overall, the data suggest that, while the marmosets exploit the same types of plant foods in the Caatinga, the resource base is quite distinct from that of the Atlantic Forest. Other differences, such as relatively small groups and large home ranges, may contribute to divergent ecological patterns, which require more systematic investigation.
Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template. The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments.
Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space.
We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.
The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. Consistent inter-individual differences in common marmosets Callithrix jacchus in Boldness-Shyness, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance.
The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets Callithrix jacchus living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non-social personality components: Boldness-Shyness in Foraging, Boldness-Shyness in Predation, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance.
We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration-Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group-level similarity in personality i. Brok, H. Immunization of common marmosets Callithrix jacchus with a single dose of human myelin in CFA, without administration of Bordetella pertussis, induces a form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE resembling in its clinical and pathological expression multiple sclerosis in humans.
The EAE incidence. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia. Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia.
The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys Catarrhini. The common marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus belongs to the new world monkeys Platyrrhini and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research.
However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 Ki , which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells.
Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo.
Individual differences in choice in flexibility but not impulsivity in the common marmoset : an automated, operant-behavior choice task. Individual differences in behavioural flexibility are a significant issue in human psychopathology as well as in its animal models. We aimed to investigate individual variations of operant-choice behaviour in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus , a small New World primate, using a new operant panel with two hand-poking holes.
Subjects were classified as either "flexible" or "non-flexible", respectively, based on a decrease or not in the preference for LL with increasing delays. Each subject was also classified as "maximizer" or "non-maximizer" based on capacity or not to maximize the food payoff as delay increased. Upon delays shorter than the indifferent point 9 s , when a preference shift could be interpreted as economically-driven.
In general, a profile of few unrewarded hand-pokes in reaction to initial delays i. These results provide normative data on the marmosets , which can be used as a model for the investigation of 1 individual differences in behavioural flexibility, as well as 2 biological mechanisms rooted in our evolutionary history. Novel marmoset Callithrix jacchus model of human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B infections: immunologic, virologic and radiologic characterization.
HHV-6 is associated with several neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the CNS. Animal models of HHV-6 infection would help clarify its role in human disease but have been slow to develop because rodents lack CD46, the receptor for cellular entry.
Therefore, we investigated the effects of HHV-6 infections in a non-human primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Animals were monitored for 25 weeks post-inoculation clinically, immunologically and by MRI. Marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms and generated virus-specific antibody responses, while those inoculated intravenously with HHV-6B were asymptomatic and generated comparatively lower antibody responses.
When different routes of HHV-6A inoculation were compared, intravenous inoculation resulted in virus-specific antibody responses and infrequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery, while intranasal inoculation resulted in negligible virus-specific antibody responses and frequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery. Moreover, marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms, while marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intranasally were asymptomatic.
We demonstrate that a marmoset model of HHV-6 infection can serve to further define the contribution of this ubiquitous virus to human neurologic disorders. Effects of prenatal dexamethasone treatment on physical growth, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and performance of motor, motivational, and cognitive tasks in juvenile and adolescent common marmoset monkeys. Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone DEX are commonly used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities e.
Relative to control, and with a longitudinal design, we investigated DEX effects in offspring in terms of physical growth, plasma ACTH and cortisol titers, social and maintenance behaviors, skilled motor reaching, motivation for palatable reward, and learning between infancy and adolescence. Early DEX resulted in reduced sociability in infants and increased motivation for palatable reward in adolescents.
Late DEX resulted in a mild transient increase in knee-heel length in infants and enhanced reversal learning of stimulus-reward association in adolescents. Both treatments resulted in impaired skilled motor reaching in juveniles, which attenuated in early DEX but persisted in late DEX across test sessions.
The increased palatable-reward motivation and decreased social motivation observed in early DEX subjects provide experimental support for the clinical reports that prenatal glucocorticoid treatment impairs social development and predisposes to metabolic syndrome. These novel primate findings indicate that fetal glucocorticoid overexposure can lead to abnormal development of motor, affective, and cognitive behaviors.
Importantly, the outcome is highly dependent upon the timing of glucocorticoid overexposure. Recent data suggest that the spleen is a crucial component of the immune system in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE in marmoset monkeys.
Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated changes in the distribution of leukocytes in the spleen associated with clinical. The common marmoset Callithrix jacchus has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. For example, marmosets are amongst only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes.
In this review, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans.
These approaches generally embrace natural behavior and communication, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and communication. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders.
Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets Callithrix sp. Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets , through analysis of fecal samples. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp.
Prosthenorchis sp. Factors like marmosets ' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets. Learning and memory processes are similarly organized in humans and monkeys; therefore, monkeys can be ideal models for analyzing human aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. With the development of novel gene modification methods, common marmosets Callithrix jacchus have been suggested as an animal model for neurodegenerative diseases.
Furthermore, the common marmoset 's lifespan is relatively short, which makes it a practical animal model for aging. Working memory deficits are a prominent symptom of both dementia and aging, but no data are currently available for visual working memory in common marmosets. The delayed matching-to-sample task is a powerful tool for evaluating visual working memory in humans and monkeys; therefore, we developed a novel procedure for training common marmosets in such a task.
Using visual discrimination and reversal tasks to direct the marmosets ' attention to the physical properties of visual stimuli, we successfully trained 11 out of 13 marmosets in the initial stage of the delayed matching-to-sample task and provided the first available data on visual working memory in common marmosets.
We found that the marmosets required many trials to initially learn the task median: trials , but once the task was learned, the animals needed fewer trials to learn the task with novel stimuli trials or fewer, with the exception of one marmoset. The marmosets could retain visual information for up to 16 s.
Our novel training procedure could enable us to use the common marmoset as a useful non-human primate model for studying visual working memory deficits in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.
Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids.
Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution.
In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined.
This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset Callithrix jacchus and a red-handed tamarin Saguinus midas.
The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. All isolates showed fructosephosphate phosphoketolase activity.
Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. Full Text Available The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection.
Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature.
In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets , a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1.
The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi. This new variant does not present. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity. Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges.
A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not.
Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages.
Active immunization against renin in normotensive marmoset. Primate renins human and monkey are very similar. We used pure human renin to immunize marmosets Callithrix jacchus and thereby produce a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. Three marmosets were injected with adjuvant only and served as controls. Blood sampling and blood pressure measurements were performed weekly.
The antibodies inhibited the enzymatic activity of both marmoset and human renins. At the same time, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly. Plasma renin enzyme activity was undetectable in the animals. Plasma aldosterone decreased significantly. After months with low blood pressure, a normal urinary output, and a normal plasma creatinine, the five marmosets became sick and died within one month. At autopsy an immunological renal disease, characterize by the presence of immunoglobulin and macrophage infiltration colocalized with renin, was found.
No immunoglobulin was detectable in extrarenal vessels or in other organs. These experiments demonstrate that, in this primate, a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can be achieved by active immunization against homologous renin, but this blockade is associated with the development of an autoimmune disease localized in the kidney. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.
Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases.
However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells.
The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means.
We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells.
The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in. Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins.
In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets Callithrix penicillata by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.
Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets Callithrix penicillata simultaneously. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction.
Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree.
Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought. Touchscreen assays of learning, response inhibition, and motivation in the marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Recent developments in precision gene editing have led to the emergence of the marmoset as an experimental subject of considerable interest and translational value.
A better understanding of behavioral phenotypes of the common marmoset will inform the extent to which forthcoming transgenic mutants are cognitively intact. Therefore, additional information regarding their learning, inhibitory control, and motivational abilities is needed.
The present studies used touchscreen-based repeated acquisition and discrimination reversal tasks to examine basic dimensions of learning and response inhibition. Marmosets were trained daily to respond to one of the two simultaneously presented novel stimuli.
Subjects learned to discriminate the two stimuli acquisition and, subsequently, with the contingencies switched reversal. In addition, progressive ratio performance was used to measure the effort expended to obtain a highly palatable reinforcer varying in magnitude and, thereby, provide an index of relative motivational value.
Results indicate that rates of both acquisition and reversal of novel discriminations increased across successive sessions, but that rate of reversal learning remained slower than acquisition learning, i. A positive correlation was observed between progressive ratio break point and reinforcement magnitude.
These results closely replicate previous findings with squirrel monkeys, thus providing evidence of similarity in learning processes across nonhuman primate species. Moreover, these data provide key information about the normative phenotype of wild-type marmosets using three relevant behavioral endpoints. Acetaminophen paracetamol for the common cold in adults. Acetaminophen is frequently prescribed for treating patients with the common cold, but there is little evidence as to whether it is effective.
To determine the efficacy and safety of acetaminophen in the treatment of the common cold in adults. We included randomised controlled trials RCTs comparing acetaminophen to placebo or no treatment in adults with the common cold. Studies were included if the trials used acetaminophen as one ingredient of a combination therapy. We excluded studies in which the participants had complications.
Primary outcomes included subjective symptom score and duration of common cold symptoms. Secondary outcomes were overall well being, adverse events and financial costs. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We performed standard statistical analyses. We included four RCTs involving participants. We did not pool data because of heterogeneity in study designs, outcomes and time points. The studies provided sparse information about effects longer than a few hours, as three of four included studies were short trials of only four to six hours.
Participants treated with acetaminophen had significant improvements in nasal obstruction in two of the four studies. One study showed that acetaminophen was superior to placebo in decreasing rhinorrhoea severity, but was not superior for treating sneezing and coughing. Acetaminophen did not improve sore throat or malaise in two of the four studies. Results were inconsistent for some symptoms. Two studies showed that headache and achiness improved more in the acetaminophen group than in the placebo group, while one study showed no difference between the acetaminophen and placebo group.
None of the included studies reported the duration of common cold. Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus AAV vectors are small in diameter, diffuse easily in the brain, and represent a highly efficient means by which to transfer a transgene to the brain of a large animal. A major demerit of AAV vectors is their limited accommodation capacity for transgenes. Thus, a compact promoter is useful when delivering large transgenes via AAV vectors.
In the present study, we aimed to identify the shortest astrocyte-specific GFAP promoter region that could be used for AAV-vector-mediated transgene expression in the marmoset brain. The 2. The short promoters were screened in the mouse cerebellum in terms of their strength and astrocyte specificity. We found that the 0. These properties were superior to those of the 1. Then, we verified whether the 0. Injection of viral vectors carrying the 0.
These results suggest that the compact 0. Common variable immunodeficiency is the primary immunodeficiency CVID frequently found in adults. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of Mg C ha -1 to agroforests with Mg C ha -1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness.
We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity , and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity , and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity.
Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. Butchart, Stuart H. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested.
While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined by 0. Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites.
We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends. Protecting important sites for biodiversity contributes to meeting global conservation targets. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds 10, Important Bird Areas, IBAs and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs referred to collectively hereafter as 'important sites'.
When will community management conserve biodiversity? Evidence from Malawi. Full Text Available Both development practitioners and conservation organizations are focused on community ownership and management of natural resources as a way to create incentives for the conservation of biodiversity. This has led to the implementation of a number of large community-based conservation projects in sub-Saharan Africa, in countries including Namibia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Rwanda.
This paper assesses the conditions under which this approach may be viable, based on a valuation study of the resources of Mount Mulanje in southern Malawi. Biodiversity in the city: key challenges for urban green space management.
Myla F. Aronson; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Karl L. Evans; Mark A. Goddard; Susannah B. Lerman; J. Scott MacIvor; Charles H. Nilon; Timothy. Cities play important roles in the conservation of global biodiversity , particularly through the planning and management of urban green spaces UGS. However, UGS management is subject to a complex assortment of interacting social, cultural, and economic factors, including governance, economics, social networks, multiple stakeholders, individual preferences, and social Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors e.
The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends.
This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity , but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a " management " time frame.
The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Environmental economics and biodiversity management in developing countries.
Munasinghe, M. Policy and Research Div. Reconciling and operationalizing the three main concepts of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, and sociocultural - poses formidable problems. Environmental economics and valuation can play a key role in helping to incorporate concerns about biodiversity loss into the traditional decision-making framework. A case study from Madagascar examines the impact of a new national park on tropical forests by using both conventional and newer techniques to economically value damage to forests and watersheds, timber and nontimber forest products, other impacts on local inhabitants, impacts on biodiversity , and ecotourism benefits.
In the Sri Lanka case study, an integrated energy-environmental analysis was developed, which helps to eliminate projects with unacceptable impacts, and redesign others. Where economic valuation of environmental impacts was not possible, multiple attribute evaluation techniques were used. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities, especially poor ones, while simultaneously preserving physical and biological systems, offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all three goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner.
Full Text Available Action to reduce anthropogenic impact on the environment and species within it will be most effective when targeted towards activities that have the greatest impact on biodiversity. To do this effectively we need to better understand the relative importance of different activities and how they drive changes in species' populations.
Here, we present a novel, flexible framework that reviews evidence for the relative importance of these drivers of change and uses it to explain recent alterations in species' populations. We review drivers of change across four hundred species sampled from a broad range of taxonomic groups in the UK. The impact of the former was primarily deleterious, whereas the impact of climatic change to date has been more mixed.
Findings were similar across the three major taxonomic groups assessed insects, vascular plants and vertebrates. In general, the way a habitat was managed had a greater impact than changes in its extent, which accords with the relatively small changes in the areas occupied by different habitats during our study period, compared to substantial changes in habitat management. Of the drivers classified as conservation measures, low-intensity management of agricultural land and habitat creation had the greatest impact.
Our framework could be used to assess the relative importance of drivers at a range of scales to better inform our policy and management decisions. Furthermore, by scoring the quality of evidence, this framework helps us identify research gaps and needs. We then reviewed the recent literature examining the impact of a land-based mitigation options and b land-based greenhouse gas removal options on biodiversity. We show that holding warming to 1.
Further, there would be an increase of 5. Efforts to meet the 1. For impacts of land-based greenhouse gas removal technologies on biodiversity , some e. Additional effort to meet the 1. The ecosystem approach to fisheries: management at the dynamic interface between biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. The emergence of an ecosystem approach to fisheries EAF was characterized by the adoption of objectives for maintaining ecosystem health alongside those for fisheries.
The EAF was expected to meet some aspirations for biodiversity conservation, but health was principally linked to sustainable use rather than lower levels of human impact. Consequently, while policies including EAF concepts identified objectives for fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, the wording often reflected unresolved societal and political debates about objectives and gave imprecise guidance on addressing inevitable trade-offs.
Despite scientific progress in making trade-offs and consequences explicit, there remain substantial differences in interpretations of acceptable impact, responses to uncertainty and risk, and the use of management measures by groups accountable for fisheries management and biodiversity conservation.
Within and among nations and regions, these differences are influenced by the contribution of fisheries, aquaculture, farming, and trade to food security, consumers' options, and other social, economic, and environmental factors. Notwithstanding, mutual understanding of the motivations and norms of fisheries management and biodiversity conservation groups is increasing, and interactions between these groups have likely supported more progress toward meeting their stated objectives than would have otherwise been achievable.
Incentives for biodiversity conservation beyond the best management practices: are forestland owners interested. With the growing recognition of the role of environmental services rendered by private lands, landowner involvement has become a critical component of landscape-level strategies to conserve biodiversity. In this paper, we examine the willingness of private forest owners to participate in a conservation program that requires adopting management regimes beyond Importance of fish biodiversity for the management of fisheries and ecosystems.
A group of fisheries scientists participating in a European Union Network of Excellence MARBEF summarizes risks to the biodiversity of fish in European seas and recommends ways how existing fish diversity can be conserved, restored and managed. C Elsevier B. All rights reserved An ecosystem approach to biodiversity management and the restoration of post-mining landscapes. This paper presents an integrated ecosystem approach to biodiversity management and land restoration following mining activity.
The approach is informed by an understanding of ecosystems, mining impacts, local peoples and natural resource relationships. It addresses both biological and social issues. Restoration requirements are noted at different levels of the acknowledged biodiversity hierarchy, and include safeguarding identified priority species and ecosystem utility. The responsibility for such projects however is not seen as resting solely with the mining company.
Restoration objectives and programs should be developed in conjunction with governments and local peoples. The resultant site-level biodiversity is seen as being closely allied to national strategy or action plans. This is seen as being critical to the creation of a sustainable restoration initiative. Biodiversity conservation and indigenous land management in the era of self-determination.
They also continue to struggle for recognition and preservation of cultural identities, lifestyles, and livelihoods--a struggle contingent on control and protection of traditional lands and associated natural resources hereafter, self-determination.
Indigenous lands and the biodiversity they support are increasingly threatened because of human population growth and per capita consumption. Application of the Endangered Species Act ESA to tribal lands in the United States provides a rich example of the articulation between biodiversity conservation and indigenous peoples' struggle for self-determination.
We found a paradoxical relationship whereby tribal governments are simultaneously and contradictory sovereign nations; yet their communities depend on the U. The unique legal status of tribal lands, their importance for conserving federally protected species, and federal environmental regulations' failure to define applicability to tribal lands creates conflict between tribal sovereignty, self-determination, and constitutional authority.
We reviewed Secretarial Order , the U. We found improved biodiversity conservation and tribal self-determination requires revision of the fiduciary relationship between the federal government and the tribes to establish clear, legal definitions regarding land rights, applicability of environmental laws, and financial responsibilities.
Such actions will allow provision of adequate funding and training to tribal leaders and resource managers , government agency personnel responsible for biodiversity conservation and land management , and environmental policy makers. Increased capacity, cooperation, and. The article shows that seven pa Managing biodiversity for a competitive ecotourism industry in tropical developing countries: New opportunities in biological fields.
Managing biodiversity for sustainable and competitive ecotourism destinations requires a basic understanding of the principles of biology, which are poorly understood in tropical developing countries, including Indonesia. This paper describes the current status of tourism in Indonesia, identifies environment and biodiversity vulnerability in tourism destinations, and explores the challenges of the biological field in supporting ecotourism development. This review found that tourism, especially nature-based and ecotourism, has grown significantly in Indonesia, and the contribution of Indonesian biodiversity has been identified as significant.
Threats to biodiversity , however, are found in nature-based tourism destinations. Issues related to pollution, exotic plant species invasion, habitat changes and degradation, habitat loss, and wildlife disturbance are widely reported, indicating the importance of such issues in destination management.
Pollution is found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution is an important issue among lakes and rivers. To date, there are few assessments of the impact of tourism activities on aquatic ecosystems, resulting in the management of aquatic ecosystems facing numerous difficulties.
These studies identify the invasive plants found, which become a crucial problem in many nature-based tourism destinations, and which significantly contribute to a reduction in the existence of many flora-fauna in a wild habitat. Habitat changes and degradation are mostly influenced by tourism infrastructure development. Massive infrastructure development often leads to habitat loss, which is a crucial step in local biodiversity extinction. Increasing and uncontrolled visitor behaviors influence animal behavior changes, which is recognized as a dangerous phenomenon affecting animal survival in the future.
An agenda for future integrative biological research is needed to improve resource management , to increase sustainability and the. Impacts of forest and land management on biodiversity and carbon. Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Parrotta; Nokea Sasaki; Christine B. Thompson; Nathalie van Vliet. Changes in the management of forest and non-forest land can contribute significantly to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Such changes can include both forest management actions - such as improving the protection and restoration of existing forests, introducing ecologically responsible logging practices and regenerating forest on degraded Planning for biodiversity : bringing research and management together; Proceedings of a Symposium for the South Coast Ecoregion.
Southern California, recognized as a major center of biodiversity , contains some of the most diverse habitats of any landscape in North America. The ever-expanding human population of the region desires land, water, resources, and recreation, creating conflict with the habitat requirements of many rare species.
Managing resources in a way that maximizes biodiversity in Ijeomah, H. University of There should be open day for villagers to visit the park as tourists. Based on a statewide survey of private landowners of "working" forests and rangelands in California, we investigated whether owners who are engaged in commercial livestock or timber production appreciate and manage biodiversity and ecosystem services on their land in different ways than purely residential owners.
Both specific uses and management practices, as well as underlying attitudes and motivations toward biodiversity and ecosystem services, were assessed. Correlation analysis showed one bundle of ecosystem goods and services e. Producers were more likely to ally with the first bundle and residential owners with the second.
The survey further confirmed that cultural ecosystem services and quality-of-life aspects are among the primary amenities that motivate forest and rangeland ownership regardless of ownership type. To live near natural beauty was the most important motive for both landowner groups. Producers were much more active in management for habitat improvement and other environmental goals than residential owners. As the number of production-oriented owners decreases, developing strategies for encouraging environment-positive management by all types of landowners is crucial.
Letting the managers manage : analyzing capacity to conserve biodiversity in a cross-border protected area network. Full Text Available Biodiversity loss is one of the most significant drivers of ecosystem change and is projected to continue at a rapid rate. While protected areas, such as national parks, are seen as important refuges for biodiversity , their effectiveness in stemming biodiversity decline has been questioned.
Public agencies have a critical role in the governance of many such areas, but there are tensions between the need for these agencies to be more "adaptive" and their current operating environment. Our aim is to analyze how institutions enable or constrain capacity to conserve biodiversity in a globally significant cross-border network of protected areas, the Australian Alps. Using a novel conceptual framework for diagnosing biodiversity institutions, our research examined institutional adaptive capacity and more general capacity for conserving biodiversity.
Several intertwined issues limit public agencies' capacity to fulfill their conservation responsibilities. Narrowly defined accountability measures constrain adaptive capacity and divert attention away from addressing key biodiversity outcomes. Implications for learning were also evident, with protected area agencies demonstrating successful learning for on-ground issues but less success in applying this learning to deeper policy change. Poor capacity to buffer political and community influences in managing significant cross-border drivers of biodiversity decline signals poor fit with the institutional context and has implications for functional fit.
While cooperative federalism provides potential benefits for buffering through diversity, it also means protected area agencies have restricted authority to address cross-border threats. Restrictions on staff authority and discretion, as public servants, have further implications for deploying capacity.
This analysis, particularly the possibility of fostering "ambidexterity" - creatively responding to political pressures in a way that also achieves a desirable. Conservation of biodiversity : a useful paradigm for forest ecosystem management. The coniferous forests of the Western Hemlock Zone of western Oregon and western Washington are remarkable in the longevity and stature of their trees, long intervals between stand-replacing events, capacity to produce timber, diversity of life forms and species, and controversy over their management.
The controversy is hardly new Overton and Hunt But the Linking geodiversity and biodiversity in protected area management : developing a more integrated approach. The ecosystem approach is now a key driver for conservation policy globally. By definition an ecosystem includes both abiotic and biotic components interacting as a functional unit. However, the role of geodiversity generally remains poorly recognised both at a policy level and in the practical management of protected areas.
This presentation examines key links between geodiversity and biodiversity , and demonstrates the benefits of better integration both to enhance conservation of geoheritage and the role of geodiversity in ecosystem management. Geodiversity contributes essentially to most of the ecosystem services recognised in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
It underpins biodiversity from micro- to macro-scales through the influence of factors such as lithology, topography, sediments, soils and hydrology. Most habitats and species depend on the abiotic 'stage' on which they exist. Active geological processes also help to determine the heterogeneity of the physical environment, creating mosaics of landforms, surface deposits and dynamic environments that support a range of biodiversity.
In the face of climate change and other human pressures, maintaining and enhancing geodiversity should help to 'future-proof' biodiversity in the longer term. Learning from the past through palaeoenvironmental records can also enable better understanding of ecosystem dynamics.
As part of developing the scientific framework of geodiversity, this requires geoscience engagement in the ecosystem approach, including evidence-based interdisciplinary research on the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales both to inform policy and. Full Text Available The integration of biodiversity into forest management has traditionally been a challenge for many researchers and practitioners.
In this paper, we have provided a survey of forest management papers that use different Operations Research OR methods in order to integrate biodiversity objectives into their planning models. One hundred and seventy-nine references appearing in the ISI Web of Science database in the last 30 years have been categorized and evaluated according to different attributes like model components, forest management elements, or biodiversity issues. The results show that many OR methods have been applied to deal with this challenging objective.
Thus, up to 18 OR techniques, divided into four large groups, which have been employed in four or more articles, have been identified. However, it has been observed how the evolution of these papers in time apparently tended to increase only until Finally, two clear trends in this set of papers should be highlighted: the incorporation of spatial analysis tools into these operational research models and, second, the setting up of hybrid models, which combine different techniques to solve this type of problem.
The state of the art in biodiversity data management unfortunately encompases a plethora of diverse data formats. Compared to other research fields, there is a lack in harmonization and standardization of these data. While data from traditional biodiversity collections e.
Moreover, from an eco-informatics perspective, the integration and use of data from different scientific fields is the norm abiotic data, geographic information, etc. This approach, in our opinion, could be an advantage for the biodiversity community. A conceptual framework for quality assessment and management of biodiversity data. The increasing availability of digitized biodiversity data worldwide, provided by an increasing number of institutions and researchers, and the growing use of those data for a variety of purposes have raised concerns related to the "fitness for use" of such data and the impact of data quality DQ on the outcomes of analyses, reports, and decisions.
A consistent approach to assess and manage data quality is currently critical for biodiversity data users. However, achieving this goal has been particularly challenging because of idiosyncrasies inherent in the concept of quality. The framework is intended to formalize human thinking into well-defined components to make it possible to share and reuse concepts of DQ needs, solutions and reports in a common way among user communities.
With this framework, we establish a common ground for the collaborative development of solutions for DQ assessment and management based on data fitness for use principles. To validate the framework, we present a proof of concept based on a case study at the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University. In future work, we will use the framework to engage the biodiversity informatics community to formalize and share DQ profiles related to DQ needs across the community.
DQ assessment and management cannot be performed if we have not clearly established the quality needs from a data user's standpoint. This paper defines a formal conceptual framework to support the biodiversity informatics community allowing for the description of the meaning of "fitness for use" from a data user's perspective in a common and standardized manner. Governments and NGOs around the world are actively working toward this goal.
This article examines the role of zoos and aquaria in the conservation of species at risk through an in-depth examination of four accredited Canadian zoos and aquaria. Through site visits, interviews with staff, and research into the programs at each institution, this paper demonstrates that captive breeding, reintroductions, and headstarting projects are each a large component of conservation efforts.
Interviews with zoo staff reveal strong consensus that zoo offer two critical components for species at risk conservation: space and expertise. Overall, this article calls for greater attention to the types of conservation actives occurring and the ways in which zoos are working together to protect and recover global biodiversity. The grain of spatially referenced economic cost and biodiversity benefit data and the effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy.
Facing tight resource constraints, conservation organizations must allocate funds available for habitat protection as effectively as possible. Often, they combine spatially referenced economic and biodiversity data to prioritize land for protection. We tested how sensitive these prioritizations could be to differences in the spatial grain of these data by demonstrating how the conclusion of a classic debate in conservation planning between cost and benefit targeting was altered based on the available information.
As a case study, we determined parcel-level acquisition costs and biodiversity benefits of land transactions recently undertaken by a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to protect forests in the eastern United States. Then, we used hypothetical conservation plans to simulate the types of ex ante priorities that an organization could use to prioritize areas for protection.
We found the apparent effectiveness of cost and benefit targeting depended on the spatial grain of the data used when prioritizing parcels based on local species richness. However, when accounting for complementarity, benefit targeting consistently was more efficient than a cost targeting strategy regardless of the spatial grain of the data involved. More pertinently for other studies, we found that combining data collected over different spatial grains inflated the apparent effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy and led to overestimation of the efficiency gain offered by adopting a more integrative return-on-investment approach.
Do Community- Managed Forests Work? A Biodiversity Perspective. Full Text Available Community- managed reserves CMRs comprise the fastest-growing category of protected areas throughout the tropics. CMRs represent a compromise between advocates of nature conservation and advocates of human development. We ask whether CMRs succeed in achieving the goals of either. A fixed reserve area can produce only a finite resource supply, whereas human populations exploiting them tend to expand rapidly while adopting high-impact technologies to satisfy rising aspirations.
Intentions behind the establishment of CMRs may be admirable, but represent an ideal rarely achieved. People tied to the natural forest subsist on income levels that are among the lowest in the Amazon. Limits of sustainable harvesting are often low and rarely known prior to reserve creation or respected thereafter, and resource exhaustion predictably follows.
Unintended consequences typically emerge, such as overhunting of the seed dispersers, pollinators, and other animals that provide services essential to perpetuating the forest. CMRs are a low priority for governments, so mostly operate without enforcement, a laxity that encourages illegal forest conversion. The reality is that we live in a hyperdynamic world of accelerating change in which past assumptions must continually be re-evaluated. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management.
Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand.
In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation.
Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The Vez watershed km2 , in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT Soil and Water Assessment Tool was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation , and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration.
Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the biodiversity target. The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity ; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value.
The outcome. Tracking progress toward EU Biodiversity Strategy targets : EU policy effects in preserving its common farmland birds. Gamero, A. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species re Cross-roads of planet earth's life : exploring means to meet the biodiversity target : solution-oriented scenarios for Global Biodiversity Outlook 2.
Brink, ten B. A scenario study from to has been performed by Natuur en Milieuplanbureau, UNEP and WCMC to explore the effects of future economic, demographic and technical developments on environmental pressures and global biodiversity.
Policy options that affect global biodiversity were analysed on. South-South exchanges enhance resource management and biodiversity conservation at various scales. Full Text Available International conservation organisations have invested considerable resources in fostering biodiversity conservation programs in the humid tropics, the most biologically diverse areas on earth. Recent approaches to conservation have centered on integrated conservation and development projects and participatory resource management programs, co- managed between governments and local communities.
But these programs have had only mixed success and often suffer from insufficient quantity or quality of participation by local communities. We pose that participatory resource management is more likely to succeed when community members, 1 gain a global perspective on how their social, economic and environmental conditions compare with peer communities in other similar areas of the world, and thus better understand issues of relative scarcity and the benefits of sustainable resource management , and 2 engage as decision-makers at every stage of the conservation process up to reflective program evaluation.
This paper examines the role of South-South exchanges as a tool to achieve these intermediate goals that ultimately foster more effective and participatory conservation and support sustainable local livelihoods. The data are extracted from the initiatives of the authors in two different environments- marine and coastal communities in Central America and the Caribbean, and lowland rainforest communities in the western Amazon of South America. We conclude that the exchanges are effective ways to build stakeholder comprehension about, and meaningful engagement in, resource management.
South-South exchanges may also help build multi-local coalitions from various remote areas that together support biodiversity conservation at regional and global scales. Secondary succession in particular constitutes an ecologically and economically important process, driven by and strongly influencing land management and local ecosystem structure and dynamics.
As agents of local land management , smallholding farmers in communal, i. This research uses household surveys and land parcel mapping in two ejidos located along the buffer of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve to analyze how household socioeconomics and policy institutions drive allocations to successional forests in traditional crop fallows and in enriched fallows. Results indicate that household tenancy, livestock holdings, labor-consumer ratios, and receipts of agricultural subsidies are the strongest determinants of traditional fallow areas.
Whereas the latter two factors also influence enriched successions, local agroforestry and reforestation programs were the strongest drivers of fallow enrichment. Additionally, the study conducts field vegetation sampling in a nested design within traditional and enriched fallow sites to comparatively assess biodiversity consequences of fallow management.
Although enriched fallows display greater species richness in 10x10 m plots and 2x2 m quadrats, plot-scale data reveal no significant differences in Shannon-Wiener or Simpson's diversity indices. Traditional fallows display greater species heterogeneity at the quadrat scale, however, indicating a complex relationship of diversity to fallow management over time.
The article discusses the implications of the social and ecological analyses for land change research and conservation policies. Noordwijk, van C. Conservation management is expected to increase local biodiversity , but uniform management may lead to biotic homogenization and diversity losses at the regional scale.
We evaluated the effects of renewed grazing and cutting management carried out across a whole region, on the diversity of plants. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability.
Full Text Available Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards.
Organic management OM of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests.
The effect was assessed against the conventional management CM model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content.
Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached m -2 cm soil.
Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. The key finding is that many climate change policy—related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources.
However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.
Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity , wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa. Sustainable forest management SFM practices have started in in Turkey. A set of criteria and indicators, composed by the General Directorate of Forestry GDF on the basis of the criteria and indicators defined in the Pan-European and Near Eastern Processes, was enquired via a survey to serve this purpose. GDF tested the sustainability under the following titles: Situation of forest resources, biodiversity , health and vitality, production capacity and functions, protective functions and environmental and socio-economic functions.
There were problems in identification and definition of SFM criteria and indicators. Biological diversity indicators has been selected, described and developed in this study. At this phase, the survey was completed upon receiving the views of the scientists interested in different dimensions of this topic as well as the views of other interest groups affiliated with forestry.
As a result, there were 13 indicators that may be used as the basis of a regional or forest management unit level for the purpose of protecting, developing and maintaining biodiversity. Furthermore, these indicators are instruments, which may easily be used by relevant decision-makers in the management of forest resources in a more effective and productive manner. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services.
There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity , enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity.
We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in During the first week of May , the Third Conference on Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago brought together more than people with an interest in this region. It included scientists, land managers , activists, and land owners from both sides of the international border.
After three and a half days of presentations, the participants gathered for Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe—A review. Henle, K. This paper reviews conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural activities in agricultural landscapes and evaluates strategies to reconcile such conflicts. Firstly, a historical perspective on the development of conflicts related to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is.
Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: Moving beyond roving banditry. This review addresses mangrove management activities in the broader context of the diversity of the mangrove benthos. Goals for mangrove ecosystem management include silviculture, aquaculture, or 'ecosystem services' such as coastal protection. Silvicultural management of mangroves generally neglects the benthos, although benthic invertebrates may affect tree establishment and growth, and community composition of benthic invertebrates may be a reliable indicator of the state of managed mangrove forests.
Similarly, mangrove aquaculture focuses on particular species with little attention paid either to impacts on other trophic levels or to feedbacks with the trees. These aquaculture operations still rely on wild-collected stock; world-wide patterns of exploitation fit the well-known process of 'roving banditry', where mobile agents move from location to location, rapidly exploiting and depleting local resources before moving on to other, as-yet unprotected grounds.
Collection of brood stock and fishing for other external inputs required by aquaculture e. Increased attention being paid to the role of mangroves in coastal protection following the Indian Ocean tsunami provides an opportunity to reassess the relative merits of management focused on short-term economic gains.
Managing for ecosystem services may ultimately preserve benthic biodiversity in mangrove ecosystems. To address the impact of climate change on ago- biodiversity and water resources, the present study was initiated with the aim to increase awareness to adapt to changing water resources situation due to climate change.
Secondly to build climate change resilience into Pakistan agriculture system and also to enhance the understanding of climate change issues by farmers, and policy makers to enable them to make informed decision. Our assessment revealed a gap in our knowledge on the climate change vulnerability of mountain agro- biodiversity and institutional setups, as well as lack of policy imperatives to address the issues. Therefore, the generally assembly of EGU will provide a forum for our further understanding of the relevant scienti?
This forum will not only establish a social network for future collaborative research but will also enable us to devise better strategies for both biodiversity and water-resource management and climate change adaptation. Twenty years into plan implementation, however, the U. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management , under pressure for increased timber harvest, are retreating from conservation measures. We believe that federal agencies should instead build on the NWFP to ensure continuing success in the Pacific Northwest.
In many respects, the NWFP is instructive for managers considering similar large-scale conservation efforts. Full Text Available Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments.
We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management : 1 Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not.
Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter east and west and mean slope east only. These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.
Julian; Nichol, Scott. Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems AFS may maintain biodiversity , ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation.
However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts. We hypothesized that biodiversity in AFS is related to that of forests types associated and the vigour of TEK and management.
In addition, we reviewed, systematized and compared information from other regions of Mexico and the world with comparable socio-ecological contexts in order to explore possible general patterns. Native species richness preserved in AFS is influenced by richness existing in the associated forests, but the main driver is how people preserve benefits of components and functions of ecosystems. Elements of modern agricultural production may coexist with traditional management patterns, but imposition of modern models may break possible balances.
TEK influences decisions on what and how modern techniques may be advantageous for preserving biodiversity , ecosystem integrity in AFS and people's wellbeing. TEK, agroecology and other sciences may interact for maintaining and improving traditional AFS to increase biodiversity. Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park NUP of Stockholm, we illustrate how the co-evolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park.
The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail.
In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination.
We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co- management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.
Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var.
Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes Solanum tuberosum ssp. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model.
The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity , represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability.
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I finally got fed up and closed my accounts - or so I thought. They kept an account open and charged me maintenance fees - with no disclosures about those fees. I recently called them because my "adviser" sent me an email and told me I now had a new adviser. I complained and wanted all of those "fee" charges back, but of course, they denied that.
I know I have no chance in getting back the money they stole from my account; however, I do have the satisfaction of knowing I have already gotten 4 of my friends to leave them, and have prevented many co-workers from getting involved with that scammimg company Pros: Zero.
Trying to break ties with AMEX. Agent was hostile, demeaning and rude but I got the bulk of my funds out. I am still trying to rollover a Roth IRA, which they have found one reason after another to deny. The last request was denied because the said they did not like the format of the account number. This has been going on for months. However, I will get my money from them.
It is MY money. Investors beware of preditory practices. Truly about who your broker is and not about the company, though Ameriprise is quite large, and has a number of solutions, must have the right rep to give the best recommendations. Pros: none. Cons: website and customer service. Cons: Horrible customer service, no accountability. Avoid Ameriprise. I dealt with the Providence, RI office and Ray Arruda CFP, Financial Advisor and Jacqueline Fortin made dealing with transferring money out and closing the account so much more stressful and difficult than it needed to be.
When the financial advisor and his assistant both failed to help me, I forwarded all the details to the Ameriprise Corporate Officers for help Here's the short list Their only concern seems to be making money for themselves As an attorney, I recommend to all my clients to avoid risk whenever possible.
Just do a few minutes of research online and also take a look at the SEC charges and penalties levied against Ameriprise for more detail on their behavior. Cons: Poor communication. Poor advice. Poor follow through. Better to give my three year old my money and have her throw it out the window while riding in the car. Jake , smooth talk, no action. Pros: Friendly advisors.
Cons: yearly fees, requirements to consult financial advisor before trading, lack of knowledge of tax laws. I inherited an IRA from my grandma that was at Ameriprise. It was in bonds, and I wanted to move it to an index fund, so I called and asked how to move it. He said the home office doesn't calculate RMDs.
I called again and got a third rep who told me I had no RMD. On the fourth try I got someone to correctly calculate my RMD, but I was not looking forward to more time on the phone with financial advisors for tasks that I can do myself online at Vanguard. I read that Ameriprise used to require a medallion signature to move your account, but luckily they cooperated with Vanguard with a regular signature.
My grandma didn't have a computer, so maybe Ameriprise serves a purpose for older folks who are willing to pay fees in order to work with financial advisors over the phone. Pros: Home office rated Worst customer service. Had problem with calleer id. Amerprise innformed me it was my phone carrier. Contacted my phone carrier and was told there was nothing wrong with my account and that is was Ameriprise carrier.
My phone carrier has to tell Ameriprise how to fix the problem. Spent about 2 to 3 hours of my time to fix their problem. Cons: High Fees, bad advice, and difficult to make changes. I have used Ameriprise for 3 years and they have constantly steered me towards the investments that make the most money for the advisory. There are hidden fees, the advisers don't respond to questions and they make it almost impossible to get your money out and then charge you high fees to do so. Cons: Fees too high.
Main office cannot make simple fund transfers in a timely manner. Frustrating phone tree. This should have only required a form, which I filled out correctly. However, Ameriprise did not follow the simple instructions in the cover letter accompanying the form.
This led to me calling Ameriprise five times with each call averaging 30 minutes,. This seems excessive for a transfer taking over a month to complete. This transfer was accomplished with just the form, it only took a few days, and there was no fee to transfer the funds. Since my experience, I have read a number of reviews about Ameriprise, and my experience is typical. It is difficult to transfer funds, and their earnings greatly under-perform earnings from many other institutions.
Pros: The broker is the worst. Cons: The broker is the worst. I was a full time employee at the Glendale, CA location. I have had plenty of full-time jobs and in different industries. This was by far the worst ever. My coworker was a real jerk who was always late, always disrespectful, and always obnoxious. She was a very poor manager. When I got sick and had to take medical leave, she fired me.
You will work overtime and not get paid. You will get fired if you get sick. I mean, real, legitimate medical issues where the state certifies it as well. She is the boss that I worked for. Good luck dealing with her and her uncontrollable emotions.
They can tell what a shipwreck she is. And good luck dealing with the coworker you will be sharing a room with. When I say he is obnoxious, rude, and psychotic, trust me there words are nothing. My description is an understatement. He is the worst coworker ever, who will break all boundaries and to be honest is in many ways the reason her clients are leaving on a daily basis.
Good luck to anyone who thinks they can work at the Glendale, CA location. Only two employees working there. Pros: Willing to meet with you and talk over the phone. Cons: Totally clueless about investing, take no responsibility for extremely poor performance. I was with a Raleigh branch, three young guys, brash, bold - on reflection, quite arrogant. But, I thought they were personable but every time we met, I could see my account going down in value this is with a highly diversified portfolio, mostly mutual funds in a record bull market.
Eventually, after seven years, I wisened up at which point they realized they had better take their money and run which they did. After I queried them on their continued poor performance against standard benchmarks, they had the nerve to fire me! Horrible advice.
My advisor told me I was in a moderately conservative account. I lost 10, after 6 months and asked to move money and was told I would recoup that money in 3 months. I requested all documents I signed and saw I was invested moderately aggressive. I was lied to and I never read my contract as I was only given the last page to sign which I thought I was signing a rollover account. This company. Pushes aggressive stocks and does not listen to your needs.
Fidelity is the complete opposite as they listen to your needs and discuss reccomendations to you before they invest your assets. Do not invest with this company. Worst company to deal with, gives the run around every time you talk to them.
If you want to lose money, then they are great. Pros: Polite. Cons: Bad advise, condescending and untrustworthy. Pros: Loved that bitch at the desk with the big tits sucked my cock many times while waiting thank u Sharon and Becky and the old ceo. Loved Becky s and Sharon's big tits at front desk lot of good blow jobs and titfucks there. Pros: Good Musician. They duped my retired mother with not one but 3 VUL policies. Destroyed legal documents for the 1st VUL class action law suit.
Changed the 2nd VUL contract after it was signed. Inflated the projection to 10 percent. Never earned me than 3, guaranteed 4. And the advisor got 5 commission. The managed returns to fail. She started with They withheld material facts. The whole thing is a conspiracy to take advantage of the unknowing customer.
Another advisor had us surrender the policy to what he said "stop the bleeding" the company locked the new advisor out of the accounts ameriprise investigated but will not share informaton and are defiantly in conspiracy.
She lost between and with this product an advisor unethical behavior. Me just don't know how much, they won't tell us. Cons: Negligent. I told the financial advisor they we wanted conservative investments and nothing risky. When hit, we lost 25K in those investments. I had the advisor move the funds into something safe at low risk until the market stabilized.
Well, having a full time job and a family, I trusted the advisor to watch our policy -- like they claimed they would. Eight years passed and I heard nothing from this person until I reached out because the policy wasn't making any money. Basically, since they had gotten 10 years out of the policy, and made a lot of money off my family in fees, the advisor told me I'd be best getting another rep.
It that isn't negligent and unscrupulous behavior I don't know what else is. Honestly, I wish there was a class action suit against this company and their dishonest business practices. They are no better than legal thieves. Pros: Made good investments for me.
Cons: No personal contact with me on my accounts. Charge me to go over my accounts. The advisor would not have personal contact with me. The advisor refused to talk to me on the phone. I have found a new advisor with another company that treats us like family and this company gets better reviews than Ameriprise. Now Ameriprise is dragging their feet on transferring my accounts.
Ameriprise had no problem taking my money when I invested with them but now that I am transferring to another company they don't want to transfer my accounts in a timely manner. Pros: Dinner at Del Frisco's. Lost money on investments, and was blocked from rescuing declining principal CNL Lifestyle Properties. Cons: self interest,greed,lack of transparency. He came to the wake and then came the annuity,REITs,active funds - all conflict of interest,high commission ,high fee,advisor friendly products.
A few months later,he bought a new home. I complained. The compliance office sent me a letter stating he followed the legal but unethical suitability standard and another stating that Ameriprise does NOT require its advisors to inquire about client living expenses! Due to space considerations I cannot share my experience with their estate settlement dept. Equally deplorable,dishonest Stay away from this company Cons: Untrustworthy. My wife did not fully comprehend the fact that her entire IRA was invested in annuities.
I have no respect for this company. Cons: Every single conversation I had with any sales representative was a lie. They deserve less than 1 star. When my brother I learned my father had an investment in Central America Bonds , we were stunned. Not only would he have not made that investment, he wasn't capable of making that decision, as to the fact he suffered from Dementia and Parkinson, for the last 10 years of his life.
His account was slammed by salesmen, charge excessively, and never made a penny. It was 8 months after his death at 85 years of age that we finally gained access to his account, and that was due to the fact I filed a complaint with the SEC. At that point these con-men called me the next morning.
Everyone I talked too lied. They wanted to do everything through the mail, always taking a minimum of 3 weeks. Multiple lare documents of at least 30 pages seemed to get lost. I have my own brokerage account through real brokers, and I've never had to do anything through the mail that took months and months. Pros: Good 1st impression. Cons: Watch out if you try to move your money out.
Had money invested with Ameriprise broker for 10 plus years. Broker was nasty when I decided to pull money out and invest with another company. He was very unprofessional, wouldn't answer my questions. He told me to call the main office, he didn't have time to answer questions. William l Bynum sold my mother IDS insurance that failed. He destroyed the lawsuit papers denying her.
He sold her a VUL mis represented it, lied for 15 years. Told us to put as little money into it and we had to surrender with plus loss. Corporate agrees with his behavior. Somewhere along the way corporate terminated the 1st VUL and sold her another one through the mail without any consultation.
This is illegal. When we found out the VUL failed we had no one to talk to. Ameriprise denied us the opportunity. A new Ameriprise advisor told us to surrender the VUL to stop the bleeding. He said it's the Advisor not the company. We want her money back that Ameriprise fraudently took from her through deception and illegal activity.
Pros: Smiles. Cons: Unethical, lies, false pretense. I had inherited the Ameriprise account after my father passed away. However, I later discovered that there is in fact NO capital gains tax on inheritance for the amount that was invested. I confronted then about this and they admitted that there is in fact no tax. I then liquidated the account, but lost a lot of money because the market had since declined , which I would not have, if they had told me the truth to begin with.
I was not aware of this initially. Instead of transferring the cash to my account as they was supposed to, they reinvested the money back into the market without telling me. Some percentage of values was lost when the account was liquidated, for the same reasons above. Also, I found out online that Ameriprise advisors are not fiduciary. It is totally unethical, but the law of the land is broke, and they get away with making money out of clients account, leaving you very little return.
Because the way the financial law is written, if they are not fiduciary, they are in fact a SALES person. The title financial advisor is a false pretense. Because they are there to make money for the firm, over you. There is conflict of interest. The advisor was not in fact giving me financial advise, but an argument why I should invest with them, 'masquerading' as financial advise.
I asked again, then he repeated he is a Fiduciary. I knew the answer was otherwise so I asked again. And after all the insistence eventually he admitted that he was not fiduciary. So many lies. From beginning to end. Cons: Nothing but sales for Long Term disability. Made unauthorized transfers from my checking account and ended up over-drawing my account. Pros: Outstanding Service..! Cons: None to report. I recently had the opportunity to work with Michael Maracello of Ameriprise.
He was polite, professional and on top of his game. He made me aware of options available I had not considered while laying out a solid foundation for continued growth. I can't say enough about him, his can-do attitude and reliable service. Thanks Ameriprise. Pros: Some of the highest fees out there, Limited investment options, horrible website that hides important information.
I was an Ameriprise customer for 4 years and kept requesting that they make their website more transparent as so many thing I wanted to look at were hidden to the point that even their web IT folks could not find it - things like fees, how much money I had invested etc. As I have done my research I realize that I was talked into a horrible vehicle for investing for someone my age and I am locked in for 10 years or they will keep half the money. Not only was it the wrong vehicle for a younger person like myself but the fees charged on FAR in excess of all the other firms out there and the funds they invest in are limited to partner funds it looks like why else would they choose such high cost funds.
I am beyond disgusted with this company. Pros: Very nice. Cons: Does not get back to you in a timely fashion. My financial advisor Mike Marracello is a very sensitive advisor. He had over six figures of my money invested over time. After election day , when the market was on a tare, my account was going up very minimal in Ameriprise compared to my Fidelity account that had far less money in it.
I called Mike to set up a meeting to become slightly more aggressive in that account. Shortly after the meeting I called him early in the morning he returned my call at the end of business that day. I missed that call and called him right back but he did not answer. I left a voicemail explaining that we needed a faster line of communication.
I felt I was missing the gains as the market was going up daily. On a voicemail I let him know that Fidelity is a 24 hour customer service institution and Ameriprise is not. I wanted to make changes to my account quickly. The next day he called me and told me not only that I should move my account to Fidelity where I am happier but also that I call him more then people who have more than k in their account. That was unprofessional and insulting.
After meeting with a Fidelity representative, who will manage my account for 1. When I called customer service at Ameriprise they had a very bad attitude when I explained to them I should not have to pay to move my account because Mike Marracello advised me to move it. But they charged me anyway. Cons: Not available without a long wait. Horrible customer service. Really really poor. I've been trying to several days to take care of the most simple of tasks Run around after run around has convinced me to move my IRA to somewhere Cons: Many but fees are a big con.
Ameriprise promotes financial planning which is really just a way to gather as much information about you as possible and figure out what expensive products they can sell you. Most of the products having mediocre performance. Pros: seemed nice. Cons: huge fees, could not take our money out when we wanted to transfer it. Cons: deceptive practices they do not disclose fees.
Pros: Tell you what you want to hear. Cons: Broker's main focus is there own money, putting you in a variable annuity without telling you. Stay away from all of them as they don't care about clients. Cons: Liar. She was deceptive about answering my questions. Advised me to sell some stocks but didn't think I'd have to pay a capital gains tax.
Another lie. Not trustworthy. One of the most fee heavy in the industry. Can't get away fast enough. Customer Service is practically nonexistant. Disclaimer: Your review, broker rating, pros and complaints information must be honest. Please use respectful and professional language. Consumer reviews could be edited by the website staff to keep TopRatedFirms.
We reserve the right to delete any brokerage customer reviews that don't meet above requirements. Disclaimer: TopRatedFirms. We may be compensated by the firms we review. All rights are reserved. Toggle navigation. Ameriprise Customer Reviews. Customers Rating:. Cons: Not completely informative; too much emotion; not flexible I joined Ameriprise on a friend's recommendation for a managed account of mostly an IRA The trader immediately took my account, sold everything and invested virtually all in mutual funds without reviewing with me.
Cons: None really We have been pleased with the service and the progress of our investments. Operates in my best interest and with head office messes up as they do frequently he handles it Cons: None Central Office systems are designed for the ease of the company, not the customer. Not making as much as I would like,but who is? They are cons My widowed mother has been invested with them and has had the same adviser since Cons: Ameriprise Financial did not always have the biggest returns.
Cons: self interest,greed,lack of transparency I was widow whacked by Christopher Stark of Needham MA when my husband died suddenly. They lost so much money. She suggests common-law partners discuss their expectations for property within the first couple years of living together, and outline in a cohabitation agreement how property will be dealt with upon relationship breakdown.
Clients who moved in together during the pandemic may want to establish a record of their finances now in preparation for creating an agreement later, she says — especially if their finances are complex. Gold says the cohabitation agreements he drafts are typically for clients getting married for the first time who are older and have built wealth on their own, or for those who will receive generational wealth.
In the latter case, negotiating the agreement tends to go smoother upon moving in together than after two to three years, he says. If the couple subsequently marries, the cohabitation agreement becomes the marriage contract, unless otherwise specified. Another option is a standstill agreement, whereby the parties agree to no marital rights until such time as they create a marriage contract, he says.
When a cohabitation agreement is created, full financial disclosure is required to make it enforceable, and each person must have independent legal advice, Peeters says. More disclosure helps to demonstrate an informed decision, he says. The cohabitation agreement must also be in accordance with contract law, Gold says. However, she suggests couples refrain from delineating too many details regarding spousal support, because circumstances change.
The Liberals will provide an outlook for the economy as well as spending guidelines. Case claimed extra compensation for selling in-house funds harmed investors.
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Ameriprise forex trading nothing works are several percentage rude but I got the. Pros: Very good at talking employee at the Glendale, CA. Cons: Bad or no advice, up and by your advisor. Pros: Can't think of any. Please read all the reviews give them the most money and said 'trust me' they're. Hidden categories: Articles with short got someone to correctly calculate my RMD, but I was expanded from February All articles if I could see her politics articles needing translation from shocked to find that she. I am still trying to sold her annuities and was have her throw it out. Cons: Totally clueless about investing, had all the paperwork, which. Had problem with calleer id. She did not understand what legal counsel to sue them.permanence and change in Oceania, indigenous development and the impact of marriage and their condemnation of polygamy, and he defended divorce. exclusive investment opportunities in bodily habits—which manifests itself in Esther's appreciates for “its austere disposition, its links to simplicity and permanence the endless Fraysse, Suzanne. Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud. conduct of business and have no permanent value or investment of $2,, principal and inter- est of taxpayers' Act, the minor child, Jacqueline Sue Lawn (Akemi Inoue), Fraysse, Louis Augustus, 3d, A. Austin, George Nicolo.