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One of the population and industrial centers of the Massif Central, it is home of the Michelin and other tire factories, and of important It is the hydroelectric center of France and has an important nuclear-research center. Marseille, city pop. It is the second largest city of France and one of its most important seaports; an underground canal see Rove France's fastest growing region, it is one of France's great cultural and commercial centers. Nice is the most famous resort on the French Riviera.

Although the economy depends mainly on the tourist trade, the electronics industry as well as other manufactures are An important market town and rail hub, its products include machinery, textiles and clothing, and tinware. An old Gallic town, it became Roman c. It is an important industrial and shipping center with its ocean port at Saint-Nazaire.

A commercial and transportation center, it has food-processing, tobacco, machine-building, electrical, pharmaceutical, chemical, and textile industries. It is a wine market and a tourist center, with metallurgical, chemical, electrical, clothing, and printing industries. It is an industrial town. Hosiery is the main product. Troyes became an episcopal see in the 4th cent. Arles is an important railroad, shipping, agriculture, and industrial center with varied manufactures.

Subsequent lines connected Paris to several other French cities, as well as Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and, via the Channel Tunnel Channel Tunnel, popularly called the "Chunnel," a three-tunnel railroad connection running under the English Channel, connecting Folkestone, England, and Calais, France. The tunnels are 31 mi 50 km long. There are two rail tunnels, each 25 ft 7. The government at one time had majority ownership in many commercial banks, some key industries, and various utilities, including the telephone system.

The government has since reduced its holdings in many companies, although it still controls energy production, public transportation, and defense industries. Leading exports are machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, iron and steel, and beverages.

Leading imports are machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, and chemicals. The chief ports are Rouen Rouen , city pop. Situated on the Seine near its mouth at the English Channel, Rouen functions as the port of Paris, handling an enormous volume of traffic. Le Havre became a major seaport in the 19th cent. It is a naval base and seaport, and a major industrial center where submarines, oil tankers and platforms, electronics, and metals are It is a commercial port, an important naval station, and the seat of the French Naval Academy.

Saint-Nazaire is an important seaport mainly for trade with the Antilles and Central America and a great shipbuilding and industrial center with An important commercial port and industrial center, Toulon is France's principal naval center on the Mediterranean; shipbuilding and ship repairing are major industries. Dunkerque, town pop. It is a leading French port with daily ferry service to Ramsgate and Dover, England. Since the Revolution of , France has had an extremely uniform and centralized administration, although constitutional changes in now permit greater autonomy to the nation's regions and departments.

The country is governed under the constitution as amended , which established the Fifth French Republic and reflected the views of Charles de Gaulle de Gaulle, Charles , —, French general and statesman, first president —69 of the Fifth Republic.

In The Army of the Future , tr. It provides for a strong president, directly elected for a five-year term; an individual is limited to two terms as president. A premier and cabinet, appointed by the president, are responsible to the National Assembly, but they are subordinate to the president. The bicameral legislature consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. Deputies to the seat National Assembly are elected for five-year terms from single-member districts. The senators are elected for six-year terms from each department by an electoral college composed of the deputies, district council members, and municipal council members from the department, with one half of the Senate elected every 3 years.

France's 22 administrative regions see above under Land each have a directly elected regional council, primarily responsible for stimulating economic and social activity. The regions are further divided into 96 departments not including the four overseas departments , which are governed by a locally elected general council, with one councilor per canton. Further subdivisions are districts arrondisements , cantons, and communes.

The districts and cantons have little power. The communes, however, are more powerful because they are responsible for municipal services and are represented in the national government by the mayor. Some of the earliest anthropological and archaeological remains in Europe have been found in France, yet little is known of France before the Roman conquest 1st cent.

The country was known to the Romans as Gaul Gaul , Lat. The name was extended by the Romans to include Italy from Lucca and Rimini northwards, excluding Liguria. It was inhabited largely by Celts Celt or Kelt. There are about 2 million Basques in the three Basque provs.

Some of the Gallic tribes undoubtedly were Germanic. Settlements on the Mediterranean coast, notably Marseilles, were established by Greek and Phoenician traders c. The conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar 58—51 B. Caesar's first campaign was to prevent the Helvetii who lived N of the Lake of Geneva from crossing the Roman He was the leader of the great revolt against the Romans in 52 B.

Julius Caesar, upon hearing of the trouble, rushed to put it down. Early in the course of the following five centuries of Roman rule Gaul accepted Latin speech and Roman law, developed a distinct Gallo-Roman civilization, and produced many large and prosperous cities.

Lugdunum Lyons was the Roman capital. Christianity, introduced in the 1st cent. From the 3d cent. Among the Germanic tribes that descended upon fertile Gaul, the Visigoths Visigoths West Goths , division of the Goths, one of the most important groups of Germans. Having settled in the region W of the Black Sea in the 3d cent. By the 3d cent. The two major divisions were the Salian Franks in the north and the Ripuarian Franks in the south.

Rome and its governors in Gaul sought, by alliances, to play the barbarians off against each other. Thus Aetius defeated A. Originally little more than a tribal chieftain, he became sole leader of the Salian Franks by force of perseverance and by murdering a number of relatives.

Clovis, who had made himself ruler of all the Franks, then defeated the Visigoths and, after accepting Christianity , conquered the Alemanni. He extinguished the Arian heresy see Arianism Arianism , Christian heresy founded by Arius in the 4th cent. It was one of the most widespread and divisive heresies in the history of Christianity. As a priest in Alexandria, Arius taught c. Throughout the 6th and 7th cent.

It comprised the Seine and Loire country and the region to the north; its principal towns were Soissons and Paris. Especially after Dagobert I Dagobert I , c. His father was forced to appoint Dagobert king of the East Frankish kingdom of Austrasia at the request of Pepin of Landen, mayor of the palace, and Arnulf, bishop of Metz, who effectively Gaul was depopulated, the cities were left in ruins, commerce was destroyed, and the arts and sciences were ignored.

In the 8th cent. In the meantime a more rigorous dynasty, the Carolingians Carolingians , dynasty of Frankish rulers, founded in the 7th cent. After the death of his father he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin's widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and Succeeding his father as mayor of the palace , he ruled Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his brother Carloman d.

Crowned emperor of the West in , Charlemagne expanded his lands by conquest. He gave his subjects an efficient administration, created an admirable legal system, and labored for the rebirth of learning, piety, and the arts. He was crowned king of Aquitaine in and co-emperor with his father in At Louis's death , his three sons were fighting each other. When his father, Emperor of the West Louis I, partitioned the empire in , Louis received Bavaria and adjacent territories.

In his father crowned him coemperor. He was recrowned at Rome by the pope and issued a constitution, proclaiming his right to confirm papal elections. Charles was recognized as the ruler of the lands that are now France. The Carolingians had only superficially transcended the economic, social, and political fragmentation of the land.

The weakness of central authority was a major reason for the development of feudalism feudalism , form of political and social organization typical of Western Europe from the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire to the rise of the absolute monarchies.

The term feudalism is derived from the Latin feodum, Raids by Norsemen Norsemen, name given to the Scandinavian Vikings who raided and settled on the coasts of the European continent in the 9th and 10th cent. They are also referred to as Northmen or Normans. The authority of the kings was increasingly usurped by feudal lords. Among the most powerful of these were the dukes of Aquitaine Aquitaine , Lat.

Aquitania, former duchy and kingdom in SW France. The province that he created occupied the territory between the Garonne River and the Pyrenees; under Roman rule it was It is divided among East Flanders and West Flanders provs.

A commercial and industrial center with an outstanding trade in wines and brandies, it is also one of the most historic towns of France. In the Norse leader Rollo Rollo or Hrolf , c. As leader of the Norman pirates settled at the mouth of the Seine, he attacked Paris and Chartres. He was the son of Hugh the Great, to whose vast territories he succeeded in After the death of Louis V, last Carolingian king of France, the nobles and prelates elected him king, setting The early Capetians Capetians , royal house of France that ruled continuously from to ; it takes its name from Hugh Capet.

Related branches of the family see Valois; Bourbon ruled France until the final deposition of the monarchy in the 19th cent. By unremitting effort they gradually extended their domain, razed the castles of robber barons, and held their own against the great feudatories. He succeeded his father, Philip I, with whom he was associated in government from c.

He firmly established his authority within the royal domain, suppressing brigandage by robber barons and besieging Before his accession he married Eleanor of Aquitaine. In the 11th cent. Drawing together for their common defense see commune commune , in medieval history, collective institution that developed in continental Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire.

Because of the importance of the commune in municipal government, the term is also used to denote a town itself to which a charter of liberties was Commerce revived, and the great fairs of Champagne made France a meeting place for European merchants. The Cluniac order Cluniac order , medieval organization of Benedictines centered at the abbey of Cluny, France.

Founded in by the monk Berno and Count William of Aquitaine, the abbey's constitution provided it freedom from lay supervision and after from jurisdiction of the local bishop. Virtually all medieval philosophers of any significance were theologians, and their philosophy is generally embodied in their theological writings. This rebirth reached its height in the 13th cent. First Crusade Origins In the 7th cent. His mother, Blanche of Castile, was regent during his minority —34 , and her regency probably lasted even after Louis reached his majority; she was his Louis —in most of Europe.

French courtly poetry and manners became European models. In England, French manners and culture also predominated among the nobles because of the Norman Conquest The fact that the Norman English kings were also French nobles, holding or claiming vast fiefs in France, brought the two nations into centuries of conflict. He was the founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line in England and one of the ablest and most remarkable of the English kings.

Daughter and heiress of William X, duke of Aquitaine, she married Louis in shortly before his accession to the throne. During his reign the royal domains were more than doubled, and the royal power was consolidated at the expense of the feudal lords.

Defeating John in and again, resoundingly, at Bouvines Bouvines , village, Nord dept. During Philip's reign a greater France emerged. The crusade against the Albigenses Albigenses [Lat. Philip made the royal authority felt throughout the land. Paris was rebuilt. Louis IX —70 organized an efficient and equitable civil and judicial system. The policies of his reign greatly strengthened the French monarchy and increased the royal revenues.

Philip failed to incorporate Flanders into his holdings, as the Flemish crushed the French at Courtrai To meet his revenue needs Philip taxed the clergy, summoning the first national States-General States-General or Estates-General, diet or national assembly in which the chief estates see estate of a nation—usually clergy, nobles, and towns or commons —were represented as separate bodies.

He also destroyed the wealthy Knights Templars Knights Templars , in medieval history, members of the military and religious order of the Poor Knights of Christ, called the Knights of the Temple of Solomon from their house in Jerusalem. Papal objections to these moves led to the Babylonian Captivity —77 of the popes see papacy papacy , office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church.

He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome the Holy See to its first bishop, St. Louis le Hutin [the quarrelsome], —, king of France —16 , son and successor of Philip IV. His reign was dominated by his uncle, Charles of Valois, and was distinguished by his concessions to the barons in the form of charters.

He became regent in on the death of his brother Louis X, who was survived by his pregnant wife and infant daughter. Charles continued his brother's work of strengthening the royal power. Within a few years after the death of Charles IV, who was also without a male heir, progress toward national unification was halted, and for more than a century France was rent by warfare and internal upheaval.

Early Life He was made earl of Chester in and duke of Aquitaine in and accompanied his mother to France in Causes Its basic cause was a dynastic quarrel that originated when the conquest of England by William of Normandy created a state lying on both sides of the English Channel.

In the 14th cent. It was complicated by many secondary issues, notably civil troubles in Flanders and the War of the Breton Succession Breton Succession, War of the, —65, an important episode of the Hundred Years War. A nearby forest is popular for camping. The ancient capital of Poitou, it is now an industrial, agricultural, and communications center. The uprising was in part a reaction to widespread poverty during the Hundred Years War.

An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda and by appointing dishonest and It marked a low point in French fortunes in the Hundred Years War. During his minority he was under the tutelage of his uncles particularly Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy , whose policies drained Rivalry for power at court led to the terrible strife between Armagnacs and Burgundians Armagnacs and Burgundians, opposing factions that fought to control France in the early 15th cent.

Early Life Henry was probably brought up under the care of his uncle, Henry Beaufort. Azincourt, village, Pas-de-Calais dept. His reign saw the end of the Hundred Years War. Although excluded from the throne by the Treaty of Troyes, Charles took the royal title after his father's death Its purpose, ultimately unsuccessful, was to settle the issues of the Hundred Years War. The dauphin nevertheless assumed the royal title in , but his authority extended over only a small area.

The English now held most of France, including Paris. In , Burgundy, although exacting exorbitant concessions, allied itself with France see Arras, Treaty of Arras, Treaty of. Through it, France and Burgundy became reconciled. Philip deserted his English allies and recognized Charles as king of France. In the English lost their last hold on French soil outside Calais Calais , city pop. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages.

Early Life As dauphin Louis was almost constantly in revolt against his father. He was aided by the downfall of Charles the Bold Charles the Bold, —77, last reigning duke of Burgundy —77 , son and successor of Philip the Good. The first ruled over parts of France and over Jerusalem and England; the second ruled over parts of France and over Naples, Hungary, and Poland, with a claim to Jerusalem. One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.

He first reigned under the regency of his sister Anne de Beaujeu. After his marriage to Anne of Brittany, he freed himself from the influence of the regency and prepared to conquer He succeeded his father as duke. While still duke, he rebelled against the regency of Anne de Beaujeu and was imprisoned , but was released by his cousin King Charles Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor His robust physique contrasted with his weak and pliant disposition.

Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their The superficially brilliant reign of Francis I —47 was taken up with almost constant warfare against the Hapsburg Charles V; however, this period also saw the spread of the Italian Renaissance into France see French art French art, the artistic production of the region that constitutes the historic nation of France. See also French architecture.

Early History Artistic remains in France date back to the Paleolithic age see Paleolithic art , and abundant examples attest to the art The term is derived from the German Eidgenossen, meaning sworn companions or confederates. In religious conflict flared up in the first of the ferocious civil wars see Religion, Wars of Religion, Wars of, —98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.

The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment see Huguenots. She retained her influence throughout his reign. He succeeded his brother, Charles IX. The Catholics, led by the ambitious Guise Guise , influential ducal family of France. Navarre was supported by some moderate Catholics as well as by the Protestants. He defeated the League but had to accept Catholicism before being allowed to enter Paris.

Before he was known as baron de Rosny. Religious freedom and political security for Protestants were promulgated in the Edict of Nantes ; see Nantes, Edict of Nantes, Edict of, , decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants see Huguenots.

He married Anne of Austria in His original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court —36 , he entered the service of France General Character of the War There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war. It marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire as an effective institution and inaugurated the modern European state system.

At home, Richelieu destroyed the political power of the Huguenots, and Mazarin overcame the nobles in the wars of the Fronde Fronde , —53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris the chief judiciary body to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of Early Reign After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin.

The son of a draper, he was trained in business and was hired by Cardinal Mazarin to look after his financial affairs. After he was associated in office with his father, Michel Le Tellier, and from he functioned as war minister, officially replacing his Raising the position of the king to a dignity and prestige hitherto unknown in France, Louis XIV made France the first power in Europe and his court at Versailles Versailles , city pop.

But his many wars undermined French finances, and his persecution of the Huguenots the Edict of Nantes was revoked in caused serious harm to the economy as thousands of merchants and skilled workers left France. The wars had their roots in the Anglo-Dutch commercial rivalry, although the last of the three wars was a wider conflict in which French interests played a primary role.

France, at the end of Louis's reign, was exhausted from its attempt at primacy; yet its latent strength and wealth were so great that it recovered prosperity within a few years. The "absolute" power of the king was hedged in by a stupendous multitude of dusty charters and special privileges—often granted to remove the recipients from national politics—held by families, guilds, monopolies, communes, and provinces, and by the clergy and nobles.

Taxes, although onerous, were raised inefficiently and inequitably, partly by the farmers general see farming farming, in the history of taxation, collection of taxes through private contractors. Usually, the tax farmer paid a lump sum to the public treasury; the difference between that sum and the sum actually collected represented his profit or loss.

Commerce, based on mercantilism mercantilism , economic system of the major trading nations during the 16th, 17th, and 18th cent. Rural overpopulation outstripped the stagnant agricultural productivity. Colbert had reorganized the administration by curtailing the power of the provincial governors and by reestablishing the administrative units called intendancies, originated by Richelieu. The intendants were trusted civil servants who carried out the policies of the central government, but their capacity to break down local privilege was limited.

In several provinces, notably Brittany, the local assemblies of the three estates retained the power to thwart reforms. The ever-expanding bourgeoisie as well as the large body of landowning farmers, however, were finding the remnants of feudal dues, services, and other customs increasingly intolerable. Economic reform became the rallying cry of the physiocrats physiocrats , school of French thinkers in the 18th cent.

They were also referred to simply as "the economists" or "the sect. The son of a rich merchant, he showed precocious ability at school and at the Sorbonne. Many philosophers of the Enlightenment Enlightenment, term applied to the mainstream of thought of 18th-century Europe and America. Background and Basic Tenets The scientific and intellectual developments of the 17th cent. One of the towering geniuses in literary and intellectual history, Voltaire personifies the Enlightenment.

Operating under a system of outworn privilege, the wealthiest country in Europe was ruled by a government perennially on the verge of bankruptcy. Tutor of the young Louis XV, he became, at the age of 73, chief adviser to the king and virtual ruler of France — In the French merchant Antoine Crozat transferred his monopoly of commercial privileges in Louisiana to Law, who, with Not only was the treasury drained, but France lost its empire in India and North America.

In he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette. Financially, however, the war was a disaster for France. In , after neither Calonne Calonne, Charles Alexandre de , —, French statesman, controller general of finances — Faced with a huge public debt and a steadily deteriorating financial situation, Calonne adopted a spending policy to inspire confidence in the nation's financial He was archbishop of Toulouse —88 and of Sens and a member of the French Academy.

Geneva, Switzerland. In he went to Paris and entered banking. He rose rapidly to importance, established a bank of his own, and became a director of the French East India Company. Thus began the upheaval that shook Europe from to see French Revolution French Revolution, political upheaval of world importance in France that began in Origins of the Revolution Historians disagree in evaluating the factors that brought about the Revolution.

The wars began as an effort to defend the Revolution and developed into wars of conquest under the empire. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal. The States-General were transformed into the National Assembly ; a constitutional monarchy was created ; war with much of Europe began, accompanied by violence and the growth of radical factions in France ; the king and queen were beheaded ; Robespierre Robespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore , —94, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution.

Early Life A poor youth, he was enabled to study law in Paris through a scholarship. Directed by the Committee of Public Safety, the Revolutionary government's Terror was essentially a war dictatorship, instituted to rule the A reaction ushered in the Directory —99 , terminated by Napoleon Bonaparte's coup. Napoleon made himself emperor and led his armies as far as Moscow. After his defeat at Waterloo virtually nothing remained for France from the Napoleonic conquests except the basis for a powerful legend.

The work of J. The French Revolution and Napoleon established a uniform, modern administrative system, gave land tenure to the peasants, and left to the bourgeoisie a political heritage that they quickly reclaimed. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.

The king granted a moderately liberal charter but took France into the reactionary Holy Alliance Holy Alliance, , agreement among the emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, signed on Sept. The July Monarchy was a frank plutocracy run by the upper bourgeoisie.

Under the "citizen king," France conquered Algeria — The regime became increasingly autocratic, disregarding the plight of the new urban proletariat. He began a legal career in Paris in , but soon took up literary work and later became a professor of modern history at the The revolution was at first distinctly radical, but the bourgeoisie triumphed in the June Days June Days, in French history, name usually given to the insurrection of workers in June, The working classes had played an important role in the February Revolution of , but their hopes for economic and social reform were disappointed.

In Dec. Early Life He emulated his uncle's autocratic regime at home and carried on a confused foreign policy with unrewarding wars in Russia, Italy, and Mexico. The Second Empire was, however, a period of colonial expansion in Senegal and Indochina and of material prosperity. In , Napoleon instituted a more liberal regime with a parliamentary government. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck the Prussian chancellor as part of his plan to create a unified German After the bloody suppression of the Commune of Paris Commune of Paris, insurrectionary governments in Paris formed during the French Revolution and at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.

In the French Revolution, the Revolutionary commune, representing urban workers, tradespeople, and radical bourgeois, engineered After studying law at Aix-en-Provence, Thiers went to Paris and joined the group of writers that attacked the reactionary government of King Charles X. But for the intransigence of Henri, comte de Chambord the legitimist pretender , France might again have become a monarchy. A republican constitution was finally adopted in As the various parties combined, separated, and recombined into political blocs, new cabinets followed in quick succession.

The s witnessed the expansion of railroads and public education; the latter revived the age-old quarrel in France between church and state. In , after other issues had been added to the dispute, church and state were separated by law. After the rapid rise and fall —89 of General Boulanger Boulanger, Georges Ernest , —91, French general and reactionary politician. Later, he was briefly commander of French troops in Tunisia. Alfred Dreyfus — , a French artillery officer and graduate of the French military academy.

Socialism, led by Guesde Guesde, Jules , —, French socialist, whose original name was Basile. Exiled for his support of the Paris commune, he became a confirmed Marxist after and, with Paul Lafargue, led in advocating socialism in France and a policy of noncompromise with the existing A brilliant student and teacher, he entered the chamber of deputies in and subsequently became a Socialist.

In foreign policy the years before were marked by continued colonial expansion in Africa Morocco, Tunisia, West Africa, Madagascar and Indochina, bringing conflict with Great Britain see Fashoda Incident Fashoda Incident , , diplomatic dispute between France and Great Britain. Toward the end of the 19th cent. Eventually, France, England, and Russia allied themselves to balance the German-Austrian-Italian combination see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente Triple Alliance and Triple Entente , two international combinations of states that dominated the diplomatic history of Western Europe from until they came into armed conflict in World War I.

In World War I, France bore the brunt of the ground fighting in the west. Clemenceau Clemenceau, Georges , —, French political figure, twice premier —9, —20 , called "the Tiger. France obtained heavy German reparations and the right to occupy the left bank of the Rhine for 15 years.

When reparations payments were defaulted, France occupied the Ruhr Ruhr , region, c. A member of the chamber of deputies from , he held numerous cabinet posts from to After beginning an academic career he turned to politics. A moderate leftist, anticlerical, and antimilitarist, he rose to leadership of the Radical Socialist Radical party, a dominant party in A lawyer and a Socialist, he entered the chamber of deputies and helped to draft and pass the law for separation of church and state.

The depression of the s was aggravated by the immobile economic policies of the government, and political complacency was rocked by the Stavisky Affair Stavisky Affair , financial and political scandal that shook France in Serge Alexandre Stavisky, a swindler associated with the municipal pawnshop of Bayonne, sold huge quantities of worthless bonds. Well established in literary circles, he entered politics during the Dreyfus Affair and rose to party leadership. After World War I he was a member of successive French cabinets.

He was premier from Jan. In the summer of , Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland see Sudetes of Czechoslovakia for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland. He held several cabinet posts, and after Nov. In May—June, , France was ignominiously defeated by Germany. In World War I he halted the Germans at Verdun , thus becoming the most beloved French military hero of that conflict.

Vichy's hot mineral springs made it one of the foremost spas in Europe, with a casino now a convention center and grand hotels. Elected to the chamber of deputies as a Socialist, he held various cabinet posts and in became a senator as an Independent, moving away from his leftist affiliations. A career naval officer, he became commander of the French navy in and joined the Vichy government see under Vichy in as minister of the navy.

After the fall of Pierre Laval, Darlan was made Feb. Charles de Gaulle proclaimed, from London, the continued resistance of the "Free French. De Gaulle's government moved to Paris after the city was liberated Aug. By the end of the Allies, with heroic aid from the French resistance, had expelled the Germans from France. German occupation had been costly and oppressive. Thousands had been executed and hundreds of thousands made slave laborers in Germany.

The liberation campaign itself caused much destruction. Although reduced in power and prestige, France became one of the five great powers in the United Nations and shared in the occupation of Germany. De Gaulle became provisional president. The Fourth Republic was officially proclaimed in ; the new constitution reorganized the empire as the French Union French Union, —58, political entity established by the French constitution of It comprised metropolitan France the 90 departments of continental France and Corsica ; French overseas departments, territories, settlements, and United Nations trusteeships; French The son of a coal miner, Thorez himself worked in the mines.

He early joined the Socialist party and in became one of the original members of the French Communist party. An influential columnist —39 , he was imprisoned —41 in World War II and then joined the French underground, becoming its leader. Banks and major industries were nationalized. The Marshall Plan took form when U. Secretary of State George C. To further economic recovery and begin the political integration of Europe, France participated in creating the institutions of what has become the European Union European Union EU , name given since the ratification Nov.

France sent thousands of soldiers to Indochina Indochina, Fr. Indochine, former federation of states, SE Asia. The capital was Hanoi. His given name was Nguyen That Thanh. In he left Vietnam, working aboard a French liner. The French occupied the base by parachute drop in Nov. May, A lawyer and economist, he entered the chamber of deputies as a Radical Socialist. French withdrawal from Indochina was agreed upon at the Geneva Conference.

Subsequently Morocco and Tunisia also achieved independence. But the war for independence in Algeria Algeria , Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. When a right-wing French military coup in Algeria threatened to spread to metropolitan France, de Gaulle was invited back to power. De Gaulle established the Fifth Republic and became its first president in Dec. Its members consisted of the French Republic, which included metropolitan France continental France, Corsica, Algeria and the Sahara , the overseas territories De Gaulle aimed at restoring France's prestige in world affairs.

France became a nuclear power France blocked Britain's entrance into the European Economic Community and for a time boycotted the Market's meetings. Diplomatic recognition was extended to Communist China. In the spring of widespread student demonstrations against France's obsolete educational system were joined by striking workers and farmers. De Gaulle dissolved the national assembly and, blaming the Communists for the disorders, won a great electoral victory June, The Gaullist party won the first absolute majority in the assembly in French history.

But de Gaulle resigned in Apr. French political leader, president of France — Georges Pompidou taught school and then served in World War II until the fall of France, when he returned to teaching. He preserved de Gaulle's independent foreign policy but made innovations domestically, especially in devaluing the franc. In , he reversed French policy and declared support for Britain's entrance into the European Community. A member of the national assembly at the age of 29, he was deputy finance minister —62 and finance minister —66 in Charles de He attended the National School of Administration, joined the civil service, and began his political career in working for Premier Georges Pompidou.

Mitterrand quickly dissolved the national assembly, and it became predominantly Socialist after new elections. To placate the Communist party, with which the Socialists had been allied since , four Communist ministers were added to the cabinet. Many large industries steel, nuclear energy, armaments , private banks, and insurance companies were nationalized, and minimum wage and social security benefits were increased.

However, by the economic situation had worsened, in part because of decreased exports and pressure on the franc; the government devalued the franc, imposed a wage and price freeze, and granted tax concessions to business. In Mitterrand re-formed the government, excluding the Communists. In a right-wing coalition won a majority in Parliament, and Jacques Chirac was appointed premier.

He began a policy of privatizing state-owned companies. He graduated from law school, was elected a parliamentary deputy, and criticized President de Gaulle's Algerian policy. From to he led the extreme right-wing National Front FN.

Mitterrand, however, was reelected in the second round, defeating Chirac. In France agreed to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Mitterrand turned increasingly to foreign affairs and pursued a more moderate economic program.

He moved to France as a child and grew up in Marseille. A Gaullist and member of the Rally for the Republic, he served under Premier Georges Pompidou in the s and was finance minister under The new government slashed interest rates and followed other policies aimed at stemming France's continuing recession. Les Landes. France was beset by a host of problems in , including severe floods and terror bombings; the government faced international criticism for its nuclear testing in the South Pacific, which it resumed after a three-year moratorium; and the country was paralyzed late in the year by a long transportation workers strike.

It was organized in to stabilize foreign exchange and counter inflation among members. Chirac ended nuclear testing in and announced plans for scaling back French military deployment and phasing in an all-volunteer force. In late , Chirac was accused of involvement in a s kickback scheme that provided funds for political parties when he was mayor of Paris, but he denied any knowledge of the scheme.

The charges created political difficulties for Chirac but did not greatly affect his popularity. The Socialist parliament in approved a bill giving Corsica limited autonomy. The move was originally intended to end separatist violence there, but the year actually saw an increase in attacks, and the law was subsequently ruled in large part to be unconstitutional.

In the presidential and parliamentary elections Chirac won a resounding victory. Jospin, who ran against Chirac for the presidency, failed to make it into the runoff, where Chirac's opponent was the right-wing nationalist Jean-Marie Le Pen.

Jospin resigned as premier, and Chirac went on the win the presidency. The Socialists suffered a further setback in the national assembly elections, when the center-right alliance, the Union for the Presidential Majority UMP; subsequently the Union for a Popular Movement , won three fifths of the seats. From a political family, he began his career in business and served as a spokesman for a labor minister in the late s before returning to the private sector.

In —3, as the Bush administration pushed for the abandonment of UN weapons inspections in Iraq and for the UN approval of the use of force to oust Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and disarm Iraq, President Chirac became one of the strongest international opponents of war. France threatened to veto any resolution that explicitly authorized the use of force, which led to acrimonious relations with the United States and Great Britain. France's strong stand, which was also supported by Germany, also led to divisions in the European Union and NATO, whose member governments disagreed on whether to use force against Iraq.

A referendum in July, , calling for approval of a new Corsican assembly with limited autonomy made possible by amendments to the constitution failed to pass; the government had supported the measure in hopes of undercutting Corsican separatists. Local and regional elections in Mar. The vote was seen as rejection of the government's moves to make changes in the French social welfare system, with its generous welfare, health-care, and pension benefits.

The government subsequently also suffered losses in the September elections for the senate. In May, , voters rejected the proposed new constitution for the European Union, resulting in a further embarrassment for the government, and Premier Raffarin resigned. Rabat, Morocco. In Oct. The son of a minor Hungarian aristocrat who immigrated to France and married the daughter of Greek immigrants, Sarkozy became a The government declared a state of emergency, which lasted for the rest of , but provocative comments by some officials continued to feed immigrant resentment.

The riots, which highlighted the alienation and poverty of the French of non-European descent, did not end until after mid-November. A new national crisis arose in early when Villepin pushed through changes to French labor law that would make it easier to fire workers under age 26 during their first two years with a company. A series of demonstrations and strikes against the law occurred in Mar.

Although the law was enacted, in a setback for Villepin, he subsequently announced that it would be replaced by new legislation designed to reduce youth unemployment. Charges that Villepin had targeted Sarkozy for investigation by the secret service in an attempt to smear his party rival brought calls for Villepin to resign, but Chirac continued to support the premier. Villepin was acquitted of the charges in Sarkozy secured the UMP nomination for president in Jan. Dakar, Senegal.

Sarkozy led the crowded field after the first round in Apr. Le Mans. A moderate conservaetive, he has served as an assembly deputy —, — and a senator —7 from Sarthe as well as in local elected posts. The UMP was expected to gain seats in the subsequent June parliamentary elections, but the party actually lost seats. It nonetheless retained a solid majority in the National Assembly.

Proposed pension benefit changes and civil service job cuts led to a nine-day transport workers strike and shorter walkouts by other workers in Nov. Disenchantment with the economy and with Sarkozy's personal style and his very public divorce and remarriage since becoming president contributed to Socialist gains in the Mar. Sarkozy won parliamentary approval in July, , for constitutional amendments that limiting a person to two terms as president and increasing some of parliament's powers.

Though France weathered the —9 global recession better than most European nations, the weak French economy and increasing unemployment contributed to a significant Socialist-led coalition win in regional elections in Mar.

In October the government secured legislation changing the pension system including raising the retirement age, a measure that was partially reversed in in order to reduce public deficits and debt; the changes sparked months of protests that culminated in October with a series of crippling strikes and protests.

The recession at times strained relations with Germany when the two leading eurozone nations disagreed over how to respond to its effects both initially and in the early s when soaring budget deficits affected Greece and some other eurozone nations , but Sarkozy generally supported the reliance on government austerities as a response to the eurozone fiscal crisis.

The Socialists and their allies did well again in the Mar. The son of a textile worker, he graduated from Nantes Univ. Obtaining his teaching diploma, from to he taught German at Saint-Herblain in W France, and also served as the town's mayor from to In the June legislative elections, the Socialists and their allies won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly. In mid the new government enacted a number of labor reforms; a modest overhaul of the pension system's funding was passed in late A poor showing by the Socialists in the Mar.

Barcelona, Spain. After his family moved to Paris, he became a member of the Socialist party and a French citizen The Socialists also fared poorly in the Mar. A Jan. A coordinated series of bombings and attacks in Paris on November 13, by terrorists associated with the Islamic State Islamic State IS , Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.

A state of emergency was declared and subsequently continued into while security forces sought those terrorists who had escaped and also raided sites associated with the perpetrators and planners. In the first round of the subsequent regional elections Dec. July, , saw another attack in which dozens were killed and hundreds injured, as a Tunisian man drove a truck through a Bastille Day crowd in Nice.

That same month the government forced a further labor reform bill through the parliament; the law was opposed by many labor unions and had sparked several weeks of strikes. Valls resigned as premier in Dec. A lawyer and member of the Socialist party, he served in the National Assembly —, — and was mayor of Cherbourg-Octeville — Amiens, grad. Rouen, grad.

Macron's Republic Forward! The September Senate elections left that body in control of the Republicans; that same month Macron enacted significant changes to France's labor laws by decree. Proposed changes to laws privileging workers in the national rail system led to strikes in , but were enacted in June. Opposition to planned increases in the fuel tax led to recurring public protests nationwide beginning in November. As the demonstrations continued into , they became more focused on the effects of the cost of living on poorer families, but were also marked by decreasing size and increasing violence.

In response, the government halted the fuel tax rise, and later increased the minimum wage and adopted other measures, but it rejected a tax increases on the highest incomes, as many demonstrators sought. In late a proposed reorganization of the pension system led to strikes and protests that continued into early ; the changes were enacted by decree in Mar.

France was one of the European nations most severely affected by the COVID pandemic of , which caused a significant economic contraction. Dissatisfaction with the generally conservative approach of Macron's government led to his party's loss of its parliamentary majority through defections in May, and Green candidates experienced a surge in voter support in local elections in June. In July, Macron reorganized his cabinet, naming Jean Castex, a center-right technocrat, as premier, and generally giving the government a more conservative cast.

A classic geographic study is J. Evans, France , is also useful. Michelet Michelet, Jules , —, French writer, the greatest historian of the romantic school. Born in Paris of poor parents, he visualized himself throughout his life as a champion of the people. Among more recent general histories of France, those edited by E.

Lavisse Lavisse, Ernest , —, French historian. He was for many years a professor at the Sorbonne. His early works deal chiefly with the history of Prussia, particularly Frederick the Great. Hanotaux Hanotaux, Gabriel , —, French historian and statesman. Twice minister of foreign affairs —95, —98 , he greatly furthered the Franco-Russian rapprochement. A monumental multivolume work is F. Funck-Brentano, ed. The many authors of classic historical works on France include, for the medieval period, M.

Bloch Bloch, Marc , —, French historian and an authority on medieval feudalism. He taught at the Univ. Langlois, F. Lot, A. Luchaire Luchaire, Achille , —, French historian. The Ancient City, , stressed the influence of primitive religion on the development of Greek and Roman institutions. Taine Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe , —93, French critic and historian. A brilliant student, he gained recognition with the publication of his doctoral thesis, Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine Aulard Aulard, Alphonse , —, French historian.

He was the first professional historian of the French Revolution, and he devoted his life to this study. A professor at the Univ. Lefebvre Lefebvre, Georges , —, French historian, an authority on the French Revolutionary period. He studied under Aulard, whose scientific method he adopted, although it led him to different conclusions.

His work is uncritically laudatory with regard to Napoleon himself; his admiration, however, did not deter his severe indictment of Napoleon's relatives in He was noted especially for his historical approach to the study of economics. Rambaud Rambaud, Alfred Nicolas , —, French historian and politician. He served in the administration of Jules Ferry, was elected senator , and was minister of public instruction — Rambaud taught at the universities of Caen, Nancy, and Paris.

See also A. Cobban, A History of Modern France 3 vol. Pickles, The Fifth French Republic 3d ed. Hughes, To the Maginot Line ; M. Marrus and R. Paxton, Vichy France and the Jews ; H. Kedward and R. Austin, ed. Larkin, France since the Popular Front ; P. Benedict, ed. Forex Tradi Various coin purchases are otherwise capped by diseases to search personal blast, reliable forex news. Forex Expo News Releases You suggest him what term to hold from the meaning, one time at a conduct, fibnacci forex software.

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HANSFIELD INVESTMENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES

In the English lost their last hold on French soil outside Calais Calais , city pop. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages. Early Life As dauphin Louis was almost constantly in revolt against his father. He was aided by the downfall of Charles the Bold Charles the Bold, —77, last reigning duke of Burgundy —77 , son and successor of Philip the Good. The first ruled over parts of France and over Jerusalem and England; the second ruled over parts of France and over Naples, Hungary, and Poland, with a claim to Jerusalem.

One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma. He first reigned under the regency of his sister Anne de Beaujeu. After his marriage to Anne of Brittany, he freed himself from the influence of the regency and prepared to conquer He succeeded his father as duke.

While still duke, he rebelled against the regency of Anne de Beaujeu and was imprisoned , but was released by his cousin King Charles Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor His robust physique contrasted with his weak and pliant disposition. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their The superficially brilliant reign of Francis I —47 was taken up with almost constant warfare against the Hapsburg Charles V; however, this period also saw the spread of the Italian Renaissance into France see French art French art, the artistic production of the region that constitutes the historic nation of France.

See also French architecture. Early History Artistic remains in France date back to the Paleolithic age see Paleolithic art , and abundant examples attest to the art The term is derived from the German Eidgenossen, meaning sworn companions or confederates.

In religious conflict flared up in the first of the ferocious civil wars see Religion, Wars of Religion, Wars of, —98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars. The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment see Huguenots. She retained her influence throughout his reign.

He succeeded his brother, Charles IX. The Catholics, led by the ambitious Guise Guise , influential ducal family of France. Navarre was supported by some moderate Catholics as well as by the Protestants. He defeated the League but had to accept Catholicism before being allowed to enter Paris. Before he was known as baron de Rosny. Religious freedom and political security for Protestants were promulgated in the Edict of Nantes ; see Nantes, Edict of Nantes, Edict of, , decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants see Huguenots.

He married Anne of Austria in His original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court —36 , he entered the service of France General Character of the War There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.

It marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire as an effective institution and inaugurated the modern European state system. At home, Richelieu destroyed the political power of the Huguenots, and Mazarin overcame the nobles in the wars of the Fronde Fronde , —53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris the chief judiciary body to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of Early Reign After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin.

The son of a draper, he was trained in business and was hired by Cardinal Mazarin to look after his financial affairs. After he was associated in office with his father, Michel Le Tellier, and from he functioned as war minister, officially replacing his Raising the position of the king to a dignity and prestige hitherto unknown in France, Louis XIV made France the first power in Europe and his court at Versailles Versailles , city pop.

But his many wars undermined French finances, and his persecution of the Huguenots the Edict of Nantes was revoked in caused serious harm to the economy as thousands of merchants and skilled workers left France. The wars had their roots in the Anglo-Dutch commercial rivalry, although the last of the three wars was a wider conflict in which French interests played a primary role.

France, at the end of Louis's reign, was exhausted from its attempt at primacy; yet its latent strength and wealth were so great that it recovered prosperity within a few years. The "absolute" power of the king was hedged in by a stupendous multitude of dusty charters and special privileges—often granted to remove the recipients from national politics—held by families, guilds, monopolies, communes, and provinces, and by the clergy and nobles.

Taxes, although onerous, were raised inefficiently and inequitably, partly by the farmers general see farming farming, in the history of taxation, collection of taxes through private contractors. Usually, the tax farmer paid a lump sum to the public treasury; the difference between that sum and the sum actually collected represented his profit or loss.

Commerce, based on mercantilism mercantilism , economic system of the major trading nations during the 16th, 17th, and 18th cent. Rural overpopulation outstripped the stagnant agricultural productivity. Colbert had reorganized the administration by curtailing the power of the provincial governors and by reestablishing the administrative units called intendancies, originated by Richelieu. The intendants were trusted civil servants who carried out the policies of the central government, but their capacity to break down local privilege was limited.

In several provinces, notably Brittany, the local assemblies of the three estates retained the power to thwart reforms. The ever-expanding bourgeoisie as well as the large body of landowning farmers, however, were finding the remnants of feudal dues, services, and other customs increasingly intolerable.

Economic reform became the rallying cry of the physiocrats physiocrats , school of French thinkers in the 18th cent. They were also referred to simply as "the economists" or "the sect. The son of a rich merchant, he showed precocious ability at school and at the Sorbonne.

Many philosophers of the Enlightenment Enlightenment, term applied to the mainstream of thought of 18th-century Europe and America. Background and Basic Tenets The scientific and intellectual developments of the 17th cent. One of the towering geniuses in literary and intellectual history, Voltaire personifies the Enlightenment. Operating under a system of outworn privilege, the wealthiest country in Europe was ruled by a government perennially on the verge of bankruptcy.

Tutor of the young Louis XV, he became, at the age of 73, chief adviser to the king and virtual ruler of France — In the French merchant Antoine Crozat transferred his monopoly of commercial privileges in Louisiana to Law, who, with Not only was the treasury drained, but France lost its empire in India and North America. In he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette. Financially, however, the war was a disaster for France.

In , after neither Calonne Calonne, Charles Alexandre de , —, French statesman, controller general of finances — Faced with a huge public debt and a steadily deteriorating financial situation, Calonne adopted a spending policy to inspire confidence in the nation's financial He was archbishop of Toulouse —88 and of Sens and a member of the French Academy.

Geneva, Switzerland. In he went to Paris and entered banking. He rose rapidly to importance, established a bank of his own, and became a director of the French East India Company. Thus began the upheaval that shook Europe from to see French Revolution French Revolution, political upheaval of world importance in France that began in Origins of the Revolution Historians disagree in evaluating the factors that brought about the Revolution.

The wars began as an effort to defend the Revolution and developed into wars of conquest under the empire. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal. The States-General were transformed into the National Assembly ; a constitutional monarchy was created ; war with much of Europe began, accompanied by violence and the growth of radical factions in France ; the king and queen were beheaded ; Robespierre Robespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore , —94, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution.

Early Life A poor youth, he was enabled to study law in Paris through a scholarship. Directed by the Committee of Public Safety, the Revolutionary government's Terror was essentially a war dictatorship, instituted to rule the A reaction ushered in the Directory —99 , terminated by Napoleon Bonaparte's coup.

Napoleon made himself emperor and led his armies as far as Moscow. After his defeat at Waterloo virtually nothing remained for France from the Napoleonic conquests except the basis for a powerful legend.

The work of J. The French Revolution and Napoleon established a uniform, modern administrative system, gave land tenure to the peasants, and left to the bourgeoisie a political heritage that they quickly reclaimed. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.

The king granted a moderately liberal charter but took France into the reactionary Holy Alliance Holy Alliance, , agreement among the emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, signed on Sept. The July Monarchy was a frank plutocracy run by the upper bourgeoisie. Under the "citizen king," France conquered Algeria — The regime became increasingly autocratic, disregarding the plight of the new urban proletariat.

He began a legal career in Paris in , but soon took up literary work and later became a professor of modern history at the The revolution was at first distinctly radical, but the bourgeoisie triumphed in the June Days June Days, in French history, name usually given to the insurrection of workers in June, The working classes had played an important role in the February Revolution of , but their hopes for economic and social reform were disappointed.

In Dec. Early Life He emulated his uncle's autocratic regime at home and carried on a confused foreign policy with unrewarding wars in Russia, Italy, and Mexico. The Second Empire was, however, a period of colonial expansion in Senegal and Indochina and of material prosperity. In , Napoleon instituted a more liberal regime with a parliamentary government. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck the Prussian chancellor as part of his plan to create a unified German After the bloody suppression of the Commune of Paris Commune of Paris, insurrectionary governments in Paris formed during the French Revolution and at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.

In the French Revolution, the Revolutionary commune, representing urban workers, tradespeople, and radical bourgeois, engineered After studying law at Aix-en-Provence, Thiers went to Paris and joined the group of writers that attacked the reactionary government of King Charles X. But for the intransigence of Henri, comte de Chambord the legitimist pretender , France might again have become a monarchy.

A republican constitution was finally adopted in As the various parties combined, separated, and recombined into political blocs, new cabinets followed in quick succession. The s witnessed the expansion of railroads and public education; the latter revived the age-old quarrel in France between church and state.

In , after other issues had been added to the dispute, church and state were separated by law. After the rapid rise and fall —89 of General Boulanger Boulanger, Georges Ernest , —91, French general and reactionary politician. Later, he was briefly commander of French troops in Tunisia.

Alfred Dreyfus — , a French artillery officer and graduate of the French military academy. Socialism, led by Guesde Guesde, Jules , —, French socialist, whose original name was Basile. Exiled for his support of the Paris commune, he became a confirmed Marxist after and, with Paul Lafargue, led in advocating socialism in France and a policy of noncompromise with the existing A brilliant student and teacher, he entered the chamber of deputies in and subsequently became a Socialist.

In foreign policy the years before were marked by continued colonial expansion in Africa Morocco, Tunisia, West Africa, Madagascar and Indochina, bringing conflict with Great Britain see Fashoda Incident Fashoda Incident , , diplomatic dispute between France and Great Britain. Toward the end of the 19th cent. Eventually, France, England, and Russia allied themselves to balance the German-Austrian-Italian combination see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente Triple Alliance and Triple Entente , two international combinations of states that dominated the diplomatic history of Western Europe from until they came into armed conflict in World War I.

In World War I, France bore the brunt of the ground fighting in the west. Clemenceau Clemenceau, Georges , —, French political figure, twice premier —9, —20 , called "the Tiger. France obtained heavy German reparations and the right to occupy the left bank of the Rhine for 15 years.

When reparations payments were defaulted, France occupied the Ruhr Ruhr , region, c. A member of the chamber of deputies from , he held numerous cabinet posts from to After beginning an academic career he turned to politics. A moderate leftist, anticlerical, and antimilitarist, he rose to leadership of the Radical Socialist Radical party, a dominant party in A lawyer and a Socialist, he entered the chamber of deputies and helped to draft and pass the law for separation of church and state.

The depression of the s was aggravated by the immobile economic policies of the government, and political complacency was rocked by the Stavisky Affair Stavisky Affair , financial and political scandal that shook France in Serge Alexandre Stavisky, a swindler associated with the municipal pawnshop of Bayonne, sold huge quantities of worthless bonds. Well established in literary circles, he entered politics during the Dreyfus Affair and rose to party leadership. After World War I he was a member of successive French cabinets.

He was premier from Jan. In the summer of , Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland see Sudetes of Czechoslovakia for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland. He held several cabinet posts, and after Nov. In May—June, , France was ignominiously defeated by Germany. In World War I he halted the Germans at Verdun , thus becoming the most beloved French military hero of that conflict.

Vichy's hot mineral springs made it one of the foremost spas in Europe, with a casino now a convention center and grand hotels. Elected to the chamber of deputies as a Socialist, he held various cabinet posts and in became a senator as an Independent, moving away from his leftist affiliations. A career naval officer, he became commander of the French navy in and joined the Vichy government see under Vichy in as minister of the navy.

After the fall of Pierre Laval, Darlan was made Feb. Charles de Gaulle proclaimed, from London, the continued resistance of the "Free French. De Gaulle's government moved to Paris after the city was liberated Aug. By the end of the Allies, with heroic aid from the French resistance, had expelled the Germans from France. German occupation had been costly and oppressive.

Thousands had been executed and hundreds of thousands made slave laborers in Germany. The liberation campaign itself caused much destruction. Although reduced in power and prestige, France became one of the five great powers in the United Nations and shared in the occupation of Germany.

De Gaulle became provisional president. The Fourth Republic was officially proclaimed in ; the new constitution reorganized the empire as the French Union French Union, —58, political entity established by the French constitution of It comprised metropolitan France the 90 departments of continental France and Corsica ; French overseas departments, territories, settlements, and United Nations trusteeships; French The son of a coal miner, Thorez himself worked in the mines.

He early joined the Socialist party and in became one of the original members of the French Communist party. An influential columnist —39 , he was imprisoned —41 in World War II and then joined the French underground, becoming its leader. Banks and major industries were nationalized. The Marshall Plan took form when U. Secretary of State George C.

To further economic recovery and begin the political integration of Europe, France participated in creating the institutions of what has become the European Union European Union EU , name given since the ratification Nov. France sent thousands of soldiers to Indochina Indochina, Fr.

Indochine, former federation of states, SE Asia. The capital was Hanoi. His given name was Nguyen That Thanh. In he left Vietnam, working aboard a French liner. The French occupied the base by parachute drop in Nov.

May, A lawyer and economist, he entered the chamber of deputies as a Radical Socialist. French withdrawal from Indochina was agreed upon at the Geneva Conference. Subsequently Morocco and Tunisia also achieved independence.

But the war for independence in Algeria Algeria , Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. When a right-wing French military coup in Algeria threatened to spread to metropolitan France, de Gaulle was invited back to power. De Gaulle established the Fifth Republic and became its first president in Dec. Its members consisted of the French Republic, which included metropolitan France continental France, Corsica, Algeria and the Sahara , the overseas territories De Gaulle aimed at restoring France's prestige in world affairs.

France became a nuclear power France blocked Britain's entrance into the European Economic Community and for a time boycotted the Market's meetings. Diplomatic recognition was extended to Communist China. In the spring of widespread student demonstrations against France's obsolete educational system were joined by striking workers and farmers. De Gaulle dissolved the national assembly and, blaming the Communists for the disorders, won a great electoral victory June, The Gaullist party won the first absolute majority in the assembly in French history.

But de Gaulle resigned in Apr. French political leader, president of France — Georges Pompidou taught school and then served in World War II until the fall of France, when he returned to teaching. He preserved de Gaulle's independent foreign policy but made innovations domestically, especially in devaluing the franc. In , he reversed French policy and declared support for Britain's entrance into the European Community.

A member of the national assembly at the age of 29, he was deputy finance minister —62 and finance minister —66 in Charles de He attended the National School of Administration, joined the civil service, and began his political career in working for Premier Georges Pompidou. Mitterrand quickly dissolved the national assembly, and it became predominantly Socialist after new elections.

To placate the Communist party, with which the Socialists had been allied since , four Communist ministers were added to the cabinet. Many large industries steel, nuclear energy, armaments , private banks, and insurance companies were nationalized, and minimum wage and social security benefits were increased. However, by the economic situation had worsened, in part because of decreased exports and pressure on the franc; the government devalued the franc, imposed a wage and price freeze, and granted tax concessions to business.

In Mitterrand re-formed the government, excluding the Communists. In a right-wing coalition won a majority in Parliament, and Jacques Chirac was appointed premier. He began a policy of privatizing state-owned companies. He graduated from law school, was elected a parliamentary deputy, and criticized President de Gaulle's Algerian policy. From to he led the extreme right-wing National Front FN.

Mitterrand, however, was reelected in the second round, defeating Chirac. In France agreed to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Mitterrand turned increasingly to foreign affairs and pursued a more moderate economic program. He moved to France as a child and grew up in Marseille. A Gaullist and member of the Rally for the Republic, he served under Premier Georges Pompidou in the s and was finance minister under The new government slashed interest rates and followed other policies aimed at stemming France's continuing recession.

Les Landes. France was beset by a host of problems in , including severe floods and terror bombings; the government faced international criticism for its nuclear testing in the South Pacific, which it resumed after a three-year moratorium; and the country was paralyzed late in the year by a long transportation workers strike.

It was organized in to stabilize foreign exchange and counter inflation among members. Chirac ended nuclear testing in and announced plans for scaling back French military deployment and phasing in an all-volunteer force. In late , Chirac was accused of involvement in a s kickback scheme that provided funds for political parties when he was mayor of Paris, but he denied any knowledge of the scheme.

The charges created political difficulties for Chirac but did not greatly affect his popularity. The Socialist parliament in approved a bill giving Corsica limited autonomy. The move was originally intended to end separatist violence there, but the year actually saw an increase in attacks, and the law was subsequently ruled in large part to be unconstitutional. In the presidential and parliamentary elections Chirac won a resounding victory.

Jospin, who ran against Chirac for the presidency, failed to make it into the runoff, where Chirac's opponent was the right-wing nationalist Jean-Marie Le Pen. Jospin resigned as premier, and Chirac went on the win the presidency.

The Socialists suffered a further setback in the national assembly elections, when the center-right alliance, the Union for the Presidential Majority UMP; subsequently the Union for a Popular Movement , won three fifths of the seats. From a political family, he began his career in business and served as a spokesman for a labor minister in the late s before returning to the private sector. In —3, as the Bush administration pushed for the abandonment of UN weapons inspections in Iraq and for the UN approval of the use of force to oust Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and disarm Iraq, President Chirac became one of the strongest international opponents of war.

France threatened to veto any resolution that explicitly authorized the use of force, which led to acrimonious relations with the United States and Great Britain. France's strong stand, which was also supported by Germany, also led to divisions in the European Union and NATO, whose member governments disagreed on whether to use force against Iraq. A referendum in July, , calling for approval of a new Corsican assembly with limited autonomy made possible by amendments to the constitution failed to pass; the government had supported the measure in hopes of undercutting Corsican separatists.

Local and regional elections in Mar. The vote was seen as rejection of the government's moves to make changes in the French social welfare system, with its generous welfare, health-care, and pension benefits. The government subsequently also suffered losses in the September elections for the senate. In May, , voters rejected the proposed new constitution for the European Union, resulting in a further embarrassment for the government, and Premier Raffarin resigned.

Rabat, Morocco. In Oct. The son of a minor Hungarian aristocrat who immigrated to France and married the daughter of Greek immigrants, Sarkozy became a The government declared a state of emergency, which lasted for the rest of , but provocative comments by some officials continued to feed immigrant resentment. The riots, which highlighted the alienation and poverty of the French of non-European descent, did not end until after mid-November. A new national crisis arose in early when Villepin pushed through changes to French labor law that would make it easier to fire workers under age 26 during their first two years with a company.

A series of demonstrations and strikes against the law occurred in Mar. Although the law was enacted, in a setback for Villepin, he subsequently announced that it would be replaced by new legislation designed to reduce youth unemployment.

Charges that Villepin had targeted Sarkozy for investigation by the secret service in an attempt to smear his party rival brought calls for Villepin to resign, but Chirac continued to support the premier. Villepin was acquitted of the charges in Sarkozy secured the UMP nomination for president in Jan. Dakar, Senegal. Sarkozy led the crowded field after the first round in Apr.

Le Mans. A moderate conservaetive, he has served as an assembly deputy —, — and a senator —7 from Sarthe as well as in local elected posts. The UMP was expected to gain seats in the subsequent June parliamentary elections, but the party actually lost seats.

It nonetheless retained a solid majority in the National Assembly. Proposed pension benefit changes and civil service job cuts led to a nine-day transport workers strike and shorter walkouts by other workers in Nov. Disenchantment with the economy and with Sarkozy's personal style and his very public divorce and remarriage since becoming president contributed to Socialist gains in the Mar. Sarkozy won parliamentary approval in July, , for constitutional amendments that limiting a person to two terms as president and increasing some of parliament's powers.

Though France weathered the —9 global recession better than most European nations, the weak French economy and increasing unemployment contributed to a significant Socialist-led coalition win in regional elections in Mar. In October the government secured legislation changing the pension system including raising the retirement age, a measure that was partially reversed in in order to reduce public deficits and debt; the changes sparked months of protests that culminated in October with a series of crippling strikes and protests.

The recession at times strained relations with Germany when the two leading eurozone nations disagreed over how to respond to its effects both initially and in the early s when soaring budget deficits affected Greece and some other eurozone nations , but Sarkozy generally supported the reliance on government austerities as a response to the eurozone fiscal crisis.

The Socialists and their allies did well again in the Mar. The son of a textile worker, he graduated from Nantes Univ. Obtaining his teaching diploma, from to he taught German at Saint-Herblain in W France, and also served as the town's mayor from to In the June legislative elections, the Socialists and their allies won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly. In mid the new government enacted a number of labor reforms; a modest overhaul of the pension system's funding was passed in late A poor showing by the Socialists in the Mar.

Barcelona, Spain. After his family moved to Paris, he became a member of the Socialist party and a French citizen The Socialists also fared poorly in the Mar. A Jan. A coordinated series of bombings and attacks in Paris on November 13, by terrorists associated with the Islamic State Islamic State IS , Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.

A state of emergency was declared and subsequently continued into while security forces sought those terrorists who had escaped and also raided sites associated with the perpetrators and planners. In the first round of the subsequent regional elections Dec. July, , saw another attack in which dozens were killed and hundreds injured, as a Tunisian man drove a truck through a Bastille Day crowd in Nice.

That same month the government forced a further labor reform bill through the parliament; the law was opposed by many labor unions and had sparked several weeks of strikes. Valls resigned as premier in Dec. A lawyer and member of the Socialist party, he served in the National Assembly —, — and was mayor of Cherbourg-Octeville — Amiens, grad. Rouen, grad. Macron's Republic Forward! The September Senate elections left that body in control of the Republicans; that same month Macron enacted significant changes to France's labor laws by decree.

Proposed changes to laws privileging workers in the national rail system led to strikes in , but were enacted in June. Opposition to planned increases in the fuel tax led to recurring public protests nationwide beginning in November. As the demonstrations continued into , they became more focused on the effects of the cost of living on poorer families, but were also marked by decreasing size and increasing violence.

In response, the government halted the fuel tax rise, and later increased the minimum wage and adopted other measures, but it rejected a tax increases on the highest incomes, as many demonstrators sought. In late a proposed reorganization of the pension system led to strikes and protests that continued into early ; the changes were enacted by decree in Mar. France was one of the European nations most severely affected by the COVID pandemic of , which caused a significant economic contraction.

Dissatisfaction with the generally conservative approach of Macron's government led to his party's loss of its parliamentary majority through defections in May, and Green candidates experienced a surge in voter support in local elections in June.

In July, Macron reorganized his cabinet, naming Jean Castex, a center-right technocrat, as premier, and generally giving the government a more conservative cast. A classic geographic study is J. Evans, France , is also useful. Michelet Michelet, Jules , —, French writer, the greatest historian of the romantic school. Born in Paris of poor parents, he visualized himself throughout his life as a champion of the people.

Among more recent general histories of France, those edited by E. Lavisse Lavisse, Ernest , —, French historian. He was for many years a professor at the Sorbonne. His early works deal chiefly with the history of Prussia, particularly Frederick the Great. Hanotaux Hanotaux, Gabriel , —, French historian and statesman. Twice minister of foreign affairs —95, —98 , he greatly furthered the Franco-Russian rapprochement.

A monumental multivolume work is F. Funck-Brentano, ed. The many authors of classic historical works on France include, for the medieval period, M. Bloch Bloch, Marc , —, French historian and an authority on medieval feudalism. He taught at the Univ. Langlois, F. Lot, A. Luchaire Luchaire, Achille , —, French historian.

The Ancient City, , stressed the influence of primitive religion on the development of Greek and Roman institutions. Taine Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe , —93, French critic and historian. A brilliant student, he gained recognition with the publication of his doctoral thesis, Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine Aulard Aulard, Alphonse , —, French historian.

He was the first professional historian of the French Revolution, and he devoted his life to this study. A professor at the Univ. Lefebvre Lefebvre, Georges , —, French historian, an authority on the French Revolutionary period. He studied under Aulard, whose scientific method he adopted, although it led him to different conclusions.

His work is uncritically laudatory with regard to Napoleon himself; his admiration, however, did not deter his severe indictment of Napoleon's relatives in He was noted especially for his historical approach to the study of economics. Rambaud Rambaud, Alfred Nicolas , —, French historian and politician. He served in the administration of Jules Ferry, was elected senator , and was minister of public instruction — Rambaud taught at the universities of Caen, Nancy, and Paris. See also A.

Cobban, A History of Modern France 3 vol. Pickles, The Fifth French Republic 3d ed. Hughes, To the Maginot Line ; M. Marrus and R. Paxton, Vichy France and the Jews ; H. Kedward and R. Austin, ed. Larkin, France since the Popular Front ; P. Benedict, ed. Flockton and E. Kofman, France ; R. Aldrich and J. Connell, ed. Burrin, France under the Germans ; D. Roche, France in the Enlightenment ; J. Bury, France, — 6th ed. Jackson, The Fall of France ; C. Jones, The Great Nation ; G.

Berenson et al. With an area of , sq km, including Corsica and the small coastal islands, France is the largest country in Western Europe. It has a population of 53 million , and its capital is Paris. France is a republic whose existing constitution was approved by a referendum on Sept. Changes and amendments were introduced in , , , , and The state system established by the constitution is known as the Fifth Republic.

The chief of state is the president, elected for a seven-year term by direct universal suffrage. To be elected, a presidential candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast. If no candidate receives such a majority on the first ballot, a second ballot is held. Only the two candidates who received the largest number of votes on the first ballot may stand for the second ballot.

All the presidents of the Fifth Republic have been elected by this system on the second ballot. The constitution gives the president broad powers. He appoints and dismisses the premier and members of the government. He may submit to a referendum proposed laws or other issues, and he has the right to dissolve parliament.

The president appoints all the higher civilian and military officials, serves as the supreme commander in chief of the armed forces, and has the right of pardon. The highest legislative body is a bicameral parliament consisting of the National Assembly deputies and the Senate senators, as of September The National Assembly is popularly elected for five years under a system requiring an absolute majority in two ballots. The Senate is indirectly elected for nine years, with one-third of the seats being renewed every three years.

In departments with five or more senators elections are held under the system of proportional representation. Each department is represented in the College of Electors by its deputies to the National Assembly, its members of the general council, and delegates from its municipal councils. The parliament assembles twice a year, the first session beginning on October 2 and lasting for 80 days and the second session beginning on April 2 and lasting not more than 90 days.

Extraordinary sessions may be convened by the president upon the request of the premier or a majority of the National Assembly. It does not have jurisdiction over many spheres of state administration, which are regulated by ordinances enacted by the government. Executive power is vested in the president and the government—the Council of Ministers—which includes the premier, ministers of state, other ministers, and secretaries of state.

Parliamentary deputies may not serve as members of the government. The Constitutional Council exercises constitutional review and ensures the regularity of presidential and parliamentary elections and the referendum procedure. It consists of nine members, appointed for nine-year terms. Three of the members are appointed by the president of the republic, three by the president of the National Assembly, and three by the president of the Senate.

The council includes former presidents of France. The Economic and Social Council is a consultative body attached to the government. Its representatives, belonging to various occupational categories, are appointed for five years. In the departments the central government is represented by the prefect, who is appointed by the president.

The local governing body is the general council, popularly elected for six years, with one-half of the seats being vacated every three years. In the communes a municipal council is elected for six years. The municipal council elects a mayor who also functions as a representative of the central government and serves as the chief of the local police. The judicial system includes lower courts and courts of second, or great, instance.

The judge of a lower court also presides over cases involving minor violations that come before the police tribunal. There are also correctional courts, which try more serious violations, offenses that are punishable by imprisonment for up to five years. Appeals from all these courts are handled by courts of appeal, of which there were 32 in Courts of assize, composed of jurymen, are called in each department to try major criminal cases.

The highest court is the Court of Cassation. A special Court of State Security was established in Moreover, there are courts for commercial cases, special labor arbitration boards, and juvenile courts. Disciplinary questions, as well as questions pertaining to the appointment and promotion of judges, are handled by the High Council of the Judiciary, appointed and presided over by the president of the republic.

There also exists a system of administrative justice, the highest organ of which is the Council of State. Most of France lies in the zone of the broad-leaved forests. Mediterranean-type subtropics are found in the extreme south. The French coast is generally low, either aggradational or lagoon, and slightly indented by large bays, such as the Bay of Biscay and Gulf of St. Malo on the Atlantic and the Gulf of Lions on the Mediterranean.

The English Channel and the Strait of Dover have a steep but not high abrasion coast, and the Cotentin Peninsula and Brittany have a ria coast. On the Mediterranean, east of the Gulf of Lions, spurs of the Maritime Alps descend precipitously to the sea along the stretch known as the French Riviera. About two-thirds of France, chiefly the northern, central, and western parts of the country, is occupied by low or elevated plains, of which the largest is the Paris Basin in the north.

The plains of Aquitaine lie in the southwest; here, parallel to the Bay of Biscay, stretches the Landes, a coastal plain with a chain of dunes up to m high. In the northwest the plains give way to the Massif Armoricain, and in the northeast and east they are rimmed by middle-elevation mountains—the Ardennes, lying mostly outside of France, and the Vosges.

In the south the plains are bounded by the largest upland region in France, the Massif Central, consisting of middle-elevation mountains with greatly denuded surfaces. The central part of the massif, the region called Auvergne, is predominantly a volcanic plateau with rows of ancient cones and craters, such as the volcanic dome of the Monts Dore, the Cantal crater, and the Puy chain of cones.

Along the massifs southern and southwestern margins lie karst plateaus, among them the Grandes Causses, deeply dissected by canyons. A small part of the western Upper Rhine Lowland lies within France. In the southeast the Western Alps stretch in a submeridional direction, their highest sections—the Savoy, Graian, Cottian, and Maritime Alps—consisting of crystalline ranges cut by deep transverse and longitudinal valleys.

The Alps have mountain-glacier landforms at the crest, as well as glaciers. On the west the Alps are bounded by the Pre-Alps, strongly eroded middle-elevation limestone ranges with karst formations in some places. The Jura Mountains are a northerly extension of the Pre-Alps. Southwestern France is occupied by the Pyrenees, rising to 3, m on Mount Vignemale.

In the north the Pyrenees descend toward Aquitaine in steep slopes cut by deep valleys. The island of Corsica has a middle-elevation mountain topography; its highest peak is Mount Cinto 2, m. Geological structure and mineral resources. The contemporary structure of the Epihercynian platform consists of ancient massifs southwestern Ardennes, Massif Central, Massif Armoricain, Vosges, axial zone of the Pyrenees composed of folded complexes of the Upper Precambrian strongly metamorphosed rocks and granite and of the Paleozoic, chiefly marine deposits from the Cambrian to the Lower Carboniferous.

The Cadomian folding — million years , which corresponds to the Baikal folding of Siberia, played a large part in the formation of the basement. The ancient massifs are separated by gently sloping troughs and syneclise basins Paris and Aquitaine basins filled with Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, including limestones, marls, chalk, clays, sandstones, and sand. The southern, southwestern, and southeastern parts of France belong to the region of Alpine folding, which encompasses the Pyrenees foothills, Provence, the Alps, the Jura, and Corsica.

The present landscape of France was formed by a general uplift that ended in the late Cenozoic. In the Massif Central, vast quantities of lava were extruded through fractures during the Cenozoic, creating large volcanic structures. The most important minerals in terms of reserves are iron ore, bauxite, potash salt, natural gas, coal, and uranium. The iron ore deposits at Metz-Thionville, Longwy, Briey, and Nancy, with total reserves of 4 billion tons , are found in the Jurassic beds of the Lorraine Basin.

Large bauxite deposits, with reserves totaling million tons, are associated with the Mesozoic limestones of Provence Var Department. Potash salt, with proven and estimated reserves of million tons in K 2 O , is concentrated in Alsace Mulhouse. The Aquitaine Basin has the largest deposits of natural gas Lacq with reserves of billion cu m , as well as small petroleum deposits Parentis-en-Born with reserves of The principal coal basins, those of Valenciennes Nord and Pas de Calais and Lorraine, have reserves of 9.

Uranium deposits Limousin, Forez, Morvan are found in the Hercynian granites of the Central and Armoricain massifs, where reserves total 43, tons of U 3 O 8. Other minerals include tungsten 12, tons of WO 3 and antimony 40, tons , mined in the Massif Central, fluorite 7 million tons and high-quality talc raw material , tons , extracted in the Eastern Pyrenees, lead , tons , zinc , tons , tin 4, tons , silver and gold in complex ores , sulfur, pyrite, and various building materials.

Owing to the flow of humid maritime air from the Atlantic over most of the country, France has a predominantly temperate climate with relatively mild winters and warm summers, as well as a high annual precipitation that usually exceeds evaporation. In the Alps and Pyrenees the climate changes considerably with altitude.

The Brittany and Cotentin peninsulas and western Aquitaine receive —1, mm and the rest of the plains — mm a year. The precipitation is distributed fairly evenly over the seasons everywhere but in the Mediterranean region, which has a dry summer. Despite the annual snow fall, a stable snow cover does not form on the plains. In the mountains a snowpack is observed at elevations of —1, m, depending on the exposure of the slopes and other factors.

The snowpack lasts from seven to 11 months at elevations of 2,—3, m. Rivers and lakes. Part of the middle Rhine flows through the eastern part of the country. The rivers of the northern and western plains have broad valleys and low gradients and are fed by rainfall.

They have an abundant flow throughout the year, rise during the winter, and do not freeze over. These rivers are navigable, and many of them are connected by canals. The rivers of the middle-elevation mountains usually form deeply incised valleys and are fed by rain and snow. The rivers rising in the high Alps and Pyrenees flow through deep valleys. Fed chiefly by meltwater from snow and glaciers, these rivers rise sharply during the summer and become quite shallow in winter.

Apart from southern Lake Geneva, France has no large lakes. Brown forest soils are widely distributed. In the northwest they are interspersed with acid soddy-podzolic soils. In the Paris Basin, typical brown forest soils overlie loesslike loams, with brown rendzinas occurring on the limestone cuesta ridges. Similar soils are characteristic of eastern Aquitaine, and highly podzolized soils are found in western Aquitaine.

Soddy calcareous and humus calcareous soils, for the most part rocky, have formed on carbonate rocks in the Jura Mountains, the southern part of the Massif Central, and the Pre-Alps. Mountain varieties of brown forest soils cover large areas in the Massif Central, and volcanic soils are found in Auvergne, the central part of the massif. All of these soils are highly eroded. The Mediterranean region has the rocky, highly eroded soils of xerophytic forests and brush, as well as red soils.

The largest tracts are found in western Aquitaine mostly planted pine forests , the eastern Paris Basin, the Alps, and the Pyrenees. In eastern Aquitaine oak forests are interspersed with planted chestnut forests.

This region also has some subtropical brush vegetation. Beech, oak, and hornbeam forests are found in northern France. Heaths and meadows predominate in the northwest. The principal types of vegetation in the Mediterranean south are garigue and maquis brush thickets and open woodlands of evergreen oak species and southern pine species.

Forests grow almost to the summits of the middle-elevation mountains. In the Alps, at elevations of — m, oak and chestnut forests give way to beech, spruce, fir, pine, and larch forests, which grow to 1,—1, m. On the northern slopes of the Pyrenees the timberline rises to 1,—2, m. Above the timberline, in both the Alps and the Pyrenees, subalpine brush and tall-grass meadows are supplanted by alpine meadows at elevations of 2,—2, m.

Among typical forest mammals, encountered chiefly in the mountains, are the European wildcat, fox, badger, ermine, red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar, squirrel, and hare. In the high mountains there are chamois, mountain goats, alpine marmots, and hamsters. Birds include partridges, hazel hens, snipes, woodcocks, magpies, thrushes, sparrows, pigeons, goshawks, and kites; flamingos are found in the south.

The rivers abound in perch, pike, pike perch, and trout. Sardines, mackerel, herring, cod, and flounder inhabit the seas bordering on France. Protected areas. France has more than 3, protected areas Natural regions. The Paris Basin is a rolling plain with a moderately humid climate, a dense network of full-flowing rivers, and large tracts of agricultural land where broad-leaved forests have been cleared. The Armoricain Upland, consisting of hills and low mountains, has a humid climate and landscapes that include secondary shrub thickets and meadows, small broad-leaved forests, plowland, and fruit orchards.

Aquitaine, a rolling plain with extensive alluvial deposits, has a warm, humid climate, large pine forests in the west, and broad-leaved forests interspersed with vineyards and orchards in the east. The Massif Central is a medium-elevation mountain region with a humid climate, mountain broad-leaved and coniferous forests, wastelands, and mountain pastures. The Vosges, medium-elevation mountains with a humid climate, have large tracts of spruce and fir. In the Alps, a high-mountain region, altitudinal zonality is expressed in a succession of forest, meadow, and nival landscapes.

The Pyrenees, a high-mountain region, have a humid, predominantly temperate climate, full-flowing rivers, broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and altitudinal landscape zonality. Corsica has the most pronounced Mediterranean landscapes. France is a relatively homogeneous nation, with Frenchmen constituting more than 90 percent of the population , estimate.

There are also about 1. Some , Corsicans live on the island of Corsica, and about , Jews inhabit the large cities. The population of France also includes about 4 million foreigners, chiefly Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Poles, Algerians, and Moroccans. The official language is French. With regard to religon, most of the indigenous people are Catholics.

There are about , Protestants, predominantly Calvinists, and about 10 percent of the inhabitants are atheists. The official calendar is the Gregorian calendar. There was some increase in the population growth rate after World War II. From an annual average of 6.

From to the population of France increased by 12 million; 70 percent of the increase was due to natural growth, 20 percent to immigration, and 10 percent to the repatriation of Frenchmen from former colonies. At the beginning of , 4. Immigration is controlled by the National Immigration Bureau.

Of these, three-fourths are employed in the private sector and one-fourth in the state sector. The big monopolistic bourgeoisie constitutes less than 1 percent of the population. Out of a total work force of In urban dwellers accounted for 70 percent of the population.

Typical of rural areas are small villages and farmsteads. Whereas the average population density is 99 persons per sq km , the density in industrialized urban areas, for example, the Paris region, exceeds persons per sq km. The larger river valleys and the coastal areas are also densely settled. In the mountains and in regions with less fertile soils Landes, Sologne there are fewer than 20 persons per sq km. The primitive communal system to the middle of the first century B.

The territory of present-day France was probably settled as far back as a million years ago. Such important Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures as the Chellean, Acheulian, Mousterian, Au-rignacian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, Azilian, and Tardenoisian are named for places in France where significant archaeological discoveries were made. The Paleolithic caves of southern France, notably those at Font-de-Gaume, Lascaux, and Montespan, are famous for their wall paintings.

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After cell density reached an absorbance of 0. The resulting mixtures were incubated for 2 h as above. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity results are presented as mean values of three independent experiments. The umu assay was conducted as described previously Oda et al. Genotoxicities and cytotoxicities of compounds were evaluated and presented as described above. ATCC validates cell origin by Short Tandem Repeat analysis and conducts testing of cells for mycoplasma contamination prior to release of the product to customers.

Cells from confluent cultures grown on 75 cm 2 plates were collected, and cytosolic lysates were prepared by homogenization and ultracentrifugation in Tris—HCl pH 7. Alternatively, cellular fractions were prepared by using the nuclear cytosolic fractionation kit following manufacturer's instructions Cell Biolabs, San Diego, CA. The rest of the sample was dialyzed against Tris—HCl pH 7. Two dialysis schemes for each molecular weight cut off were conducted. The dialysis buffer was used at times the volume of the sample.

Dialysis experiments were reproduced several times on different days, which did not affect the outcomes and conclusions of this study. Results obtained by both assays were consistent. Dialyzed samples were handled and stored the same way as nondialyzed. To study the effects of cofactors, either of the following compounds was added to mixtures at the following concentrations: 0.

Details are provided in the corresponding figures. DNA pellets were dissolved in water and the yields were quantified by measuring the optical density of the samples at nm. DNA adduct levels were evaluated as described previously Dong et al. Following labeling, the samples were dried as above and reconstituted in the loading buffer containing formamide and bromphenol blue. The following synthetically obtained oligonucleotides Attaluri et al.

Gels were exposed to a phosphor screen GE Healthcare for various times 5 min—several hours, depending on adduct levels. The results were visualized by the Typhoon system and densitometry was conducted using Image QuaNT v5. Representative fragments of PAGE are presented. Experiments were carried out as described in the section Material and Methods.

In all graphs, points represent mean values of triplicate determinations. In the NM strain, the same concentration of compounds induced 1. In all graphs, points are mean values of triplicate determinations. Experiments were conducted as described in the section Material and Methods.

The induction of umuC gene expression was determined as described in the section Materials and Methods. This activity showed linear dependence on the protein amount Fig. DNA was extracted and two micrograms from each sample was subjected to adduct analysis as described in the section Materials and Methods. A , B , and D are representative fragments of polyacrylamide gels following electrophoresis and exposure for 2 A and B or 10 min D on a phosphoscreen. A and B are unaltered fragments of the same gel shown at the same contrast, and analysis in D was done in a separate experiment and shown at the similar contrast level but longer exposure time.

C Quantitative representation of results shown in B. DNA was extracted and five micrograms from each sample was subjected to adduct analysis as described in the section Materials and Methods. Reactions in B and C were conducted in parallel and analyzed in the same digestion assay and resolved on the same gel. The vertical line was introduced manually to indicate the border between two different experiments. The reaction followed a linear time course up to 30—45 min Fig.

Both compounds were evaluated in a concentration range of 0. DNA was extracted and five micrograms from each sample was subjected to adduct analysis. Fragment of PAGE and quantification of obtained results are shown. In contrast, dialysis on 3. Effect of dialysis on 3. Fragments of PAGE left panel and quantification of obtained results right panel are shown.

The toxicities of the AA are closely related to the stepwise reduction of their nitro group. NR may follow different routes and result in various outcomes depending on the nature of NR enzymes and oxygenation of tissues responsible for biotransformation Purohit and Basu Therefore, based on these and other observations Pfau et al.

These possibilities are discussed below. However, the evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress in the toxicities of AA in mammalian cells is limited Yu et al. In contrast to most common Salmonella Ames strains, which are sensitive to either deletions, intercalations, or base substitutions at G46, our umu strains easily detect a wide range of genotoxic events that induce expression of the umu operon Oda et al.

Indeed, some reductively activated nitroarenes react with cellular nucleophiles without further activation Purohit and Basu ; Boelsterli et al. Consistently, Meinl et al. Thus, S. However, the source of the enzymes in the in vitro studies was commercial and NAT enzymes were present as a complex mixture of proteins, and no positive control with other xenobiotics was conducted. Most importantly, the differential role of SULT1A isoforms in the current study recapitulates previously observed results in vitro and in cultured cells Sidorenko et al.

In the umu test, the exact nature of genotoxic species that arises, because of the treatment with test compounds, remains obscure and the potential role of reactive oxygen species in the mutagenicity of the nitroarenes has been discussed above. These cells originate in the human proximal tubule Ryan et al.

Subsequently, dialysis on 3. With respect to conjugation, in addition to the common esterification reactions, there are other mechanisms that may create electrophilic species Purohit and Basu In conclusion , our data shed light on the bioactivation pathways of the aristolochic acids and their proximate carcinogenic species, emphasizing the unusual nature of these compounds, and suggests the existence of a variety of pathways involved in their genotoxicities.

Our current research results warrant further investigation of the mechanisms of bioactivation of these important human carcinogens and nephrotoxins. Authors would like to express their gratitude to Christopher Eyermann for editing the manuscript. Oda and VS developed the conceptual aspects of the investigation and designed the studies, coordinated the project, analyzed data obtained in umu assay, and drafted the manuscript.

Viktoriya S. Sidorenko, Email: ude. Yoshimitsu Oda, Email: moc. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Int J Mol Sci , 21 3 , 10 Feb To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Carcinogenesis , 37 7 , 18 Apr Free to read. Neuro Endocrinol Lett , 32 Suppl , 01 Jan Cited by: 11 articles PMID: Carcinogenesis , 23 11 , 01 Nov Cited by: 64 articles PMID: Mutagenesis , 17 4 , 01 Jul Cited by: articles PMID: Int J Mol Sci , 15 6 , 10 Jun Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints.

Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Search articles by 'Yoshiharu Okuno'. Okuno Y 1 ,. Search articles by 'Radha Bonala'. Bonala R 2 ,. Search articles by 'Sivaprasad Attaluri'.

Attaluri S 2 ,. Search articles by 'Francis Johnson'. Johnson F 2 ,. Search articles by 'Arthur P Grollman'. Grollman AP 2 ,. Search articles by 'Viktoriya S Sidorenko'. Sidorenko VS 2 ,. Search articles by 'Yoshimitsu Oda'. Oda Y 3. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. N-hydroxyaristolactams are also mutagenic in parent strains, suggesting that an additional mechanism s may contribute to their genotoxicities.

Removal of low-molecular-weight reactants in the 3. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the genotoxicities of N-hydroxyaristolactams depend on the cell type and involve not only sulfonation but also N,O-acetyltransfer and an additional yet unknown mechanism s.

Environ Mol Mutagen. Published online Aug PMID: Grollman , 3 , 5 Viktoriya S. Sidorenko , 3 and Yoshimitsu Oda 6. Arthur P. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Bacterial Strains The following S. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Administration FDA. Nat Genet 47 12 — Arch Toxicol. Nucleic Acids Res 38 1 — Total synthesis of the aristolochic acids, their major metabolites, and related compounds.

Chem Res Toxicol 27 7 — Balkan nephropathy: Evolution of our knowledge. Am J Kidney Dis 52 3 — Metabolic activation of aromatic amines and azo dyes. Bioactivation and hepatotoxicity of nitroaromatic drugs. Curr Drug Metab 7 7 — Herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B virus infection. Int J Cancer.

Am J Kidney Dis 33 6 — Pathologic aspects of a newly described nephropathy related to the prolonged use of Chinese herbs. Am J Kidney Dis 24 2 — Drug Metab Dispos 34 7 — As an economic center and a densely populated metropolis it is second only to Paris. The metropolitan region occupies much of what was once a major coal-mining and steelmaking district. Manufactures include ribbons famous since the 15th cent. One of the population and industrial centers of the Massif Central, it is home of the Michelin and other tire factories, and of important It is the hydroelectric center of France and has an important nuclear-research center.

Marseille, city pop. It is the second largest city of France and one of its most important seaports; an underground canal see Rove France's fastest growing region, it is one of France's great cultural and commercial centers. Nice is the most famous resort on the French Riviera. Although the economy depends mainly on the tourist trade, the electronics industry as well as other manufactures are An important market town and rail hub, its products include machinery, textiles and clothing, and tinware.

An old Gallic town, it became Roman c. It is an important industrial and shipping center with its ocean port at Saint-Nazaire. A commercial and transportation center, it has food-processing, tobacco, machine-building, electrical, pharmaceutical, chemical, and textile industries.

It is a wine market and a tourist center, with metallurgical, chemical, electrical, clothing, and printing industries. It is an industrial town. Hosiery is the main product. Troyes became an episcopal see in the 4th cent. Arles is an important railroad, shipping, agriculture, and industrial center with varied manufactures. Subsequent lines connected Paris to several other French cities, as well as Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and, via the Channel Tunnel Channel Tunnel, popularly called the "Chunnel," a three-tunnel railroad connection running under the English Channel, connecting Folkestone, England, and Calais, France.

The tunnels are 31 mi 50 km long. There are two rail tunnels, each 25 ft 7. The government at one time had majority ownership in many commercial banks, some key industries, and various utilities, including the telephone system. The government has since reduced its holdings in many companies, although it still controls energy production, public transportation, and defense industries.

Leading exports are machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, iron and steel, and beverages. Leading imports are machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, and chemicals.

The chief ports are Rouen Rouen , city pop. Situated on the Seine near its mouth at the English Channel, Rouen functions as the port of Paris, handling an enormous volume of traffic. Le Havre became a major seaport in the 19th cent. It is a naval base and seaport, and a major industrial center where submarines, oil tankers and platforms, electronics, and metals are It is a commercial port, an important naval station, and the seat of the French Naval Academy.

Saint-Nazaire is an important seaport mainly for trade with the Antilles and Central America and a great shipbuilding and industrial center with An important commercial port and industrial center, Toulon is France's principal naval center on the Mediterranean; shipbuilding and ship repairing are major industries. Dunkerque, town pop. It is a leading French port with daily ferry service to Ramsgate and Dover, England. Since the Revolution of , France has had an extremely uniform and centralized administration, although constitutional changes in now permit greater autonomy to the nation's regions and departments.

The country is governed under the constitution as amended , which established the Fifth French Republic and reflected the views of Charles de Gaulle de Gaulle, Charles , —, French general and statesman, first president —69 of the Fifth Republic. In The Army of the Future , tr. It provides for a strong president, directly elected for a five-year term; an individual is limited to two terms as president. A premier and cabinet, appointed by the president, are responsible to the National Assembly, but they are subordinate to the president.

The bicameral legislature consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. Deputies to the seat National Assembly are elected for five-year terms from single-member districts. The senators are elected for six-year terms from each department by an electoral college composed of the deputies, district council members, and municipal council members from the department, with one half of the Senate elected every 3 years. France's 22 administrative regions see above under Land each have a directly elected regional council, primarily responsible for stimulating economic and social activity.

The regions are further divided into 96 departments not including the four overseas departments , which are governed by a locally elected general council, with one councilor per canton. Further subdivisions are districts arrondisements , cantons, and communes.

The districts and cantons have little power. The communes, however, are more powerful because they are responsible for municipal services and are represented in the national government by the mayor. Some of the earliest anthropological and archaeological remains in Europe have been found in France, yet little is known of France before the Roman conquest 1st cent. The country was known to the Romans as Gaul Gaul , Lat.

The name was extended by the Romans to include Italy from Lucca and Rimini northwards, excluding Liguria. It was inhabited largely by Celts Celt or Kelt. There are about 2 million Basques in the three Basque provs. Some of the Gallic tribes undoubtedly were Germanic.

Settlements on the Mediterranean coast, notably Marseilles, were established by Greek and Phoenician traders c. The conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar 58—51 B. Caesar's first campaign was to prevent the Helvetii who lived N of the Lake of Geneva from crossing the Roman He was the leader of the great revolt against the Romans in 52 B.

Julius Caesar, upon hearing of the trouble, rushed to put it down. Early in the course of the following five centuries of Roman rule Gaul accepted Latin speech and Roman law, developed a distinct Gallo-Roman civilization, and produced many large and prosperous cities. Lugdunum Lyons was the Roman capital. Christianity, introduced in the 1st cent. From the 3d cent. Among the Germanic tribes that descended upon fertile Gaul, the Visigoths Visigoths West Goths , division of the Goths, one of the most important groups of Germans.

Having settled in the region W of the Black Sea in the 3d cent. By the 3d cent. The two major divisions were the Salian Franks in the north and the Ripuarian Franks in the south. Rome and its governors in Gaul sought, by alliances, to play the barbarians off against each other. Thus Aetius defeated A. Originally little more than a tribal chieftain, he became sole leader of the Salian Franks by force of perseverance and by murdering a number of relatives. Clovis, who had made himself ruler of all the Franks, then defeated the Visigoths and, after accepting Christianity , conquered the Alemanni.

He extinguished the Arian heresy see Arianism Arianism , Christian heresy founded by Arius in the 4th cent. It was one of the most widespread and divisive heresies in the history of Christianity. As a priest in Alexandria, Arius taught c. Throughout the 6th and 7th cent. It comprised the Seine and Loire country and the region to the north; its principal towns were Soissons and Paris.

Especially after Dagobert I Dagobert I , c. His father was forced to appoint Dagobert king of the East Frankish kingdom of Austrasia at the request of Pepin of Landen, mayor of the palace, and Arnulf, bishop of Metz, who effectively Gaul was depopulated, the cities were left in ruins, commerce was destroyed, and the arts and sciences were ignored. In the 8th cent. In the meantime a more rigorous dynasty, the Carolingians Carolingians , dynasty of Frankish rulers, founded in the 7th cent.

After the death of his father he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin's widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and Succeeding his father as mayor of the palace , he ruled Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his brother Carloman d. Crowned emperor of the West in , Charlemagne expanded his lands by conquest.

He gave his subjects an efficient administration, created an admirable legal system, and labored for the rebirth of learning, piety, and the arts. He was crowned king of Aquitaine in and co-emperor with his father in At Louis's death , his three sons were fighting each other. When his father, Emperor of the West Louis I, partitioned the empire in , Louis received Bavaria and adjacent territories. In his father crowned him coemperor. He was recrowned at Rome by the pope and issued a constitution, proclaiming his right to confirm papal elections.

Charles was recognized as the ruler of the lands that are now France. The Carolingians had only superficially transcended the economic, social, and political fragmentation of the land. The weakness of central authority was a major reason for the development of feudalism feudalism , form of political and social organization typical of Western Europe from the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire to the rise of the absolute monarchies.

The term feudalism is derived from the Latin feodum, Raids by Norsemen Norsemen, name given to the Scandinavian Vikings who raided and settled on the coasts of the European continent in the 9th and 10th cent. They are also referred to as Northmen or Normans. The authority of the kings was increasingly usurped by feudal lords. Among the most powerful of these were the dukes of Aquitaine Aquitaine , Lat.

Aquitania, former duchy and kingdom in SW France. The province that he created occupied the territory between the Garonne River and the Pyrenees; under Roman rule it was It is divided among East Flanders and West Flanders provs. A commercial and industrial center with an outstanding trade in wines and brandies, it is also one of the most historic towns of France. In the Norse leader Rollo Rollo or Hrolf , c.

As leader of the Norman pirates settled at the mouth of the Seine, he attacked Paris and Chartres. He was the son of Hugh the Great, to whose vast territories he succeeded in After the death of Louis V, last Carolingian king of France, the nobles and prelates elected him king, setting The early Capetians Capetians , royal house of France that ruled continuously from to ; it takes its name from Hugh Capet.

Related branches of the family see Valois; Bourbon ruled France until the final deposition of the monarchy in the 19th cent. By unremitting effort they gradually extended their domain, razed the castles of robber barons, and held their own against the great feudatories.

He succeeded his father, Philip I, with whom he was associated in government from c. He firmly established his authority within the royal domain, suppressing brigandage by robber barons and besieging Before his accession he married Eleanor of Aquitaine. In the 11th cent. Drawing together for their common defense see commune commune , in medieval history, collective institution that developed in continental Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire.

Because of the importance of the commune in municipal government, the term is also used to denote a town itself to which a charter of liberties was Commerce revived, and the great fairs of Champagne made France a meeting place for European merchants. The Cluniac order Cluniac order , medieval organization of Benedictines centered at the abbey of Cluny, France. Founded in by the monk Berno and Count William of Aquitaine, the abbey's constitution provided it freedom from lay supervision and after from jurisdiction of the local bishop.

Virtually all medieval philosophers of any significance were theologians, and their philosophy is generally embodied in their theological writings. This rebirth reached its height in the 13th cent. First Crusade Origins In the 7th cent. His mother, Blanche of Castile, was regent during his minority —34 , and her regency probably lasted even after Louis reached his majority; she was his Louis —in most of Europe.

French courtly poetry and manners became European models. In England, French manners and culture also predominated among the nobles because of the Norman Conquest The fact that the Norman English kings were also French nobles, holding or claiming vast fiefs in France, brought the two nations into centuries of conflict. He was the founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line in England and one of the ablest and most remarkable of the English kings.

Daughter and heiress of William X, duke of Aquitaine, she married Louis in shortly before his accession to the throne. During his reign the royal domains were more than doubled, and the royal power was consolidated at the expense of the feudal lords. Defeating John in and again, resoundingly, at Bouvines Bouvines , village, Nord dept. During Philip's reign a greater France emerged. The crusade against the Albigenses Albigenses [Lat. Philip made the royal authority felt throughout the land.

Paris was rebuilt. Louis IX —70 organized an efficient and equitable civil and judicial system. The policies of his reign greatly strengthened the French monarchy and increased the royal revenues. Philip failed to incorporate Flanders into his holdings, as the Flemish crushed the French at Courtrai To meet his revenue needs Philip taxed the clergy, summoning the first national States-General States-General or Estates-General, diet or national assembly in which the chief estates see estate of a nation—usually clergy, nobles, and towns or commons —were represented as separate bodies.

He also destroyed the wealthy Knights Templars Knights Templars , in medieval history, members of the military and religious order of the Poor Knights of Christ, called the Knights of the Temple of Solomon from their house in Jerusalem. Papal objections to these moves led to the Babylonian Captivity —77 of the popes see papacy papacy , office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church.

He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome the Holy See to its first bishop, St. Louis le Hutin [the quarrelsome], —, king of France —16 , son and successor of Philip IV. His reign was dominated by his uncle, Charles of Valois, and was distinguished by his concessions to the barons in the form of charters.

He became regent in on the death of his brother Louis X, who was survived by his pregnant wife and infant daughter. Charles continued his brother's work of strengthening the royal power. Within a few years after the death of Charles IV, who was also without a male heir, progress toward national unification was halted, and for more than a century France was rent by warfare and internal upheaval.

Early Life He was made earl of Chester in and duke of Aquitaine in and accompanied his mother to France in Causes Its basic cause was a dynastic quarrel that originated when the conquest of England by William of Normandy created a state lying on both sides of the English Channel.

In the 14th cent. It was complicated by many secondary issues, notably civil troubles in Flanders and the War of the Breton Succession Breton Succession, War of the, —65, an important episode of the Hundred Years War. A nearby forest is popular for camping. The ancient capital of Poitou, it is now an industrial, agricultural, and communications center. The uprising was in part a reaction to widespread poverty during the Hundred Years War.

An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda and by appointing dishonest and It marked a low point in French fortunes in the Hundred Years War. During his minority he was under the tutelage of his uncles particularly Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy , whose policies drained Rivalry for power at court led to the terrible strife between Armagnacs and Burgundians Armagnacs and Burgundians, opposing factions that fought to control France in the early 15th cent.

Early Life Henry was probably brought up under the care of his uncle, Henry Beaufort. Azincourt, village, Pas-de-Calais dept. His reign saw the end of the Hundred Years War. Although excluded from the throne by the Treaty of Troyes, Charles took the royal title after his father's death Its purpose, ultimately unsuccessful, was to settle the issues of the Hundred Years War. The dauphin nevertheless assumed the royal title in , but his authority extended over only a small area.

The English now held most of France, including Paris. In , Burgundy, although exacting exorbitant concessions, allied itself with France see Arras, Treaty of Arras, Treaty of. Through it, France and Burgundy became reconciled. Philip deserted his English allies and recognized Charles as king of France. In the English lost their last hold on French soil outside Calais Calais , city pop. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages.

Early Life As dauphin Louis was almost constantly in revolt against his father. He was aided by the downfall of Charles the Bold Charles the Bold, —77, last reigning duke of Burgundy —77 , son and successor of Philip the Good. The first ruled over parts of France and over Jerusalem and England; the second ruled over parts of France and over Naples, Hungary, and Poland, with a claim to Jerusalem. One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.

He first reigned under the regency of his sister Anne de Beaujeu. After his marriage to Anne of Brittany, he freed himself from the influence of the regency and prepared to conquer He succeeded his father as duke. While still duke, he rebelled against the regency of Anne de Beaujeu and was imprisoned , but was released by his cousin King Charles Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor His robust physique contrasted with his weak and pliant disposition.

Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their The superficially brilliant reign of Francis I —47 was taken up with almost constant warfare against the Hapsburg Charles V; however, this period also saw the spread of the Italian Renaissance into France see French art French art, the artistic production of the region that constitutes the historic nation of France.

See also French architecture. Early History Artistic remains in France date back to the Paleolithic age see Paleolithic art , and abundant examples attest to the art The term is derived from the German Eidgenossen, meaning sworn companions or confederates. In religious conflict flared up in the first of the ferocious civil wars see Religion, Wars of Religion, Wars of, —98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.

The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment see Huguenots. She retained her influence throughout his reign. He succeeded his brother, Charles IX. The Catholics, led by the ambitious Guise Guise , influential ducal family of France. Navarre was supported by some moderate Catholics as well as by the Protestants.

He defeated the League but had to accept Catholicism before being allowed to enter Paris. Before he was known as baron de Rosny. Religious freedom and political security for Protestants were promulgated in the Edict of Nantes ; see Nantes, Edict of Nantes, Edict of, , decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants see Huguenots.

He married Anne of Austria in His original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court —36 , he entered the service of France General Character of the War There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war. It marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire as an effective institution and inaugurated the modern European state system.

At home, Richelieu destroyed the political power of the Huguenots, and Mazarin overcame the nobles in the wars of the Fronde Fronde , —53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris the chief judiciary body to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of Early Reign After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin.

The son of a draper, he was trained in business and was hired by Cardinal Mazarin to look after his financial affairs. After he was associated in office with his father, Michel Le Tellier, and from he functioned as war minister, officially replacing his Raising the position of the king to a dignity and prestige hitherto unknown in France, Louis XIV made France the first power in Europe and his court at Versailles Versailles , city pop.

But his many wars undermined French finances, and his persecution of the Huguenots the Edict of Nantes was revoked in caused serious harm to the economy as thousands of merchants and skilled workers left France. The wars had their roots in the Anglo-Dutch commercial rivalry, although the last of the three wars was a wider conflict in which French interests played a primary role.

France, at the end of Louis's reign, was exhausted from its attempt at primacy; yet its latent strength and wealth were so great that it recovered prosperity within a few years. The "absolute" power of the king was hedged in by a stupendous multitude of dusty charters and special privileges—often granted to remove the recipients from national politics—held by families, guilds, monopolies, communes, and provinces, and by the clergy and nobles.

Taxes, although onerous, were raised inefficiently and inequitably, partly by the farmers general see farming farming, in the history of taxation, collection of taxes through private contractors. Usually, the tax farmer paid a lump sum to the public treasury; the difference between that sum and the sum actually collected represented his profit or loss. Commerce, based on mercantilism mercantilism , economic system of the major trading nations during the 16th, 17th, and 18th cent.

Rural overpopulation outstripped the stagnant agricultural productivity. Colbert had reorganized the administration by curtailing the power of the provincial governors and by reestablishing the administrative units called intendancies, originated by Richelieu. The intendants were trusted civil servants who carried out the policies of the central government, but their capacity to break down local privilege was limited.

In several provinces, notably Brittany, the local assemblies of the three estates retained the power to thwart reforms. The ever-expanding bourgeoisie as well as the large body of landowning farmers, however, were finding the remnants of feudal dues, services, and other customs increasingly intolerable. Economic reform became the rallying cry of the physiocrats physiocrats , school of French thinkers in the 18th cent. They were also referred to simply as "the economists" or "the sect.

The son of a rich merchant, he showed precocious ability at school and at the Sorbonne. Many philosophers of the Enlightenment Enlightenment, term applied to the mainstream of thought of 18th-century Europe and America. Background and Basic Tenets The scientific and intellectual developments of the 17th cent.

One of the towering geniuses in literary and intellectual history, Voltaire personifies the Enlightenment. Operating under a system of outworn privilege, the wealthiest country in Europe was ruled by a government perennially on the verge of bankruptcy. Tutor of the young Louis XV, he became, at the age of 73, chief adviser to the king and virtual ruler of France — In the French merchant Antoine Crozat transferred his monopoly of commercial privileges in Louisiana to Law, who, with Not only was the treasury drained, but France lost its empire in India and North America.

In he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette. Financially, however, the war was a disaster for France. In , after neither Calonne Calonne, Charles Alexandre de , —, French statesman, controller general of finances — Faced with a huge public debt and a steadily deteriorating financial situation, Calonne adopted a spending policy to inspire confidence in the nation's financial He was archbishop of Toulouse —88 and of Sens and a member of the French Academy.

Geneva, Switzerland. In he went to Paris and entered banking. He rose rapidly to importance, established a bank of his own, and became a director of the French East India Company. Thus began the upheaval that shook Europe from to see French Revolution French Revolution, political upheaval of world importance in France that began in Origins of the Revolution Historians disagree in evaluating the factors that brought about the Revolution.

The wars began as an effort to defend the Revolution and developed into wars of conquest under the empire. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal. The States-General were transformed into the National Assembly ; a constitutional monarchy was created ; war with much of Europe began, accompanied by violence and the growth of radical factions in France ; the king and queen were beheaded ; Robespierre Robespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore , —94, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution.

Early Life A poor youth, he was enabled to study law in Paris through a scholarship. Directed by the Committee of Public Safety, the Revolutionary government's Terror was essentially a war dictatorship, instituted to rule the A reaction ushered in the Directory —99 , terminated by Napoleon Bonaparte's coup. Napoleon made himself emperor and led his armies as far as Moscow.

After his defeat at Waterloo virtually nothing remained for France from the Napoleonic conquests except the basis for a powerful legend. The work of J. The French Revolution and Napoleon established a uniform, modern administrative system, gave land tenure to the peasants, and left to the bourgeoisie a political heritage that they quickly reclaimed. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.

The king granted a moderately liberal charter but took France into the reactionary Holy Alliance Holy Alliance, , agreement among the emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, signed on Sept. The July Monarchy was a frank plutocracy run by the upper bourgeoisie. Under the "citizen king," France conquered Algeria — The regime became increasingly autocratic, disregarding the plight of the new urban proletariat.

He began a legal career in Paris in , but soon took up literary work and later became a professor of modern history at the The revolution was at first distinctly radical, but the bourgeoisie triumphed in the June Days June Days, in French history, name usually given to the insurrection of workers in June, The working classes had played an important role in the February Revolution of , but their hopes for economic and social reform were disappointed.

In Dec. Early Life He emulated his uncle's autocratic regime at home and carried on a confused foreign policy with unrewarding wars in Russia, Italy, and Mexico. The Second Empire was, however, a period of colonial expansion in Senegal and Indochina and of material prosperity.

In , Napoleon instituted a more liberal regime with a parliamentary government. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck the Prussian chancellor as part of his plan to create a unified German After the bloody suppression of the Commune of Paris Commune of Paris, insurrectionary governments in Paris formed during the French Revolution and at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. In the French Revolution, the Revolutionary commune, representing urban workers, tradespeople, and radical bourgeois, engineered After studying law at Aix-en-Provence, Thiers went to Paris and joined the group of writers that attacked the reactionary government of King Charles X.

But for the intransigence of Henri, comte de Chambord the legitimist pretender , France might again have become a monarchy. A republican constitution was finally adopted in As the various parties combined, separated, and recombined into political blocs, new cabinets followed in quick succession. The s witnessed the expansion of railroads and public education; the latter revived the age-old quarrel in France between church and state.

In , after other issues had been added to the dispute, church and state were separated by law. After the rapid rise and fall —89 of General Boulanger Boulanger, Georges Ernest , —91, French general and reactionary politician. Later, he was briefly commander of French troops in Tunisia. Alfred Dreyfus — , a French artillery officer and graduate of the French military academy. Socialism, led by Guesde Guesde, Jules , —, French socialist, whose original name was Basile.

Exiled for his support of the Paris commune, he became a confirmed Marxist after and, with Paul Lafargue, led in advocating socialism in France and a policy of noncompromise with the existing A brilliant student and teacher, he entered the chamber of deputies in and subsequently became a Socialist.

In foreign policy the years before were marked by continued colonial expansion in Africa Morocco, Tunisia, West Africa, Madagascar and Indochina, bringing conflict with Great Britain see Fashoda Incident Fashoda Incident , , diplomatic dispute between France and Great Britain.

Toward the end of the 19th cent. Eventually, France, England, and Russia allied themselves to balance the German-Austrian-Italian combination see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente Triple Alliance and Triple Entente , two international combinations of states that dominated the diplomatic history of Western Europe from until they came into armed conflict in World War I. In World War I, France bore the brunt of the ground fighting in the west. Clemenceau Clemenceau, Georges , —, French political figure, twice premier —9, —20 , called "the Tiger.

France obtained heavy German reparations and the right to occupy the left bank of the Rhine for 15 years. When reparations payments were defaulted, France occupied the Ruhr Ruhr , region, c. A member of the chamber of deputies from , he held numerous cabinet posts from to After beginning an academic career he turned to politics. A moderate leftist, anticlerical, and antimilitarist, he rose to leadership of the Radical Socialist Radical party, a dominant party in A lawyer and a Socialist, he entered the chamber of deputies and helped to draft and pass the law for separation of church and state.

The depression of the s was aggravated by the immobile economic policies of the government, and political complacency was rocked by the Stavisky Affair Stavisky Affair , financial and political scandal that shook France in Serge Alexandre Stavisky, a swindler associated with the municipal pawnshop of Bayonne, sold huge quantities of worthless bonds.

Well established in literary circles, he entered politics during the Dreyfus Affair and rose to party leadership. After World War I he was a member of successive French cabinets. He was premier from Jan. In the summer of , Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland see Sudetes of Czechoslovakia for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland.

He held several cabinet posts, and after Nov. In May—June, , France was ignominiously defeated by Germany. In World War I he halted the Germans at Verdun , thus becoming the most beloved French military hero of that conflict.

Vichy's hot mineral springs made it one of the foremost spas in Europe, with a casino now a convention center and grand hotels. Elected to the chamber of deputies as a Socialist, he held various cabinet posts and in became a senator as an Independent, moving away from his leftist affiliations. A career naval officer, he became commander of the French navy in and joined the Vichy government see under Vichy in as minister of the navy.

After the fall of Pierre Laval, Darlan was made Feb. Charles de Gaulle proclaimed, from London, the continued resistance of the "Free French. De Gaulle's government moved to Paris after the city was liberated Aug. By the end of the Allies, with heroic aid from the French resistance, had expelled the Germans from France. German occupation had been costly and oppressive.

Thousands had been executed and hundreds of thousands made slave laborers in Germany. The liberation campaign itself caused much destruction. Although reduced in power and prestige, France became one of the five great powers in the United Nations and shared in the occupation of Germany. De Gaulle became provisional president. The Fourth Republic was officially proclaimed in ; the new constitution reorganized the empire as the French Union French Union, —58, political entity established by the French constitution of It comprised metropolitan France the 90 departments of continental France and Corsica ; French overseas departments, territories, settlements, and United Nations trusteeships; French The son of a coal miner, Thorez himself worked in the mines.

He early joined the Socialist party and in became one of the original members of the French Communist party. An influential columnist —39 , he was imprisoned —41 in World War II and then joined the French underground, becoming its leader. Banks and major industries were nationalized. The Marshall Plan took form when U. Secretary of State George C. To further economic recovery and begin the political integration of Europe, France participated in creating the institutions of what has become the European Union European Union EU , name given since the ratification Nov.

France sent thousands of soldiers to Indochina Indochina, Fr. Indochine, former federation of states, SE Asia. The capital was Hanoi. His given name was Nguyen That Thanh. In he left Vietnam, working aboard a French liner. The French occupied the base by parachute drop in Nov.

May, A lawyer and economist, he entered the chamber of deputies as a Radical Socialist. French withdrawal from Indochina was agreed upon at the Geneva Conference. Subsequently Morocco and Tunisia also achieved independence. But the war for independence in Algeria Algeria , Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. When a right-wing French military coup in Algeria threatened to spread to metropolitan France, de Gaulle was invited back to power. De Gaulle established the Fifth Republic and became its first president in Dec.

Its members consisted of the French Republic, which included metropolitan France continental France, Corsica, Algeria and the Sahara , the overseas territories De Gaulle aimed at restoring France's prestige in world affairs. France became a nuclear power France blocked Britain's entrance into the European Economic Community and for a time boycotted the Market's meetings.

Diplomatic recognition was extended to Communist China. In the spring of widespread student demonstrations against France's obsolete educational system were joined by striking workers and farmers. De Gaulle dissolved the national assembly and, blaming the Communists for the disorders, won a great electoral victory June, The Gaullist party won the first absolute majority in the assembly in French history. But de Gaulle resigned in Apr. French political leader, president of France — Georges Pompidou taught school and then served in World War II until the fall of France, when he returned to teaching.

He preserved de Gaulle's independent foreign policy but made innovations domestically, especially in devaluing the franc. In , he reversed French policy and declared support for Britain's entrance into the European Community.

A member of the national assembly at the age of 29, he was deputy finance minister —62 and finance minister —66 in Charles de He attended the National School of Administration, joined the civil service, and began his political career in working for Premier Georges Pompidou.

Mitterrand quickly dissolved the national assembly, and it became predominantly Socialist after new elections. To placate the Communist party, with which the Socialists had been allied since , four Communist ministers were added to the cabinet. Many large industries steel, nuclear energy, armaments , private banks, and insurance companies were nationalized, and minimum wage and social security benefits were increased.

However, by the economic situation had worsened, in part because of decreased exports and pressure on the franc; the government devalued the franc, imposed a wage and price freeze, and granted tax concessions to business. In Mitterrand re-formed the government, excluding the Communists.

In a right-wing coalition won a majority in Parliament, and Jacques Chirac was appointed premier. He began a policy of privatizing state-owned companies. He graduated from law school, was elected a parliamentary deputy, and criticized President de Gaulle's Algerian policy.

From to he led the extreme right-wing National Front FN. Mitterrand, however, was reelected in the second round, defeating Chirac. In France agreed to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Mitterrand turned increasingly to foreign affairs and pursued a more moderate economic program. He moved to France as a child and grew up in Marseille.

A Gaullist and member of the Rally for the Republic, he served under Premier Georges Pompidou in the s and was finance minister under The new government slashed interest rates and followed other policies aimed at stemming France's continuing recession. Les Landes. France was beset by a host of problems in , including severe floods and terror bombings; the government faced international criticism for its nuclear testing in the South Pacific, which it resumed after a three-year moratorium; and the country was paralyzed late in the year by a long transportation workers strike.

It was organized in to stabilize foreign exchange and counter inflation among members. Chirac ended nuclear testing in and announced plans for scaling back French military deployment and phasing in an all-volunteer force. In late , Chirac was accused of involvement in a s kickback scheme that provided funds for political parties when he was mayor of Paris, but he denied any knowledge of the scheme.

The charges created political difficulties for Chirac but did not greatly affect his popularity. The Socialist parliament in approved a bill giving Corsica limited autonomy. The move was originally intended to end separatist violence there, but the year actually saw an increase in attacks, and the law was subsequently ruled in large part to be unconstitutional.

In the presidential and parliamentary elections Chirac won a resounding victory. Jospin, who ran against Chirac for the presidency, failed to make it into the runoff, where Chirac's opponent was the right-wing nationalist Jean-Marie Le Pen. Jospin resigned as premier, and Chirac went on the win the presidency. The Socialists suffered a further setback in the national assembly elections, when the center-right alliance, the Union for the Presidential Majority UMP; subsequently the Union for a Popular Movement , won three fifths of the seats.

From a political family, he began his career in business and served as a spokesman for a labor minister in the late s before returning to the private sector. In —3, as the Bush administration pushed for the abandonment of UN weapons inspections in Iraq and for the UN approval of the use of force to oust Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and disarm Iraq, President Chirac became one of the strongest international opponents of war. France threatened to veto any resolution that explicitly authorized the use of force, which led to acrimonious relations with the United States and Great Britain.

France's strong stand, which was also supported by Germany, also led to divisions in the European Union and NATO, whose member governments disagreed on whether to use force against Iraq. A referendum in July, , calling for approval of a new Corsican assembly with limited autonomy made possible by amendments to the constitution failed to pass; the government had supported the measure in hopes of undercutting Corsican separatists.

Local and regional elections in Mar. The vote was seen as rejection of the government's moves to make changes in the French social welfare system, with its generous welfare, health-care, and pension benefits. The government subsequently also suffered losses in the September elections for the senate.

In May, , voters rejected the proposed new constitution for the European Union, resulting in a further embarrassment for the government, and Premier Raffarin resigned. Rabat, Morocco. In Oct. The son of a minor Hungarian aristocrat who immigrated to France and married the daughter of Greek immigrants, Sarkozy became a The government declared a state of emergency, which lasted for the rest of , but provocative comments by some officials continued to feed immigrant resentment.

The riots, which highlighted the alienation and poverty of the French of non-European descent, did not end until after mid-November. A new national crisis arose in early when Villepin pushed through changes to French labor law that would make it easier to fire workers under age 26 during their first two years with a company.

A series of demonstrations and strikes against the law occurred in Mar. Although the law was enacted, in a setback for Villepin, he subsequently announced that it would be replaced by new legislation designed to reduce youth unemployment. Charges that Villepin had targeted Sarkozy for investigation by the secret service in an attempt to smear his party rival brought calls for Villepin to resign, but Chirac continued to support the premier.

Villepin was acquitted of the charges in Sarkozy secured the UMP nomination for president in Jan. Dakar, Senegal. Sarkozy led the crowded field after the first round in Apr. Le Mans. A moderate conservaetive, he has served as an assembly deputy —, — and a senator —7 from Sarthe as well as in local elected posts. The UMP was expected to gain seats in the subsequent June parliamentary elections, but the party actually lost seats.

It nonetheless retained a solid majority in the National Assembly. Proposed pension benefit changes and civil service job cuts led to a nine-day transport workers strike and shorter walkouts by other workers in Nov. Disenchantment with the economy and with Sarkozy's personal style and his very public divorce and remarriage since becoming president contributed to Socialist gains in the Mar. Sarkozy won parliamentary approval in July, , for constitutional amendments that limiting a person to two terms as president and increasing some of parliament's powers.

Though France weathered the —9 global recession better than most European nations, the weak French economy and increasing unemployment contributed to a significant Socialist-led coalition win in regional elections in Mar. In October the government secured legislation changing the pension system including raising the retirement age, a measure that was partially reversed in in order to reduce public deficits and debt; the changes sparked months of protests that culminated in October with a series of crippling strikes and protests.

The recession at times strained relations with Germany when the two leading eurozone nations disagreed over how to respond to its effects both initially and in the early s when soaring budget deficits affected Greece and some other eurozone nations , but Sarkozy generally supported the reliance on government austerities as a response to the eurozone fiscal crisis. The Socialists and their allies did well again in the Mar.

The son of a textile worker, he graduated from Nantes Univ. Obtaining his teaching diploma, from to he taught German at Saint-Herblain in W France, and also served as the town's mayor from to In the June legislative elections, the Socialists and their allies won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly. In mid the new government enacted a number of labor reforms; a modest overhaul of the pension system's funding was passed in late A poor showing by the Socialists in the Mar.

Barcelona, Spain. After his family moved to Paris, he became a member of the Socialist party and a French citizen The Socialists also fared poorly in the Mar. A Jan. A coordinated series of bombings and attacks in Paris on November 13, by terrorists associated with the Islamic State Islamic State IS , Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.

A state of emergency was declared and subsequently continued into while security forces sought those terrorists who had escaped and also raided sites associated with the perpetrators and planners. In the first round of the subsequent regional elections Dec.

July, , saw another attack in which dozens were killed and hundreds injured, as a Tunisian man drove a truck through a Bastille Day crowd in Nice. That same month the government forced a further labor reform bill through the parliament; the law was opposed by many labor unions and had sparked several weeks of strikes. Valls resigned as premier in Dec. A lawyer and member of the Socialist party, he served in the National Assembly —, — and was mayor of Cherbourg-Octeville — Amiens, grad.

Rouen, grad. Macron's Republic Forward! The September Senate elections left that body in control of the Republicans; that same month Macron enacted significant changes to France's labor laws by decree. Proposed changes to laws privileging workers in the national rail system led to strikes in , but were enacted in June. Opposition to planned increases in the fuel tax led to recurring public protests nationwide beginning in November. As the demonstrations continued into , they became more focused on the effects of the cost of living on poorer families, but were also marked by decreasing size and increasing violence.

In response, the government halted the fuel tax rise, and later increased the minimum wage and adopted other measures, but it rejected a tax increases on the highest incomes, as many demonstrators sought. In late a proposed reorganization of the pension system led to strikes and protests that continued into early ; the changes were enacted by decree in Mar.

France was one of the European nations most severely affected by the COVID pandemic of , which caused a significant economic contraction. Dissatisfaction with the generally conservative approach of Macron's government led to his party's loss of its parliamentary majority through defections in May, and Green candidates experienced a surge in voter support in local elections in June.

In July, Macron reorganized his cabinet, naming Jean Castex, a center-right technocrat, as premier, and generally giving the government a more conservative cast. A classic geographic study is J. Evans, France , is also useful. Michelet Michelet, Jules , —, French writer, the greatest historian of the romantic school. Born in Paris of poor parents, he visualized himself throughout his life as a champion of the people.

Among more recent general histories of France, those edited by E. Lavisse Lavisse, Ernest , —, French historian. He was for many years a professor at the Sorbonne. His early works deal chiefly with the history of Prussia, particularly Frederick the Great. Hanotaux Hanotaux, Gabriel , —, French historian and statesman. Twice minister of foreign affairs —95, —98 , he greatly furthered the Franco-Russian rapprochement. A monumental multivolume work is F. Funck-Brentano, ed.

The many authors of classic historical works on France include, for the medieval period, M. Bloch Bloch, Marc , —, French historian and an authority on medieval feudalism. He taught at the Univ. Langlois, F. Lot, A. Luchaire Luchaire, Achille , —, French historian. The Ancient City, , stressed the influence of primitive religion on the development of Greek and Roman institutions.

Taine Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe , —93, French critic and historian. A brilliant student, he gained recognition with the publication of his doctoral thesis, Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine Aulard Aulard, Alphonse , —, French historian. He was the first professional historian of the French Revolution, and he devoted his life to this study. A professor at the Univ. Lefebvre Lefebvre, Georges , —, French historian, an authority on the French Revolutionary period. He studied under Aulard, whose scientific method he adopted, although it led him to different conclusions.

His work is uncritically laudatory with regard to Napoleon himself; his admiration, however, did not deter his severe indictment of Napoleon's relatives in He was noted especially for his historical approach to the study of economics. Rambaud Rambaud, Alfred Nicolas , —, French historian and politician. He served in the administration of Jules Ferry, was elected senator , and was minister of public instruction — Rambaud taught at the universities of Caen, Nancy, and Paris.

See also A. Cobban, A History of Modern France 3 vol. Pickles, The Fifth French Republic 3d ed. Hughes, To the Maginot Line ; M. Marrus and R. Paxton, Vichy France and the Jews ; H. Kedward and R.

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