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Baltacioglu have managed to do all of these - under Liberal and Conservative governments. But while Ms. Baltacioglu has steadily risen through the ranks, Mr. Fonberg has had his setbacks, the largest of which was his very public demotion from deputy minister of International Trade to senior associate secretary of the Treasury Board.

Tenacious and demanding, he was promoted to deputy minister in with instructions to make International Trade a stand-alone department from Foreign Affairs. According to a former colleague, he didn't succeed - and also managed to alienate many in government with his efforts during the two years he was there. As well, the colleague says, Mr. Fonberg had a falling-out with Kevin Lynch when the two were both deputy ministers.

Lynch, who declined to comment, was appointed clerk of the Privy Council by Stephen Harper when he became Prime Minister. Lynch was not about to give Mr. Fonberg a big job in his first shuffle, says the colleague. But the colleague says that, to his credit, Mr.

Fonberg put down his head and worked, delivering on the Harper government's showpiece accountability legislation. Lynch had kept an open mind and rewarded Mr. Fonberg for his work: In October, , Mr. Fonberg was back as a deputy minister - this time in the tricky and demanding Defence portfolio. Jane Taber is a senior political writer in the Globe's Ottawa bureau.

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Customer Help. Contact us. Log in. Log out. Open this photo in gallery:. Jane Taber. Published July 31, Updated July 31, Published July 31, This article was published more than 10 years ago. Text Size. Story continues below advertisement. Follow Jane Taber on Twitter janetaber1. Report an error. Due to technical reasons, we have temporarily removed commenting from our articles.

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I'm a print subscriber, link to my account Subscribe to comment Why do I need to subscribe? We aim to create a safe and valuable space for discussion and debate. That means: Treat others as you wish to be treated Criticize ideas, not people Stay on topic Avoid the use of toxic and offensive language Flag bad behaviour Comments that violate our community guidelines will be removed. Read most recent letters to the editor. To view this site properly, enable cookies in your browser. While structurally sound, the buildings lack insulation and have outdated heating and ventilation systems.

They also lack recycling chutes. The answer, according to Ted Kesik and Ivan Saleff, is renovation. Many have underground parking and indoor swimming pools, as well as great views of the city. This could all take a long time, though Kesik estimates that four pilot buildings could be fixed up within 18 months. Above all, Kesik is grateful that the project has allowed his team to marry ivory-tower theory with concrete-tower reality. Last summer, Andrew Miall snapped this photograph of a skid of bottled water at his local grocery store.

The U of T geology professor calculated that consumers were paying between and 3, times more for it than they would pay for regular tap water, even though the. Up against Google With BlogScope, a U of T computer science group is taking on the search titan in the realm of public opinion message boards and other online forums for public opinion is providing an unprecedented window into what people around the world are thinking.

While Google currently dominates the market for Internet search, Koudas sees room for a specialized program that provides more context for search results. Using different coloured fonts, BlogScope indicates whether the content of a search result expresses a positive, negative or neutral opinion.

It can also sort results by gender and age between 10 and 30 per cent of bloggers disclose these details. A world map pinpoints where the search term is written about most frequently. The program also provides a list of topics that are closely related to the search term. The U of T team has filed a patent and is putting the final touches on the interface. A beta, or test, version without all the features mentioned here, is available at www. Findings Commercial bumblebees are spreading disease to wild bees, contributing to a reduction in the natural pollinating bee population Killer bees and raising serious implications for agriculture, a U of T study has found.

The situation is alarming because as much as a third of the human diet comes from plants pollinated by insects, says Michael Otterstatter, a professor in the department of ecology and evolutionary biology and a co-author of the study. Using a combination of mathematical modelling and field data, Otterstatter and his team found that commercially reared bumblebees have introduced a contagious and potentially fatal pathogen into wild bumblebee populations.

Across several sites in southern Ontario, the team found Crithidia bombi infecting up to one-half of wild bumblebees near industrial greenhouses that use commercial bees for pollination. Otterstatter hopes that these findings will lead to better management of domestic bees. People with Type 2 diabetes soon may be able to control their blood sugar with a shot of the medication exenatide just once Controlling a week, rather than the diabetes current twice-daily version.

Researchers at U of T, working with scientists at Amylin Pharmaceuticals and Eli Lilly, have found that a new long-acting formulation of exenatide controlled blood sugar better than the conventional shorter-acting drug. Although further studies are needed to confirm the findings, the research could ultimately change how diabetes is managed. Daniel Drucker, a professor in the department of medicine at U of T and a clinician-scientist at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, was the principal investigator in a multicentre study that analyzed results in patients completing 30 weeks of therapy.

The patients who received the once-weekly shot experienced more stable blood sugar levels and fewer side-effects. Great products and services available exclusively for U of T alumni. Q Miriam Diamond Environmental Toxins Geography professor Miriam Diamond studies how chemicals travel through the environment and enter the human body.

She spoke with editor Scott Anderson about the complexity of that task. There are thousands of chemicals in our air, food, water and the goods we purchase. How do you even begin to determine which ones pose the greatest risk? We look at how much of. Can it accumulate at high levels in organisms such as fish? Is it toxic at the levels humans are exposed to? Toxicologists all over the world are trying to figure out what the effects of these chemicals are on animals in the ecosystem and on humans.

We look at their studies. Quite often chemicals that are initially thought to be safe turn out not to be. Carson, an ecologist, showed that pesticides intended for use on agricultural prod Her book was a wake-up call to the complexity of chemical behaviour in the ecosystem. Tell me about the problems with it. Bisphenol A is used in CDs, cell.

Worldwide production has been increasing at six to 10 per cent a year. The problem is not just Bisphenol A, but that we use it in so many applications. Are there standard tests performed on these chemicals before they are approved? It depends on how much of the. There are some inconsistencies and loopholes in federal regulations, especially with respect to imported products.

Think of all the recent recalls on toys with elevated lead concentrations. Is there anything individuals can do to reduce their exposure to potentially harmful chemicals? What we really need to do is act on a societal level. We need to vote in governments with strong environmental policies that are central to their overall ambitions. A recent study by Nora McKendrick, a PhD student in sociology, found that in the past decade the message around environmental issues has become individualized.

The focus is on what you can do. But the issues are becoming more and more complex, which makes it harder for individuals to take steps. Read the full interview with Prof. Diamond at www. To make the material lighter and more flexible, the team added tiny, hollow glass spheres, latex and fibres to cement and water, instead of the usual sand or gravel.

The result is a canoe that weighs just 48 kilograms and is pliable in the water. After researching possibilities for their concrete mix, Melville and his member team will cast a new canoe in January, and believe they have a shot of winning the contest in Montreal in May.

The 2. Nicole Chow, 24, and Krish Chakraborty, 23, are the paleodetectives decoding the clues from the 2. It is one of 11 cores that Chow BSc St. Chakraborty BSc Woodsworth, MSc has recorded the populations of diatoms — microscopic algae that leave behind distinctive glassy skeletons — in. The relative abundance of diatoms is a tipoff to whether the ambient conditions were warm or cool. Using all 11 cores, Chow, who is working on her MSc in geography, is investigating the quantity and composition of sediment.

The sand layers deposited by flood waters can signal the melting of a warmer period. Already the two researchers have discovered that the climate in the southwest Yukon underwent swings spanning several thousand years starting 11, years ago. The two researchers hope that by showing how the physical and biological nature of a big northern lake changed during large natural climate swings, they will help scientists get a better handle on the effects of human-induced climate change in the coming decades.

For decades, the medical profession has favoured treatment over prevention. The crisis dramatized the importance of vigilant public health measures and how Canada — historically a world leader in health care — had taken the system for granted. Previous to SARS, the chair of public health sciences at U of T had enlisted a group of colleagues, including Naylor, to champion the idea of a school of public health.

Five years later, thanks to a timely donation from philanthropists Paul and Alessandra Dalla Lana see p. To lead the school, U of T sought a world-class researcher with experience building an internationally renowned public health program. The university found that person in Dr. Jack Mandel, an international expert on the lifestyle, environmental and occupational causes of cancer who was chair of. Mandel, like many public health professionals, demonstrates broad interests and expertise.

He moves with little apparent effort from discussing scientific studies in minute detail to musing philosophically about the health-care responsibilities of government, universities and the private sector. A Winnipeg native, Mandel came back to Canada after 36 years in the U. A public health department has existed in the Faculty of Medicine since The field tends to attract broad-minded thinkers from a mix of academic backgrounds who learn how to probe the determinants of health — culture, biology, genetics, the environment and social networks.

Researchers affiliated with the school are studying a range of issues, from Jack Mandel, founding director of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, believes the school must play a leading role in educating the Canadian public about lifestyle diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Faculty and staff will work with public health agencies in Canada and abroad to ensure the country is prepared to stop SARS-type crises as they emerge.

Vivek Goel. The Dalla Lana School will maintain this tradition. Many people working in health agencies outside the university teach classes, mentor students and give students research opportunities that often lead to full-time positions after they graduate. While the postwar era brought great strides in controlling infections such as tuberculosis and influenza, smoking rates soared and cancer rates soon followed.

In the s, public health was redefined to include chronic conditions such as cancer and heart disease, as well as positive factors such as nutrition and exercise. Many considered modern. Then AIDS emerged. SARS struck. And health-care workers discovered superbugs — bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. Mandel believes the Dalla Lana School must play a leading role in educating the Canadian public about the alarming spike in lifestyle diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, which threaten to burden our health-care system.

We must weigh in on a neutral basis and present the facts as we see them. There was no federal department of health. Public health measures were local, reactive and poorly co-ordinated. In Toronto, polluted water and unpasteurized milk caused cyclical typhoid epidemics; the national infant mortality rate spiked to 20 per cent. For decades, diphtheria victims, mostly children, suffered and died while their families watched helplessly; only the rich could afford to import the American antitoxin.

Early in , Dr. John Gerald FitzGerald MD proposed to the university that he manufacture a safe, effective diphtheria antitoxin at a minimum cost to doctors, pharmacists and boards of health across Canada who would provide it to patients for free. The confluence of the Great War, a golden age of medical.

Who knows what the next major crisis will be? By delving into the best of European and American thinking, the school trained hundreds of public health workers and policy-makers domestically and internationally. Billions of doses of Connaught vaccines saved countless lives, domestically and overseas; insulin alone has saved more people than were lost in both world wars. Working with the World Health Organization, Connaught was a major player in the decades-long global campaign to wipe out smallpox, a dream realized in Smallpox is the first disease — and to date, only disease — to have been globally eradicated.

In , in a controversial move, the University of Toronto sold Connaught Labs. With the steep decline in the incidence of infectious diseases, many saw the labs and school as victims of their own excellence. The major difficulty: translating scientific findings into actual health improvements.

And these findings need to motivate people to change their behaviour to improve their health. Mandel believes that one way to accomplish this is to focus on the cause of the disease rather than the disease itself. Developing the right message is also a challenge. It has been known for years, for example, that eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise are the best ways to prevent Type 2 diabetes, yet many people still fail to eat well or get the exercise they need. New habit-changing techniques might be required.

Advances in medicine are keeping more people alive longer. Ideally, we must try to prevent premature illness, particularly in the young. Think of the tragedy of young people who become ill from diseases we could have prevented. People live a long time with that disease, and it causes a tremendous drain on the health-care system.

What are we leaving for the next generation? Yet the diffuse, near-invisible nature of public health has continued to take a back seat to the more glamorous treat-and-cure arm of medicine. Public health education in American medical schools has virtually disappeared.

A major breakthrough, such as the discovery of insulin, happens only once every few generations. In public health, you can make that kind of difference on that kind of scale. Teaching hospitals, education, research and labs are working together to confront re-emerging infections and proliferating lifestyle diseases with a growing arsenal of intellectual and practical firepower.

The torch of passionate, pragmatic idealism and selfsacrifice that burned in the early pioneers has clearly passed to the current generation of public health professionals at U of T. If slippery superbugs can mutate into ever-more intelligent adversaries, so can human beings. James FitzGerald wrote a profile of his grandfather, Dr. Random House of Canada will publish his book An Irish Madness, a blend of family and medical history, in summer A Vancouver native, Dalla Lana earned an economics degree from the University of British Columbia and worked for a short time as an economist.

The real estate market was in a slump and most of his classmates were landing jobs in investment banking or management consultancy. Dalla Lana, 42, opted for the road less taken. We have put together our most exciting lineup of destinations ever! For those who enjoy a more active adventure, join us for some heli-hiking in the spectacular mountains of British Columbia or take a trek through Nepal. Arrive in style with a private police escort and spend the final day of the Masters walking alongside the best golfers in the world as they pursue the coveted green jacket.

To request a brochure, please call or or e-mail alumnitravel utoronto. Prices quoted are in Canadian dollars, per person and based on double occupancy. Dates and prices are subject to change. Individual tour brochures are available approximately 4 - 6 months prior to departure. At a. They quickly accelerate to 28, kilometres per hour — or 25 times the speed of sound — which hits the crew with triple the force of gravity.

For Payette, who is pounds outfitted in her spacesuit, this translates into a resounding pound weight. The space lab, which orbits kilometres above Earth, is a multibillion-dollar engineering project involving 16 nations. Research is conducted in everything from medicine to materials science and fluid physics — laying the groundwork for human missions to Mars and beyond.

Constructing the station is akin to attaching Lincoln Logs: each time a shuttle goes up, astronauts transport and assemble more modules and experiments. Astronauts delivered the first module in In , and 50 missions later, the lab will reach completion. On this trip, the crew delivers four tonnes of supplies and equipment to prepare for the first astronauts who will soon arrive to live aboard. Payette, 35, supervises an eight-hour spacewalk to repair and further assemble the station.

She also operates the Canadarm and monitors the space station systems. Ten days later, after a sixmillion-kilometre journey in orbit around Earth, the astronauts land at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. And Payette returns as the second Canadian woman to enter space after Roberta Bondar in — and the first Canadian to set foot on the International Space Station. This May, Payette, now 45, will journey to space for a second time.

During the day mission, she will be operating the robotic arms, including the Canadian robotic superstars Canadarm, Canadarm 2 and Dextre. Along with the commander and pilot, Payette will serve as part of the cockpit crew, responsible for taking the shuttle into space and back to Earth, for docking at the space station and for all manoeuvres and operations involving flying the spacecraft.

When Payette first entered the International Space Station in , it was a much smaller entity. It had only two modules and there were not any astronauts living aboard. Astronauts have lived there, on a rotating basis, since November How does she feel about returning to the station? Payette, a self-described matter-of-fact Cartesian, is not one to deliver answers exuding with sentiment.

How you do on that first flight is going to determine whether or not you fly again. After watching an Apollo mission at her primary school in Montreal, she decided she wanted to be an astronaut. She began making scrapbooks of space missions and taped posters of astronauts to her bedroom door. And I thought this was so cool. Well, you better work, you better go to school, you better be good.

You need to be able to repair things and design new things, and you certainly have to have an inclination to look at a problem and try to solve it. Operational, we call it. In , at her next job — working in computer speech research at BellNorthern Research in Montreal — she learned that the Canadian Space Agency was accepting applications for astronauts.

Payette was one of four selected. One August morning, Payette gives a tour of Building 5 and its two high-fidelity space shuttle simulators — the only two in the world. The electricity is shut down in the cockpit, and she hunts for a flashlight. The soft illumination in the shadowed room adds an appropriately reverential feel. The windows offer simulated views of what astronauts see in space — including the Canadarm and Hubble Space Tele-.

The soft illumination in the shadowed cockpit adds an appropriately reverential feel. The flight software that runs in this cockpit is real, allowing any software glitches to be caught while safely on ground. On the other side of Building 5 is the motion-based simulator, which looks like an industrial-sized gym locker on steel haunches. In a standard four-hour session, the astronauts practise several ascents and re-entries. The crew currently practising in the simulator will soon be journeying to repair the Hubble telescope.

Perhaps the most fascinating element of Building 5 is located behind the simulators: the offices of the Machiavellics, a group of intellectual schemers who focus on a highbrow sabotage, of sorts. Officially, they are called instructors in the Motion Based Instructor Station. They have earned their nickname because they contrive scenarios that fire astronauts some serious scientific curveballs.

The Machiavellics introduce problems into simulations: they kill engines, cause computers to fail, stage electrical problems and make things crash. They are the monkey-wrench throwers and glitchcreators of NASA. Right now, they are igniting a pseudo-fire in the motion-based simulator, which the Hubble crew will have to hustle to extinguish. Like other aircraft pilots, astronauts spend a great deal of time training for worst-case scenarios and the unexpected.

We basically do everything. In a mock-up of a Russian service module in Building Six later in the day, Payette sits on the floor and compares the International Space Station to a ship in a storm. But, of course, it also requires a large dose of intrepidity. The next day, Payette will spend several hours flying a T Air Force training jet. Like all astronauts, In , Payette underwent a monthlong endurance training program at Canadian Forces Base Valcartier in Quebec, in which she and other astronauts lived and worked in sub-zero temperatures that replicated some of the environmental rigours faced on the International Space Station.

Tremendous versatility is also key: along with her piloting and engineering skills, Payette speaks six languages. She learned Russian to communicate with her counterparts from Russia who are involved with the station. While studying engineering, she also played softball, squash and badminton and was co-chair of the Lionel Massey Fund, helping to organize cultural, social and musical events for students.

Another interest that Payette pursued was music: she sang soprano with the prestigious Tafelmusik Chamber Choir in Toronto, performing baroque and classical pieces. And therefore, clearly, I needed to sing the same tune, and was not supposed to sing out of key or out of tempo. Payette says no, and believes astronauts are judged exclusively by their performance.

In space exploration, she says, the distinction has to be ability because it is the key to a successful mission. In contrast, nationality, gender, ethnic background, skin colour, mother tongue and other such characteristics actually become fairly transparent if you are considered competent at what you do.

And that is a huge step again, as a species to be able to leave your home planet and go to another one. Human beings have been wanting to fly for millenniums. Stacey Gibson is managing editor of U of T Magazine. She wrote about James Orbinski in the Spring issue. Did you Publish in ? But detection methods have gone high-tech, too By Zoe Cormier. The professor confronted the student, but she denied any wrongdoing. Since neither Filipiuk nor the professor could prove otherwise, they were forced to award the student a high mark.

Instances of academic misconduct are still rare at U of T, but have been growing in frequency for reasons that elude instructors and administrators. Some blame the abolition of Grade 13 in Ontario for leaving first-year students less well prepared for university and unaware of what constitutes. Others say the Internet makes it too easy for students to cut and paste text into essays.

Some believe that cheating is actually no more common than before, but instructors are more vigilant, leading to a greater number of students being caught. There is no shortage of statistics about academic dishonesty, but views diverge on what the figures mean. In a widely reported University of Guelph study of more than 13, undergraduates at Canadian universities, which was conducted in , slightly more than half of respondents admitted to having cheated on written work.

Hillan notes that this increase coincides with an almost 50 per cent increase in enrolment. When measured against the total student population, just 0. Like many U of T professors, Wakefield has begun using the website turnitin. The site also checks student work against more than five billion web pages. Two years later, the researchers formed a company, iParadigms, to license turnitin. The company later expanded the software to identify material copied from the Internet.

Thousands of institutions in more than countries, including 45 colleges and universities in Canada, now use turnitin. Instructors use their judgment to determine if a student has plagiarized a work, quoted a passage without proper citation or coincidentally written sentences that resemble passages from turnitin. U of T licenses turnitin. Under university policy, professors can ask students to voluntarily submit their work to the website.

Professors create accounts for their courses at turnitin. Students establish a password-protected profile through which they can upload essays and other work. Students who object to using the site can prove the originality of their work in other ways, such as by submitting a series of rough drafts. Approximately U of T faculty members, or about one-fifth of the total, use the site. Adrienne Hood, associate chair of the history department, has used turnitin.

In her view, the site acts as a deterrent. At the beginning of each term, she tells students why she uses turnitin. She also warns that U of T considers plagiarism a serious offence. Hood reports that none of her students have objected to her using turnitin. This allows me to spend more time giving feedback and, ultimately, to teach better.

Of the students who oppose the use of turnitin. Dave Scrivener, a fourth-year Canadian Studies and anthropology student and vice-president of external affairs for the University of Toronto Students Union, has been a vociferous objector. He has argued that because turnitin. Patriot Act — controversial legislation enacted after that gives the American government unprecedented access to private information.

He says that the American government could, hypothetically, scan turnitin. Students at U of T and on other Canadian campuses have also raised concerns over turnitin. The firm concluded that the website does not violate student intellectual property rights. Along with some students, there are others who would prefer not to use the service. English professor Nick Mount opposes using turnitin. Instead, at the beginning of the year, he assigns an in-class essay to assess how well each student writes.

Most professors find it extremely difficult to confront a student about plagiarism; it can emotionally devastate the student. I keep a box of Kleenex in my desk for those occasions. Some will always want to cheat. But most students cheat when they are bored and scared — it is my job as a teacher to make sure they are not bored and scared. For more information call 1. Eastern Standard Time. Or visit www. You also acknowledge that the account, if approved, will not be used by any third party other than a third party specifically designated by you, and then only in accordance with MBNA policies and procedures then in effect.

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For more info, contact Teo Salgado at or teo. For Justina M. Barnicke exhibitions: Mon. Works by Canadian artists express some of the complexities of contemporary Canadian. For tickets, www. A photography exhibition marking artistic and technological developments throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. An exhibition of art created from or using books as the medium.

George St. This studentorganized festival is produced by the Graduate Centre for Study of Drama to bring together academia and the arts. Conference takes place during the day and is free; prices for evening performances are TBA.

Robert Gill Theatre, College St, 3rd floor. Box office: For all listings, see www. Alain Trudel, conductor. Wagner: Prelude to Tristan and Isolde. Student composition competition winner. Mendelssohn: Quartet Op. Kevin Puts: Credo. For tickets to music events, phone the box office at For more info, www. Prizes, contests and more. Athletic Centre Sports Gym. Athletic Centre. Varsity Arena. Competitors in this event are eligible to be selected.

Finals at 6 p. Ticket prices, and some times, for these sporting events are TBA. For updated info, visit www. Returning from Europe to face his past and future, young Serge must deal with his harridan aunts and sisters to get to the one he loves — and to his father.

Warning: adult themes. Additional 2 p. For tickets, , www. February 25 to March 8 Studio Theatre Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes is a comedy involving two knights in love with two ladies, one of whom disguises herself as a page to follow her lover on his adventures.

Info: www. And no matter the amount left to u of t, it. The gift-planning experts at u of t would be pleased to talk with you about donating your rrif. We can even provide sample wording to ensure your gift is used as intended. To find out how you can make your mark, please call Michelle Osborne at Or contact , gift. Our bin is rr This information provided is general in nature, does not constitute legal or financial advice, and should not be relied upon as a substitute for professional advice.

It sets out strategic priorities in enrolment, the student experience, the three campuses, funding and how the university is governed. George campus. In one proposed scenario, enrolment in graduate and professional programs at the downtown campus would increase by 3, to 15, or about 35 per cent of all students while undergraduate enrolment would decrease by 5, to 28, The reduction in undergraduate students at the St.

George campus would be more than offset by increases at the Scarborough and Mississauga campuses — from about 17, undergrads currently to 24, by Graduate enrolment on the two newer campuses would also rise. As undergrad enrolment at the St. George campus declines, the student-faculty ratio should decrease, creating a better learning environment. To boost its national and global presence, U of T will recruit more international students and more Canadian students from outside the Toronto area.

Although total enrolment across the university is expected to grow modestly over the next two decades, Towards advises against establishing a fourth U of T campus. Noting that the inflation-adjusted value of perstudent grants in Ontario fell sharply in the early s and has not climbed back to what it was in —92, the report proposes that U of T enlist the help of its extended community, including alumni, to continue lobbying the province for across-the-board funding increases.

U of T should also be able to set tuition fees — its Continued on page 21 The institute, made possible by the recent sale of the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill, Ontario, will foster research into the most fundamental questions in astronomy,. While the astronomy department prepares to launch the Dunlap Institute, other academic disciplines were opening New centres their own specialized for law, centres this year.

Cheryl Milne, a former counsel at a Toronto legal-aid clinic for children and youth, is executive director. Three new faculty members in the fields of Andean and Aegean archaeology have joined the 15 currently engaged in research; another two, in Mesopotamian and Chinese archaeology, will join over the next several months. Scientists are getting closer to discovering planets outside the solar system that resemble Earth. In September, a team of U of T astronomers made history by unveiling the first-ever photograph of a planet orbiting a sun-like star.

One of the first tasks is to find a director for the institute; the position is now being advertised internationally. The astronomy field has changed considerably since the David Dunlap Observatory opened in Breakthroughs today typically require enormous budgets and multinational collaborations. As the Dunlap Institute takes shape, Martin says that the question that needs answering is: How can U of T make the greatest contribution? The University of Toronto Scarborough has officially come of age in scientific research with the opening, this fall, of the Science Research Building.

It is the first at U of T Scarborough to be dedicated exclusively to fostering collaborative. Author Ronald Wright, reading from his book What is America? Do you think hours of community service should be required to earn an undergraduate degree from U of T? Two years ago, Craig Kielburger BA Trinity challenged U of T to become the first post-secondary institution in Canada to require students to perform community service to receive their degree. Kielburger wanted each student to donate hours of service over four years.

Even among those surveyed who gave the idea the thumbs-up, nearly one-quarter thought hours was too onerous a requirement. This highly unscientific poll of U of T students was conducted on the St. George campus in mid-September. Scientists work in 16 open-concept labs in the fields of brain science, plant biology and environmental science.

U Condominiums offers a lifestyle of ultimate luxury and gracious entertaining on Bay Street, next to the grounds of the St. This is the sophisticated address that U have earned. The unique offering of unrivalled suites includes one- and two-bedroom, one-bedroom plus den, and twobedroom plus den designs. Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. Illustrations are artist concept. Women Wanted Engineering faculty hopes mentorship, new image will reverse slide in female enrolment.

While female students now outnumber men in law and medicine — two other traditionally male-dominated fields — their presence in engineering has waned. After hitting a high of 27 per cent in , the proportion of female engineering students has dropped every year, to just 21 per cent in This year it rose slightly, to 23 per cent. According to the Canadian Coalition of Women in Engineering, Science, Trades and Technology, the proportion of women enrolled in Canadian engineering programs has been declining steadily since , after nearly a decade of slowly increasing numbers.

Cultural factors likely play a role in how women perceive engineering. This is also true in Russia and China. Mentorship is key, so U of T is hiring more women as professors. The Skule Sisters program sees high school girls corresponding with female engineering students, who help them plan for a career in the field.

Today, only about 10 per cent of professional engineers in Canada are women. However, McCahan says engineering can also take students into law, medicine or business. Why do you think young women are less likely to choose engineering? Write to us at uoft. But Joshua Sutherland decided to do things differently. The third-year U of T law student cycled across Western Canada, visiting native reserves and promoting post-secondary education. They wanted to Starting out in Vancouver, he cycled approximately eight hear what I had to say.

Sutherland hopes to make the journey an annual sponalso rough. Sutherland, 26, camped out in a variety of places, including a provincial park, under a porcupine-infested tree, sored event. His instructions require that pounds of hard mints be arranged in a pile on the floor. Attendants invite viewers to sample the work — to literally take a piece of it. Then they replenish the sweets to maintain the initial pounds, the combined weight of Gonzalez-Torres and his partner, Ross, before they died of AIDS.

At the same time, she adds, enrolment has surged, placing greater demand than ever on library resources. The government documents and map room on the fifth floor will be redesigned into a state-of-the-art geographical information centre, says Moore. Two floors down, the Media Commons will get new screening rooms and more instructional spaces, and reading rooms on the second and third floors will be upgraded with new furniture and lighting.

The changes will occur in two stages. George Street entrance near Harbord Street. The couple says they were motivated by a belief in the enduring importance of university libraries. Katherine, who spent a lot of time in Robarts while completing her PhD in English, says study space is particularly important for commuters.

George Street. Whatever life brings, make sure the people who count on you will be well taken care of. With your Alumni Term Life Insurance plan, you may give your loved ones the financial security to continue living the life you dreamed of for them, no matter what. Both have played and coached at the national level and are individual inductees to the U of T Sports Hall of Fame.

Their late father, Eli, who coached Blues volleyball from to , is a team inductee. The sibling rivalry was sometimes intense when they were younger, but Ed says the competitive spirit has given way to a more. BA UC , a former Varsity basketball player, donated the lead gift.

Kimel, who sported the blue and white at Hart House gym in the s, hopes the new facility will draw more fans to U of T games and translate into stronger community support for athletics in Ontario. Kimel, who also earned a business administration diploma from U of T in , believes people who attend sporting events get a lot more out of the experience than simply entertainment. Sports are unpredictable, though. Stay Awhile! New rules let international students reside in Canada for longer after graduating of international students who hope to stay in Canada after completing their studies just got a little brighter.

Earlier this year, Ottawa announced that international graduates of a Canadian university can stay for three years without an employment offer. Previously, to apply for a postgrad work permit, international students had to find employment in their area of study within 90 days of completing their degree. Canada permitted. The university would remain accountable to the province for ensuring accessibility and maintaining student financial support.

President Naylor kicked off the long-term planning process in June by releasing an initial discussion paper. The task forces consulted widely and received scores of submissions. Their final reports — on long-term enrolment strategy, institutional organization,. University of Toronto officials, who lobbied for the change, said the new rule will give Canadian universities a competitive edge over universities in other countries. The U. The government also introduced a measure that allows international graduates to achieve permanent residence status from within Canada, rather than having to leave first to apply.

U of T wants to attract more graduate students, and part of this enrolment growth will come from abroad. Heather Kelly, director of Student Services at the School of Graduate Studies, says international students and employers are already praising the new rules. Last year, Muzzrall wrote to a contact in government and outlined the constraints that the regulations imposed on students and suggested how to remove them. We want the best and the brightest from around the world to study in Canada.

Governing Council commissioned a fifth task force, on university governance, and this task force recently completed the first phase of its report. This eight-page document outlines the broad strategic directions arising from the planning process. Naylor says the framework does not set out or change university policy, but serves as a long-term planning guide.

Your gift to the Annual Fund helps our students achieve their potential. Through bursaries, scholarships, mentorships and more, U of T helps nurture young minds. Thank you for making that possible. My cheque is enclosed payable to the University of Toronto Please charge my donation to my credit card: Visa. For more information, visit www.

A tax receipt will be issued for all donations. Charitable Business Number RR If you have any questions, please refer to www. Healing the Heart Specially engineered tissue patches could help heart attack patients fully recover. Almost three-quarters of the 70, Canadians each year who have heart attacks survive. But even those who appear to. All Roads Lead to…Madaba? A team of students and professors is helping excavate parts of downtown Madaba, and has spent hundreds of hours drawing and analyzing shards of pottery and other remains as part of an undergraduate research program in the department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations.

A building constructed from huge stones a metre wide may have been part of a palace or religious residence, says U of T professor Tim Harrison, who runs the program with instructor and research associate Debra Foran. Like any contemporary metropolis, ancient Madaba had its share of hard times, too. Earlier this year, the U of T team found the remains of small, poorly built utilitarian buildings that Harrison says were constructed by people who returned to Madaba after it was violently destroyed by an unknown people in the first millennium BC.

Previous attempts to inject stem cells into damaged hearts have had limited success, as 90 per cent of the stem cells either die or are washed away. But Radisic, an assistant professor in the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering and the department of chemical engineering and applied chemistry, is growing patches of beating heart tissue in the lab. While earlier studies had experimented with stimulating such cells mechanically, Radisic hit upon the idea of using electrical stimulation, like that from a pacemaker, to get the cells to contract, as if they were beating.

The cells responded beautifully, growing into full tissue as the collagen sponge biodegraded. She got equally good results when she repeated the study using cardiac cells from mice. While structurally sound, the buildings lack insulation and have outdated heating and ventilation systems. They also lack recycling chutes.

The answer, according to Ted Kesik and Ivan Saleff, is renovation. Many have underground parking and indoor swimming pools, as well as great views of the city. This could all take a long time, though Kesik estimates that four pilot buildings could be fixed up within 18 months.

Above all, Kesik is grateful that the project has allowed his team to marry ivory-tower theory with concrete-tower reality. Last summer, Andrew Miall snapped this photograph of a skid of bottled water at his local grocery store. The U of T geology professor calculated that consumers were paying between and 3, times more for it than they would pay for regular tap water, even though the.

Up against Google With BlogScope, a U of T computer science group is taking on the search titan in the realm of public opinion message boards and other online forums for public opinion is providing an unprecedented window into what people around the world are thinking. While Google currently dominates the market for Internet search, Koudas sees room for a specialized program that provides more context for search results.

Using different coloured fonts, BlogScope indicates whether the content of a search result expresses a positive, negative or neutral opinion. It can also sort results by gender and age between 10 and 30 per cent of bloggers disclose these details. A world map pinpoints where the search term is written about most frequently. The program also provides a list of topics that are closely related to the search term.

The U of T team has filed a patent and is putting the final touches on the interface. A beta, or test, version without all the features mentioned here, is available at www. Findings Commercial bumblebees are spreading disease to wild bees, contributing to a reduction in the natural pollinating bee population Killer bees and raising serious implications for agriculture, a U of T study has found.

The situation is alarming because as much as a third of the human diet comes from plants pollinated by insects, says Michael Otterstatter, a professor in the department of ecology and evolutionary biology and a co-author of the study. Using a combination of mathematical modelling and field data, Otterstatter and his team found that commercially reared bumblebees have introduced a contagious and potentially fatal pathogen into wild bumblebee populations.

Across several sites in southern Ontario, the team found Crithidia bombi infecting up to one-half of wild bumblebees near industrial greenhouses that use commercial bees for pollination. Otterstatter hopes that these findings will lead to better management of domestic bees.

People with Type 2 diabetes soon may be able to control their blood sugar with a shot of the medication exenatide just once Controlling a week, rather than the diabetes current twice-daily version. Researchers at U of T, working with scientists at Amylin Pharmaceuticals and Eli Lilly, have found that a new long-acting formulation of exenatide controlled blood sugar better than the conventional shorter-acting drug. Although further studies are needed to confirm the findings, the research could ultimately change how diabetes is managed.

Daniel Drucker, a professor in the department of medicine at U of T and a clinician-scientist at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, was the principal investigator in a multicentre study that analyzed results in patients completing 30 weeks of therapy. The patients who received the once-weekly shot experienced more stable blood sugar levels and fewer side-effects.

Great products and services available exclusively for U of T alumni. Q Miriam Diamond Environmental Toxins Geography professor Miriam Diamond studies how chemicals travel through the environment and enter the human body. She spoke with editor Scott Anderson about the complexity of that task. There are thousands of chemicals in our air, food, water and the goods we purchase. How do you even begin to determine which ones pose the greatest risk?

We look at how much of. Can it accumulate at high levels in organisms such as fish? Is it toxic at the levels humans are exposed to? Toxicologists all over the world are trying to figure out what the effects of these chemicals are on animals in the ecosystem and on humans.

We look at their studies. Quite often chemicals that are initially thought to be safe turn out not to be. Carson, an ecologist, showed that pesticides intended for use on agricultural prod Her book was a wake-up call to the complexity of chemical behaviour in the ecosystem.

Tell me about the problems with it. Bisphenol A is used in CDs, cell. Worldwide production has been increasing at six to 10 per cent a year. The problem is not just Bisphenol A, but that we use it in so many applications. Are there standard tests performed on these chemicals before they are approved? It depends on how much of the. There are some inconsistencies and loopholes in federal regulations, especially with respect to imported products. Think of all the recent recalls on toys with elevated lead concentrations.

Is there anything individuals can do to reduce their exposure to potentially harmful chemicals? What we really need to do is act on a societal level. We need to vote in governments with strong environmental policies that are central to their overall ambitions. A recent study by Nora McKendrick, a PhD student in sociology, found that in the past decade the message around environmental issues has become individualized. The focus is on what you can do.

But the issues are becoming more and more complex, which makes it harder for individuals to take steps. Read the full interview with Prof. Diamond at www. To make the material lighter and more flexible, the team added tiny, hollow glass spheres, latex and fibres to cement and water, instead of the usual sand or gravel. The result is a canoe that weighs just 48 kilograms and is pliable in the water.

After researching possibilities for their concrete mix, Melville and his member team will cast a new canoe in January, and believe they have a shot of winning the contest in Montreal in May. The 2. Nicole Chow, 24, and Krish Chakraborty, 23, are the paleodetectives decoding the clues from the 2. It is one of 11 cores that Chow BSc St.

Chakraborty BSc Woodsworth, MSc has recorded the populations of diatoms — microscopic algae that leave behind distinctive glassy skeletons — in. The relative abundance of diatoms is a tipoff to whether the ambient conditions were warm or cool. Using all 11 cores, Chow, who is working on her MSc in geography, is investigating the quantity and composition of sediment.

The sand layers deposited by flood waters can signal the melting of a warmer period. Already the two researchers have discovered that the climate in the southwest Yukon underwent swings spanning several thousand years starting 11, years ago. The two researchers hope that by showing how the physical and biological nature of a big northern lake changed during large natural climate swings, they will help scientists get a better handle on the effects of human-induced climate change in the coming decades.

For decades, the medical profession has favoured treatment over prevention. The crisis dramatized the importance of vigilant public health measures and how Canada — historically a world leader in health care — had taken the system for granted. Previous to SARS, the chair of public health sciences at U of T had enlisted a group of colleagues, including Naylor, to champion the idea of a school of public health.

Five years later, thanks to a timely donation from philanthropists Paul and Alessandra Dalla Lana see p. To lead the school, U of T sought a world-class researcher with experience building an internationally renowned public health program. The university found that person in Dr. Jack Mandel, an international expert on the lifestyle, environmental and occupational causes of cancer who was chair of. Mandel, like many public health professionals, demonstrates broad interests and expertise.

He moves with little apparent effort from discussing scientific studies in minute detail to musing philosophically about the health-care responsibilities of government, universities and the private sector. A Winnipeg native, Mandel came back to Canada after 36 years in the U. A public health department has existed in the Faculty of Medicine since The field tends to attract broad-minded thinkers from a mix of academic backgrounds who learn how to probe the determinants of health — culture, biology, genetics, the environment and social networks.

Researchers affiliated with the school are studying a range of issues, from Jack Mandel, founding director of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, believes the school must play a leading role in educating the Canadian public about lifestyle diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

Faculty and staff will work with public health agencies in Canada and abroad to ensure the country is prepared to stop SARS-type crises as they emerge. Vivek Goel. The Dalla Lana School will maintain this tradition. Many people working in health agencies outside the university teach classes, mentor students and give students research opportunities that often lead to full-time positions after they graduate. While the postwar era brought great strides in controlling infections such as tuberculosis and influenza, smoking rates soared and cancer rates soon followed.

In the s, public health was redefined to include chronic conditions such as cancer and heart disease, as well as positive factors such as nutrition and exercise. Many considered modern. Then AIDS emerged. SARS struck. And health-care workers discovered superbugs — bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. Mandel believes the Dalla Lana School must play a leading role in educating the Canadian public about the alarming spike in lifestyle diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, which threaten to burden our health-care system.

We must weigh in on a neutral basis and present the facts as we see them. There was no federal department of health. Public health measures were local, reactive and poorly co-ordinated. In Toronto, polluted water and unpasteurized milk caused cyclical typhoid epidemics; the national infant mortality rate spiked to 20 per cent. For decades, diphtheria victims, mostly children, suffered and died while their families watched helplessly; only the rich could afford to import the American antitoxin.

Early in , Dr. John Gerald FitzGerald MD proposed to the university that he manufacture a safe, effective diphtheria antitoxin at a minimum cost to doctors, pharmacists and boards of health across Canada who would provide it to patients for free. The confluence of the Great War, a golden age of medical.

Who knows what the next major crisis will be? By delving into the best of European and American thinking, the school trained hundreds of public health workers and policy-makers domestically and internationally. Billions of doses of Connaught vaccines saved countless lives, domestically and overseas; insulin alone has saved more people than were lost in both world wars.

Working with the World Health Organization, Connaught was a major player in the decades-long global campaign to wipe out smallpox, a dream realized in Smallpox is the first disease — and to date, only disease — to have been globally eradicated. In , in a controversial move, the University of Toronto sold Connaught Labs. With the steep decline in the incidence of infectious diseases, many saw the labs and school as victims of their own excellence.

The major difficulty: translating scientific findings into actual health improvements. And these findings need to motivate people to change their behaviour to improve their health. Mandel believes that one way to accomplish this is to focus on the cause of the disease rather than the disease itself. Developing the right message is also a challenge. It has been known for years, for example, that eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise are the best ways to prevent Type 2 diabetes, yet many people still fail to eat well or get the exercise they need.

New habit-changing techniques might be required. Advances in medicine are keeping more people alive longer. Ideally, we must try to prevent premature illness, particularly in the young. Think of the tragedy of young people who become ill from diseases we could have prevented. People live a long time with that disease, and it causes a tremendous drain on the health-care system.

What are we leaving for the next generation? Yet the diffuse, near-invisible nature of public health has continued to take a back seat to the more glamorous treat-and-cure arm of medicine. Public health education in American medical schools has virtually disappeared. A major breakthrough, such as the discovery of insulin, happens only once every few generations.

In public health, you can make that kind of difference on that kind of scale. Teaching hospitals, education, research and labs are working together to confront re-emerging infections and proliferating lifestyle diseases with a growing arsenal of intellectual and practical firepower. The torch of passionate, pragmatic idealism and selfsacrifice that burned in the early pioneers has clearly passed to the current generation of public health professionals at U of T.

If slippery superbugs can mutate into ever-more intelligent adversaries, so can human beings. James FitzGerald wrote a profile of his grandfather, Dr. Random House of Canada will publish his book An Irish Madness, a blend of family and medical history, in summer A Vancouver native, Dalla Lana earned an economics degree from the University of British Columbia and worked for a short time as an economist. The real estate market was in a slump and most of his classmates were landing jobs in investment banking or management consultancy.

Dalla Lana, 42, opted for the road less taken. We have put together our most exciting lineup of destinations ever! For those who enjoy a more active adventure, join us for some heli-hiking in the spectacular mountains of British Columbia or take a trek through Nepal. Arrive in style with a private police escort and spend the final day of the Masters walking alongside the best golfers in the world as they pursue the coveted green jacket.

To request a brochure, please call or or e-mail alumnitravel utoronto. Prices quoted are in Canadian dollars, per person and based on double occupancy. Dates and prices are subject to change. Individual tour brochures are available approximately 4 - 6 months prior to departure. At a. They quickly accelerate to 28, kilometres per hour — or 25 times the speed of sound — which hits the crew with triple the force of gravity. For Payette, who is pounds outfitted in her spacesuit, this translates into a resounding pound weight.

The space lab, which orbits kilometres above Earth, is a multibillion-dollar engineering project involving 16 nations. Research is conducted in everything from medicine to materials science and fluid physics — laying the groundwork for human missions to Mars and beyond. Constructing the station is akin to attaching Lincoln Logs: each time a shuttle goes up, astronauts transport and assemble more modules and experiments. Astronauts delivered the first module in In , and 50 missions later, the lab will reach completion.

On this trip, the crew delivers four tonnes of supplies and equipment to prepare for the first astronauts who will soon arrive to live aboard. Payette, 35, supervises an eight-hour spacewalk to repair and further assemble the station. She also operates the Canadarm and monitors the space station systems.

Ten days later, after a sixmillion-kilometre journey in orbit around Earth, the astronauts land at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. And Payette returns as the second Canadian woman to enter space after Roberta Bondar in — and the first Canadian to set foot on the International Space Station. This May, Payette, now 45, will journey to space for a second time. During the day mission, she will be operating the robotic arms, including the Canadian robotic superstars Canadarm, Canadarm 2 and Dextre.

Along with the commander and pilot, Payette will serve as part of the cockpit crew, responsible for taking the shuttle into space and back to Earth, for docking at the space station and for all manoeuvres and operations involving flying the spacecraft.

When Payette first entered the International Space Station in , it was a much smaller entity. It had only two modules and there were not any astronauts living aboard. Astronauts have lived there, on a rotating basis, since November How does she feel about returning to the station?

Payette, a self-described matter-of-fact Cartesian, is not one to deliver answers exuding with sentiment. How you do on that first flight is going to determine whether or not you fly again. After watching an Apollo mission at her primary school in Montreal, she decided she wanted to be an astronaut.

She began making scrapbooks of space missions and taped posters of astronauts to her bedroom door. And I thought this was so cool. Well, you better work, you better go to school, you better be good. You need to be able to repair things and design new things, and you certainly have to have an inclination to look at a problem and try to solve it. Operational, we call it.

In , at her next job — working in computer speech research at BellNorthern Research in Montreal — she learned that the Canadian Space Agency was accepting applications for astronauts. Payette was one of four selected. One August morning, Payette gives a tour of Building 5 and its two high-fidelity space shuttle simulators — the only two in the world.

The electricity is shut down in the cockpit, and she hunts for a flashlight. The soft illumination in the shadowed room adds an appropriately reverential feel. The windows offer simulated views of what astronauts see in space — including the Canadarm and Hubble Space Tele-. The soft illumination in the shadowed cockpit adds an appropriately reverential feel. The flight software that runs in this cockpit is real, allowing any software glitches to be caught while safely on ground.

On the other side of Building 5 is the motion-based simulator, which looks like an industrial-sized gym locker on steel haunches. In a standard four-hour session, the astronauts practise several ascents and re-entries. The crew currently practising in the simulator will soon be journeying to repair the Hubble telescope.

Perhaps the most fascinating element of Building 5 is located behind the simulators: the offices of the Machiavellics, a group of intellectual schemers who focus on a highbrow sabotage, of sorts. Officially, they are called instructors in the Motion Based Instructor Station. They have earned their nickname because they contrive scenarios that fire astronauts some serious scientific curveballs. The Machiavellics introduce problems into simulations: they kill engines, cause computers to fail, stage electrical problems and make things crash.

They are the monkey-wrench throwers and glitchcreators of NASA. Right now, they are igniting a pseudo-fire in the motion-based simulator, which the Hubble crew will have to hustle to extinguish. Like other aircraft pilots, astronauts spend a great deal of time training for worst-case scenarios and the unexpected. We basically do everything. In a mock-up of a Russian service module in Building Six later in the day, Payette sits on the floor and compares the International Space Station to a ship in a storm.

But, of course, it also requires a large dose of intrepidity. The next day, Payette will spend several hours flying a T Air Force training jet. Like all astronauts, In , Payette underwent a monthlong endurance training program at Canadian Forces Base Valcartier in Quebec, in which she and other astronauts lived and worked in sub-zero temperatures that replicated some of the environmental rigours faced on the International Space Station.

Tremendous versatility is also key: along with her piloting and engineering skills, Payette speaks six languages. She learned Russian to communicate with her counterparts from Russia who are involved with the station. While studying engineering, she also played softball, squash and badminton and was co-chair of the Lionel Massey Fund, helping to organize cultural, social and musical events for students.

Another interest that Payette pursued was music: she sang soprano with the prestigious Tafelmusik Chamber Choir in Toronto, performing baroque and classical pieces. And therefore, clearly, I needed to sing the same tune, and was not supposed to sing out of key or out of tempo. Payette says no, and believes astronauts are judged exclusively by their performance. In space exploration, she says, the distinction has to be ability because it is the key to a successful mission.

In contrast, nationality, gender, ethnic background, skin colour, mother tongue and other such characteristics actually become fairly transparent if you are considered competent at what you do. And that is a huge step again, as a species to be able to leave your home planet and go to another one.

Human beings have been wanting to fly for millenniums. Stacey Gibson is managing editor of U of T Magazine. She wrote about James Orbinski in the Spring issue. Did you Publish in ? But detection methods have gone high-tech, too By Zoe Cormier. The professor confronted the student, but she denied any wrongdoing.

Since neither Filipiuk nor the professor could prove otherwise, they were forced to award the student a high mark. Instances of academic misconduct are still rare at U of T, but have been growing in frequency for reasons that elude instructors and administrators. Some blame the abolition of Grade 13 in Ontario for leaving first-year students less well prepared for university and unaware of what constitutes.

Others say the Internet makes it too easy for students to cut and paste text into essays. Some believe that cheating is actually no more common than before, but instructors are more vigilant, leading to a greater number of students being caught.

There is no shortage of statistics about academic dishonesty, but views diverge on what the figures mean. In a widely reported University of Guelph study of more than 13, undergraduates at Canadian universities, which was conducted in , slightly more than half of respondents admitted to having cheated on written work. Hillan notes that this increase coincides with an almost 50 per cent increase in enrolment. When measured against the total student population, just 0.

Like many U of T professors, Wakefield has begun using the website turnitin. The site also checks student work against more than five billion web pages. Two years later, the researchers formed a company, iParadigms, to license turnitin.

The company later expanded the software to identify material copied from the Internet. Thousands of institutions in more than countries, including 45 colleges and universities in Canada, now use turnitin. Instructors use their judgment to determine if a student has plagiarized a work, quoted a passage without proper citation or coincidentally written sentences that resemble passages from turnitin.

U of T licenses turnitin. Under university policy, professors can ask students to voluntarily submit their work to the website. Professors create accounts for their courses at turnitin. Students establish a password-protected profile through which they can upload essays and other work. Students who object to using the site can prove the originality of their work in other ways, such as by submitting a series of rough drafts. Approximately U of T faculty members, or about one-fifth of the total, use the site.

Adrienne Hood, associate chair of the history department, has used turnitin. In her view, the site acts as a deterrent. At the beginning of each term, she tells students why she uses turnitin. She also warns that U of T considers plagiarism a serious offence. Hood reports that none of her students have objected to her using turnitin. This allows me to spend more time giving feedback and, ultimately, to teach better. Of the students who oppose the use of turnitin.

Dave Scrivener, a fourth-year Canadian Studies and anthropology student and vice-president of external affairs for the University of Toronto Students Union, has been a vociferous objector. He has argued that because turnitin. Patriot Act — controversial legislation enacted after that gives the American government unprecedented access to private information. He says that the American government could, hypothetically, scan turnitin. Students at U of T and on other Canadian campuses have also raised concerns over turnitin.

The firm concluded that the website does not violate student intellectual property rights. Along with some students, there are others who would prefer not to use the service. English professor Nick Mount opposes using turnitin. Instead, at the beginning of the year, he assigns an in-class essay to assess how well each student writes. Most professors find it extremely difficult to confront a student about plagiarism; it can emotionally devastate the student.

I keep a box of Kleenex in my desk for those occasions. Some will always want to cheat. But most students cheat when they are bored and scared — it is my job as a teacher to make sure they are not bored and scared. For more information call 1. Eastern Standard Time. Or visit www. You also acknowledge that the account, if approved, will not be used by any third party other than a third party specifically designated by you, and then only in accordance with MBNA policies and procedures then in effect.

MasterCard is a registered trademarks of MasterCard International, Incorporated, and is used pursuant to licence. Imagine denying even one promising student an education. For donors like you. Thank you to all of our generous donors. We are grateful for your continued support. The renovated John H. Daniels Faculty will also boost studio space for students. We thank them for the enduring legacy of their gifts. Bonham Terrence Donnelly Stephen R.

Anderson Kathleen F. Banbury Reginald A. Hunt Bernard E. Chan Sadie Maura J. McGibbon William F. McLean Robert W. Peters Helen D. Phelan Eugene V. Michael Walsh John H. Watson John B. Associates of the University of Toronto, Inc. AstraZeneca Canada Inc. Bruker BioSpin Ltd. Manulife Financial. Maple Financial Group Inc. Massey College The Andrew W. Shoppers Drug Mart Southam Inc. Stevelyn Holdings Ltd. TSX Group Inc. Cadario Richard J. Currie Peter D. Davenport Edward L.

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Best Foundation J. Digital Specialty Chemicals Ltd. Alazzawi Cameron Allen Derek P. Allen Douglas Allen Mary W. Allen Peter A. Atkinson Murray Darrell R. Avram George A. Rolph Bell Brent Belzberg R. Rodney H. Box J. Edward Boyce E. Chun Ruth M. Coote William J. Corcoran Murray A.

Davie Bryan P. Davies and Andra Takacs Michael B. Davies Glen Davis William B. Davis F. Doob Jon Dorrington Bryce W. Dyck B. Craig Ferguson John C. Field Edgar F. File Jack M. Fine J. Fraser Brian D. Green Barbara H. Greene Edward L. Greenspan Rose Greenstein Wilfrid P. Gregory Anthony J. Ham Lynda C. The decision to start therapy is influenced by the individual's capacity to adequately intake the nutritional requirements, by nutritional status and by the type of underlying disease.

When there is evidence of malnutrition or hypercatabolism, therapy should be started early on. Nutritional requirements are often neglected in clinical practice. Urea nitrogen appearance rate UNA measurements, which reflect protein catabolism, 22 and the assessment of energy requirements are not routine practice. The formulae usually used to calculate energy requirements may underestimate these requirements among ARF patients, since they are based on healthy individuals with normal body fluid distribution.

The undesirable effects of nutritional therapy are another limitation on its use. Excessive supplementation of proteins increases the end products of protein metabolism. The provision of large amounts of nutrients requires the infusion of considerable quantities of fluids, carbohydrates and lipids, and this may cause volume overload and undesirable electrolytic and metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypernatremia or hyponatremia.

Although most of these changes may be controlled by dialysis, the possibility of such changes induces physicians to use more conservative approaches towards nutritional therapy, thereby inadvertently contributing to a worsening of the nutritional status of ARF patients.

Nutritional programs must be individually designed for each ARF patient. In clinical practice, patients may be divided into three groups, 22 according to the degree of catabolism, which may be evaluated by calculating the UNA rate Table 1. These patients are mildly catabolic, i.

Such patients are usually fed orally and the prognosis for the recovery of renal function and survival is excellent. These are ARF patients with moderate catabolism, frequently suffering from infectious or surgical complications. The use of enteral or parenteral nutrition and dialysis is often required.

These patients should receive essential and non-essential amino acids at a dose of 0. These are patients who develop ARF in association with severe trauma, severe burn injuries and sepsis. The treatment for this population is complex and includes parenteral nutrition and dialysis. Ventilatory and hemodynamic support are often required.

The nutritional requirements for reducing catabolism and minimizing protein depletion are high. It should be stressed that, in groups II and III, even early and optimized use of nutritional support will hardly be able to offset the marked negative nitrogen balance observed in such patients. Nutritional therapy in ARF patients must include an individualized program to meet the nutritional needs of several degrees of stress and hypercatabolism.

In these patients, the major determinants of nutritional requirements are not the ARF itself, but the degree of catabolism of the associated diseases, the nutritional status and the type and frequency of dialysis.

If there is evidence of malnutrition or hypercatabolism, the therapy should be started early. So far, there is no clear evidence that any specific type of nutritional support is capable of changing the natural history of ARF.

The methods for evaluating the nutritional status and short-term nutritional changes among critically ill patients are insensitive albumin and anthropometric parameters , have low specificity transferrin and prealbumin or are difficult to carry out nitrogen balance.

A sensitive, specific and easy-to-measure marker is clearly required for the early diagnosis of malnutrition in ARF. Hospital-acquired renal insufficiency: a prospective study. Am J Med. Acute renal failure in the medical intensive care unit: predisposing, complicating factors and outcome. Epidemiology of acute renal failure and outcome of haemodiafiltration in intensive care. Intensive Care Med. The effect of acute renal failure on mortality.

A cohort analysis. Predictors of mortality and the provision of dialysis in patients with acute tubular necrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. Prognostic stratification in critically ill patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis.

Arch Intern Med. Crit Care Med. Incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital. Protein status of general surgical patients. The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. Improved survival from acute renal failure after treatment with intravenous essential L-amino acids and glucose.

Results of a prospective, double-blind study. The influence of parenteral nutrition on the course of acute renal failure. Surg Gynecol Obstet. Prevailing patterns and predictor variables in patients with acute tubular necrosis. A comparison of essential and general amino acid infusions in the nutritional support of patients with compromised renal function.

Total parenteral nutrition infusate. An approach to its optimal composition in post-trauma acute renal failure. Clinical and metabolic responses to parenteral nutrition in acute renal failure. A controlled double-blind study. Medicine Baltimore. Does treatment with essential amino acids and hypertonic glucose improve survival in acute renal failure?

A meta-analysis. Ren Fail. Om P, Hohenegger M. Energy metabolism in acute uremic rats. Energy metabolism in acute and chronic renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr. Energy expenditure in postoperative multiple organ failure with acute renal failure.

Clin Nephrol. Druml W. Nutritional support in acute renal failure. In: Handbook of nutrition and kidney. Mitch WE, Klahr S, editors. Protein metabolism in acute renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab. Muscle protein turnover and glucose uptake in acutely uremic rats.

Effects of insulin and the duration of renal insufficiency. J Clin Invest. Does parathyroid hormone cause protein wasting? Contrib Nephrol. Protein catabolism in acute renal failure. Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. Amino acid losses during hemodialysis: effects of high-solute flux and parenteral nutrition in acute renal failure. Hakim RM. Clinical implications of hemodialysis membrane biocompatibility. Effect of the dialysis membrane in the treatment of patients with acute renal failure.

Effects of dose of dialysis on morbidity and mortality. Am J Kidney Dis. Ikizler TA, Himmelfarb J. Nutrition in acute renal failure patients. Adv Ren Replace Ther. Dose of dialysis in acute renal failure. Semin Dial.

The insulin-like growth factor-I axis in acute renal failure. Relationship of visceral proteins to nutritional status in chronic and acute stress. Daughaday WH, Rotwein P. Insulin-like growth factors I and II. Peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid and gene structures, serum, and tissue concentrations. Endocr Rev. Synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor and its binding protein by the perfused rat liver: dependence on growth hormone status.

Estimation of somatomedin-C levels in normals and patients with pituitary disease by radioimmunoassay. Tissue concentrations of somatomedin C: further evidence for multiple sites of synthesis and paracrine or autocrine mechanisms of action. Insulin-like growth factors; autocrine, paracrine or endocrine? New perspectives of the somatomedin hypothesis in the light of recent developments. J Endocrinol.

Induction of immunoreactive somatomedin C human serum by growth hormone: dose-response relationships and effect on chromatographic profiles.

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