In Sikhism the relation among classes based on economic resources is envisaged in terms of equality. It rejects the notion of superiority of the economically better placed class over others. The Guru says:. Thus in Sikhism the higher classes are not governed by any separate code of ethics, but all men, rich or poor, are entitled to equal judgement, value and social equality. Since the death is the leveller, the Guru highlights this notion:.
Therefore improper consideration of the superiority of rank are based on a wrong conception of the nature of the world. The need for the recognition of human dignity, irrespective of economic classes, is also stressed in an anecdote from the biography of Guru Nanak called the story of Bhai Lalo and Malik Bhago. In that incident Guru Nanak refused a rather sumptuous dinner of Malik Bhago for the ordinary bread of the coarse grain of Bhai Lalo.
The moral is drawn that the poor ought not to be treated as low, all must be treated as equal irrespective of their material resources. The position of a woman in the society in India, has not been always the same. While at times she had been accorded a very high status, there are also historical and scriptural instances when under some influences, she has been relegated to an inferior position.
At the start of Sikhism the status of women was very low in Indian society. In Sikhism it is considered preposterous to regard woman a 'temptress' or 'seductress' or 'unclean'. The Guru does not regard 'woman' as an obstruction on the way to ultimate goal of Eternal Bliss. This being so, the Guru rejects asceticism or renunciation as the requisite pathway, and regards the house-holder's life if it is led in a righteous manner, superior to that of an ascetic. By emphasizing this type of vision to the people, the Guru stresses that women should be given honorable status in every social segment of the society.
Guru Nanak asserted that women were not at all inferior to men:. This declaration shows unequivocally the high esteem in which a woman's status is held in Sikhism. Woman 'the mother of mighty heroes' is elevated to the highest position in the hierarchy of beings. In the moral codes of the Sikhs a large number of injunctions deal with the rejection of unethical practices like- i female infanticide; ii immolation of the widow Sati with the deceased husband, and iii wearing of veils by women.
Guru Amar Das, the third Master, carried out a vigorous campaign against this practice of Sati, and thereby he emancipated the women from this social oppression and religious cruelty. The Guru declared that "the Sati is one who lives contented and embellishes herself with good conduct, and cherishes the Lord ever and calls on Him.
One of the most notable social improvement was the emancipation of women. Many women found salvation through the Guru's teachings. In Sikhism widow remarriage is also permitted whereby the widow can be rehabilitated if she so desires.
Where the lovers of Truth hold communion with One Lord alone. Guru Nanak attached great importance to the setting up of Sangats, the holy assemblies, and wherever he went, he tried to establish them. The Divine Word Gurbani and the Sat Sangat were the only two means that the Guru employed to rid the people of their selfishness and evil passions; and finally for their salvation and for uniting them with God:. It is well recognized fact that spiritual progress cannot be achieved without the company of the Holy.
The society of the holy is the means of destroying egoism and helps one in freeing oneself from evil passions:. Just as iron floats when tied to timber So will one cross the ocean of life by following The Guru's Word in the company of the saints.
Wherever Guru Nanak went, the Sikhs built Gurdwara house of the Guru and met there every day and formed into a regular Sangat. From the time of the third Master, Guru Amar Das, it was felt that the Sikhs should have their own seats of religion. He founded the town of Chak Ram Das which subsequently got its present name, Amritsar; and he got a Bawli a well with staircase reaching down to the water surface constructed at Goindwal.
The fourth and fifth Masters also evinced great interest in building up new religious centers for their followers such as Amritsar, Kartarpur etc. These religious centers formed a great cementing force for the rising Sikh community.
The Sikh Sangats from far and near used to visit these centers and had the opportunity not only meeting the Holy Guru and having his blessings, but also coming into close contact with one another. During their visit they were provided with free accommodation and free food. Simron participation in daily religious service and seva participation in the community projects and Guru ka Langar, kitchen were the two major constituents of the daily routine of the visiting Sikhs.
These close contacts formed the bases of a well-integrated Sikh organization. The process of integration of Sikhism went hand in hand with the enlargement of its ranks. During the time of the third Guru, there were twenty-two manjis and fifty-two piris, which were all big and small centers for the spread of Sikh religion in the country. Guru Ram Das, the fourth Master, established a new order of missionaries called Masands. This new order was reorganized and elaborated by the fifth Guru.
As the number of new Sikh Sangats grew larger in the country, the mode of initiation of prospective Sikhs through the ceremony of Charanpauhal Charanamrit was allowed to all authorized missionaries. Although the ideal Charanamrit was the one administered by the Guru himself, since it was not possible for the Guru to be present physically everywhere, the authority of initiation was delegated to local missionaries.
The bulk of the people who came to the fold of Sikhism as a result of the above efforts, were drawn from the commercial classes mostly dwelling in the towns. During the period of the fifth Guru, the movement became popular in the country side also, with the result that a large number of Majha Jats embraced Sikhism. Finances are most necessary for the success of any movement.
In the beginning, the voluntary offerings of the devotees were sufficient. When big projects were undertaken, the existing practice was found inadequate. In order to meet the situation, the masands were required not merely to concentrate on the dissemination of Sikh teachings, but also to collect voluntary offerings from the faithful and to bring them to the headquarters of the Guru. In the very beginning Sikh sangat was merely a religious gathering of devotees, functioning more or less in isolation.
Gradually there was an increase in its functions. Preparation of copies of holy scripture, the building up of certain religious centers, institutions of Manjis and Masands as the agencies of the central leadership and the assertion of the principle of the supremacy of the Guru, all these factors were common links in uniting one to another. Therefore, the isolation of one from another was lessened. The movement continued till it culminated in the creation of the Khalsa aimed at a well-balanced combination of the ideals of Bhakti and Shakti, of moral and spiritual excellence and militant valour or heroism of the highest order.
A day before he left this world, Guru Gobind Singh made the historic announcement abolishing the line of personal Guruship and conferring the powers of deliberation upon the Khalsa. With the foundation of the Khalsa, the network of semi-integrated Sangats was fully integrated.
The investing of Khalsa with supreme power, marked the completion of this long process of about two and a half centuries. Any one irrespective of caste, creed and cline can become a member of the Sangat. All services can be performed by the Sikh and non-Sikh devotees except the functions of baptism which can only be performed by the ordained Khalsa who has lived up to the ideals.
Sangat is not merely a gathering of worshippers nor is it just a forum for seeking personal salvation and blessedness, but it has stood for the total re-orientation of life of the individuals and society towards a creative purposeful existence. Sangat was considered to be so important that even the Gurus used to submit to the decisions of it. Guru Arjan did not marry his son to Chandu's daughter because Sangat had decided against it.
Another institution, that of Pangat or Langar free common messing , organized almost simultaneously with that of Sangat. It was initiated by Guru Nanak and its consolidation and extension was affected by the third Guru. The rules of the Langar require that all should sit in the same row and partake of the same food without any distinction of high or low, rich or poor, and prince or the peasant.
It was the injunction of Guru Amar Das that none could have his audience unless he had eaten in the Langar. When the Raja of Haripur or even Emperor Akbar, came to see the Guru, they had to sit with other common people and dine together with them before the Master gave consent to see them. In this way the people were made to renounce their social prejudices. Common kitchen also served as a medium of social integration.
The institution of Pangat imparted a secular dimension to the Sangat. Most importantly it translated the principle of equality into practice, and it also served as a cementing force among the followers of Sikhism. This institution provides safeguard against the immoral social practice of untouchability which is a by-product of the caste system. This institution is run with the help and contributions of all and not by any one particular person or class of persons.
The free kitchen where prince and peasant could mess together, fostered a spirit of charity on a large scale and also became a powerful binding force. The ideal of social equality is not the ultimate aim of the ethics of Sikhism. This equality may be maintained without feeling any affection or regard for each other, but such bare equality would not be enough because it does not conform to the ideal of humanistic morality.
Hence in order to make it whole, it should be saturated with the idea of spiritual unity of mankind. The Guru stated:. As from a heap of dust, grains of dust sweep up and fill the air, and filling it fall in a heap of dust. As out of single stream, countless waves rise up and being water, fall back in water again. So from God's form emerge alive and inanimate things and since they arise from Him, they shall fall in Him again. This means that every human being deserves to be treated as a member of the same human brotherhood.
The fellow human being is not an 'other'. The other is in fact not an 'other' but a co-sharer of the same source of emanation and a part of the same spiritual order. This sense of brotherhood of humanity is, thus, linked together by bonds deeper than family, social or national affinities. This brotherhood of mankind in terms of God being the common father is stressed by the Guru:. According to the Guru, the brotherhood is the reality but it is hidden from us by the veil of houmai I-am-ness or individuation.
Houmai is the dirt over our mind which it has gathered during the process of transmigration. Once this dirt over our mind is removed and the veil of houmai I-am-ness is felled, the relationship across the human lines becomes a clear reality. As long as our minds remain under veil of I-am-ness, our understanding will continue to be hollow and away from reality. How do we clean our mind? Once mind becomes pure, it attains a spiritual height in which reality opens up and all delusion is gone and then sense of universal brotherhood prevails: "There is One father of us all And we are children of the same father.
All this world which you behold is God's image; God's image appeareth in it. Saith Nanak, these eyes were blind, but on meeting the true Guru they obtained divine light. Once by the grace of the Guru, our heart is filled with divine light, then there is no 'other', there is no enmity, no hatred, but it is all altruism and service for the brotherhood of mankind.
In the practical experience we find an example of Bhai Ghanaya. In the battlefield Bhai Ghanaya was on duty to serve water to the thirsty. He was found serving water to the Sikhs as well as to the Hindus and Muslims alike. The Sikhs complained to the Guru that Bhai Ghanaya was serving water to the enemy soldiers who after getting water, became afresh and fought against them.
The Guru sent for him and asked him what the Sikhs had complained. Bhai Ghanaya replied," O true king, I do not see who is a friend and who is a foe. I see your image in every one of them alike. I saw that they were all your Sikhs and none else and so I served water to every one of them. This is the desired mental stage commanded by the Guru when a person's mind is lifted above the lines of religion, color, race or national entity; and the sense of real universal brotherhood is born:.
Sikhism believes in it, stands for it and takes practical measures to realize it. There are numerous examples in the Sikh history to emphasize this fact. Guru Nanak travelled for fourteen years on foot and he covered the area from Assam Hills in the east of India to as far as Iran and Iraq in the west; from Tibet in the north to Ceylon in the south. During this long journey he went to various famous Hindu temples and their learning centers, Maths of Sidhas, and the various centers of Mohammadans including Mecca, and delivered the Divine Message brotherhood of mankind and Fatherhood of God for which he came to this world.
Never he asked any one to become his disciple in order to go to heaven. He rather held guarantee to the entire humanity that if a person, irrespective of race, color, caste, creed, sex, religion or nationality, meditated on God, the Formless One, would get deliverance:. Sikhism fully stands for universal brotherhood in word and in spirit. Every Sikh living in every corner of the world when he prays in the morning and in the evening, ends his prayer by saying:.
Some artists have painted imaginary pictures of all the ten Gurus. Have these artists ever seen the Gurus? One can find these pictures hanging in almost all the Gurdwaras and in the majority of the Sikh homes. The irony of fate is that many of the Sikhs place garlands of flowers upon these pictures and also burn incense in front of them. Is it not idol picture worship?
How can we call this Gurmat? From Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh, emphasis was laid to worship only one God, the Formless, and they strongly forbade the worship of idols, crematoriums, Samadhies, tombs etc. These picture worshippers quote the following verses of Gurbani in support of their action:.
The Gurmat Guru's teaching explains that true Guru is not a physical body and therefore the body is not considered to be worthy of any kind of worship:. Therefore, the meaning of "Gur ki murat man meh dhayan" is clearly not the worship of Guru's picture but to put attention in the meaning of the Sabad Word. Gurbani confirms that by seeing Guru's physical body, salvation cannot be attained:. If by seeing Guru's body one can get salvation, then Mehta Kaluji would not have slapped his son, Guru Nanak.
Since the father had seen the Guru, he should have attained salvation. Instead history has recorded that Mehta Kaluji could not see the Divine Light in his son and continued slapping him. If by seeing Guru's body one can get salvation, both sons, Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das, would not have disobeyed the Guru, their father. The executioner who was pouring hot sand over the naked body of Guru Arjan, would not have done that, because he had seen the Guru and should have gotten salvation.
The executioner would not have severed the head of Guru Tegh Bahadur, because he had seen the Guru. Therefore, when the Guru Jot was in human body even then the mere sight of the Guru's physical body did not give salvation to any one, how can these Fake Pictures salvage us? They can only derail us from the true prescribed path of Gurmat. Some Sikhs are also wearing necklaces with Guru's picture around their necks. Is it Gurmat? This is totally manmat,this is perverseness.
Guru is not an idol. Guru is not a picture. Guru is not a human body. After he breathed his last, none could find Guru Nanak's body. Therefore Guru is JOT. Guru is Divine Light. Guru is All-pervading Divine Spirit. Guru is Divine Word Gurbani. To garland the imaginary pictures of the Gurus is totally anti-Gurmat. How can we have Guru's blessings when we act against the very dictum of the Guru?
The Impersonal Absolute cannot be installed as an image. He has no form and, thus, cannot be described through symbols. Such actions in themselves would not win Guru's approbation. Without total allegiance to the Guru's order, Sikh faith would be burried deep under a heap of senseless dogmas, meaningless rituals and ceremonial acts.
Sikhism is not a dogma but a way of life lived according to Guru Rahit Maryada code of conduct. A Sikh has to hold his Guru's word as paramount in his daily existence. Without glorifying His presence in one's existence, life will be contaminated and polluted and will be in deplorable state which will lead to spiritual degeneration. Deep and continuous contemplation on Nam is needed and is indispensable for the exalted state of Sikh character. Nam is neither a philosophy nor knowledge to be gained from books.
It dwells within and is realized from within through the grace of the true Guru Gurbani - Divine Word. Let the following be our daily supplication:. Illuminate my mind with the Name Divine! There is no place for austerities and torturing of the body as a way of salvation.
Sikhs are directed to concentrate their minds on God, to reflect on God's virtues such as love, benevolence, and kindness. Sikhs practice this to inculcate such virtues into their own character. This can be done by reciting Gurbani, by listening to the singing of hymns from Gurbani, or by sitting in a quiet place and attentively thinking of God, forgetting all else. Through this constant meditation, and not simply the repeating of a mantra, Sikhs develop a feeling of affection and love for humanity.
Such a person does not merely talk about the brotherhood of humanity but actually tries to feel it continuously throughout their life. The thought of being a member of this human family becomes stronger and stronger and soon this fact is reflected in the daily behavior of the devotee.
Such a Sikh derives immense pleasure and satisfaction by observing the presence of God in every human being. This achievement or realization changes the thinking and behavior of such persons and instead of hurting others, they enjoy utilizing their life serving society. They cannot think of doing any act to harm others, because they "see" the living God inside every human being. This is why Nam is given the highest priority in the Sikh faith.
Sikhs are advised to earn their livelihood by honest means. They are not supposed to be a parasites on society. Non-earners become dependent on others and because of this, are influenced to think and act as their benefactors expect.
Such a person is unable to think or act independently. Furthermore, a Sikh's earnings, however large or small, should come from honest means. If a person is dishonest, and takes what is not justly his, the Gurus declare these earnings as the 'blood of the poor'. They are prohibited to Sikhs, just as beef is prohibited to Hindus and pork to Muslims. There is temptation to live a comfortable life by earning money through unfair means.
The Gurus want us to resist this desire by keeping in mind that such earnings pollute the mind in the same way that blood stains our clothes. Only honest earnings are like "milk" and hence "nourishing". The term means to earn a honest, pure and dedicated living by exercising ones God given skills, abilities, talents and hard labour for the benefit and improvement of the individual, their family and society at large.
This means to work with determination and focus by the sweat of your brows and not to be lazy and to waste your life to time. To do these things without 'personal gain' becoming your main motivation - Make Simran and dedication of the work to God your main motivation.
It is equal to your Sunday Service attendance at your place of worship. The Guru is pleased with those who long for His Sikhs. As the True Guru directs them, they do their work and chant their prayers. The recitation of Nam helps disciples realize that they are members of the human brotherhood. This thought creates in them feelings of kindness and love for those who need their help.
As a consequence, they enjoy sharing their earnings with those less fortunate. The Guru advises them that it is their duty to share their earnings with the needy just as it is the duty of parents to supply their children with clothing and other necessities. This sharing must be done out of a sense of responsibility, and not of pride.
A person can judge their closeness to God by sharing their bread with the needy. If this can be done without feeling as if they are doing someone a favor, then they are on the right path and are close to God. Some broadcast their contributions and feel proud of their "benefactor"image.
It is this ego ahankar that denies them the spiritual benefits obtained by remaining humble. The Guru advises us to worship only the one almighty God and not to worship forces of the universe or mythical beings. It is the Creator, and not the creation, that is important. Hinduism encourages its followers to venerate many different mediators. It differs from Sikhism in this fundamental issue and because of this, Sikhism cannot be considered a sect of Hinduism.
How do Sikhs worship God? By thinking of Him and by believing in the brotherhood of mankind. For Sikhs, God does not reside in the seventh or fourteenth sky, or any other place far from the earth. God lives in the hearts of humans. There is no place without Him. He expresses Himself through His creation. In other words, worship of God is accomplished by meditating on Him, His virtues and His grace.
Sikhs are required to regularly read and understand the Gurbani written within the Guru Granth Sahib. Gurbani teaches God's virtues and how they can be revealed to us. The daily recitation of hymns reminds us repeatedly of the pitfalls of egotism, anger, lust, attachment, and greed.
The hymns encourage readers to develop good character by constantly reminding that these virtues bring peace. Sikhs accept the word of the Guru as their guide. They regard the Guru Granth Sahib as their living Guru because from Gurbani, they obtain the spiritual guidance they need.
Sikhs do not worship pictures or idols of God or the Gurus. Nor do they honor any living individual as their Guru. They respect the decision of the corporate body of the Singhs, the Khalsa, since the tenth Guru bestowed the authority of Guruship on this body.
The importance that Sikhs attach to working and wishing well for others can be seen in the fact that Sikhs pray aloud at least twice a day:. This belief in the oneness of humanity, and the insistence on working for the welfare of all people, whether Sikhs or not, at the cost of sacrificing one's life, is what sets Sikhism apart from religions. In a world, which is torn by strife because of differing beliefs, Sikhism is unique. Sikhs treat all people with equal respect, irrespective of their faith.
All people are offered free meals and other facilities in Gurudwaras. Sikhs do not harbour ill will against any person, including adversaries. There are numerous examples of Sikhs helping foes in need. Three centuries ago, Guru Gobind Singh made arrangements to take care of and help all the wounded after battle, whether they were his own men or his opponents. It has been explained in the discussion of Nam Japna that Sikhs respect all persons.
People may appear different because of their language, color, social habits but these variations are superficial and the result of different cultures and climates. Internally, we all have the same spirit. Just as gold can be made into ornaments of different designs but it remains gold, so people's outward appearances can be different but still they remain human beings created by the same God. For Sikhs, as for the followers of many other faiths, lying, cheating, stealing etc. Sexual relations are restricted to married couples only.
Recognizing that during the medieval ages, after battle women of the defeated side were often raped as an expression of power over the enemy, Guru Gobind Singh ordered that any person guilty of rape would be expelled from the Khalsa Panth. The moral character of Sikhs, in war and in peace, was praised highly by Muslim historians of those times.
Nur Mohammed, though he expresses extreme hatred for Sikhs, still cannot help admitting their high character. In no case would they slay a coward, nor would they put an obstacle in the way of a fugitive. They do not plunder the wealth or ornaments of a woman, be she a well-to-do lady or a maidservant. There is no adultery among these 'dogs' nor are these mischievous people given to thieving. Whether a woman is young or old, they call her a 'buriya' and ask her to get out of the way.
The word "buriya" in the Indian language means "an old lady. They do not make friends with adulterers. We sometimes suffer from the misconception that we alone are responsible for the benefits we gain from our labors. Sikhs believe that these benefits are gifts from God and we are mere actors on stage. God rewards us and whether our efforts are successful is determined by His will.
If we accept this philosophy, we will always be in peace with ourselves and with our environment and we will stop worrying about the 'failure' of our efforts. God has given us life, an expression of His Will. He has created the sun, the moon, vegetation, animals and everything else without which we cannot survive. When we plant a fruit tree, it grows naturally, with the help of sun and rain, and it bears fruit all without our help. Laws of nature govern the smallest seed and the largest plant.
The philosophy, that everything happens according to God's will, can be explained by another example. A person driving on a road finds an old woman walking. She stops the car, picks up the woman, and drops her at her home. Although it appears that the driver's body has carried out these actions, in fact, these actions originated in the mind due to a desire to help.
Hence, actually it is the mind, controlled by the nature of the soul that helped the old woman. The body of the driver was merely an agent, which executed the decision for the 'mind. We are the executors of His Will. If we choose an action, which we think is right, only to discover that it does not eliminate the situation we set out to abolish, we should not consider that our right action was useless.
We should trust that in God's larger plan, which we cannot understand, our right action has meaning and effort. We must believe that every righteous action will eventually lead to a favorable result. The faith that our right actions are part of God's great design, even if we do not see the results, dispels worries about our failures and brings us peace. We will realize God's presence in ourselves; there is no higher goal in life than that.
Thus Sikhism was not the 'transvaluation' of the existing faiths and cults; it ushered in a new spiritual as well as social and political matrix of conduct for mankind. Sikhism does not support militarism or glorification of war and yet wielding the sword is warranted in extenuating circumstances. Sikhism upholds war against oppression and aggression.
The sword is a symbol of power both temporal and spiritual in Sikhism. A Sikh doesn't frighten anyone nor is he afraid of anyone. Technically, the first date of Sikhism is , the year of Guru, Nanak's birth, but ideologically its origins may well he traced in the twelfth century, when the celebrated poet Jaidev and Sufi saint Sheikh Farid flourished on the soil of India. Their hymns find a place of honour in the Guru Granth, compiled in The fact that Oamkar in the Mantra is preceded by I one shows that in spite of the many-ness of the revealed world, its oneness is not to be lost sight of.
It is rnonistic in character, though pluralistic in content. It is many, yet one. In this I-Thou relationship of love between man and God, the pole of human love is expressed in terms of loving devotion, and the other pole, of God's love for man, in terms of his Grace. Both are complementary to each other; both taken together constitute the make-up of ideal person of the Guru's conception. It refers to the highest spiritual state of the individual, in tune with the Ultimate and at peace with human society.
The foremost was the institution of Guruship itself. Guru Arjan Dev refers to the ideal state which guarantees comfort and welfare of the people, calling it 'Halemi Raj'. Sense of humility and justice are its hall-mark. Both share a common objective, namely, welfare of man. Unlike many other Eastern philosophies which preach asceticism and escapism, the Sikh religion exists as a faith of life-affirmation.
A Sikh regards the world not as a place of suffering, but as a meaningful creation of God wherein noble, truthful, and selfless actions can bring a person closer to realizing Him. Sikhism preaches universal equality, and therefore, regards all religions and people as equal before the eyes of God. Every Sikh is expected to recite it daily. The English translation is given below:. The Sikh religion is strictly monotheistic, believing in One Supreme God. Absolute yet All-pervading, the Eternal, the Creator, the Cause of Causes, without enmity, without hate, both Immanent in His creation and beyond it.
That being so, He creates man not to punish him for his sins, but for the realization of his true purpose in the cosmos and to merge in from where he issued forth. Guru Granth, P. The basic postulate of Sikhism is that life is not sinful in its origin, but having emanated from a Pure Source, the True One abides in it.
Thus sayeth Nanak:. Not only the whole of Sikh Philosophy, but the whole of Sikh history and character, flows from 'this principle'. The Sikhs do not recognize the caste system nor do they believe in Idol-worship, rituals, or superstitions.
The gods and goddesses are considered as nonentities. This religion consists of practical living, in rendering service to humanity and engendering tolerance and brotherly love towards all. The Sikh Gurus did not advocate retirement from the world in order to attain salvation. It can be achieved by anyone who earns an honest living and leads a normal life.
Nanak gave new hope to the down-trodden mankind to join his fraternity as equals. Riches and personal possessions are not hinderence in living by spiritual ideals. On the other hand the Sikh dictum is as under:. Sikhismdoes not accept the ideology of pessimism. It advocates optimism and hope. The maxim, "Resist not evil but whosoever shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other also", does not find any place in Sikh way of life.
On the other hand it enjoins its followers:. The message of Sikhism is contained within the sacred writings of the Gurus, forever enshrined in the Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahib the writings of Guru Gobind Singh form another compilation. The Guru Granth Sahib consists of the writings of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and ninth Gurus, as well as the writings of several prominent saints who were either contemporaries of, or lived before, the Sikh Gurus.
The writings of these non-Sikh mystics correspond to the teachings of the Sikh Gurus; and more importantly, the inclusion of their writings into the Sikh holy scripture indicates the universality of Sikh philosophy. According to Sikh religious thought, God is both transcendent and immanent. God is beyond the empirical universe what can be sensed or measured , but resides in it as well.
Since God exists within and beyond existence itself, human beings can aspire toward living and acting in accordance with His will. Sikhism accepts the idea of reincarnation. Life as a human being is considered the last step before realizing God. Whether or not one attains union with God depends on that one person's actions in this life. Guru Amar Das, the third Sikh prophet writes:. Having gained a body this time, A rare opportunity you have got; This is your chance to meet God.
Your other pursuits will be of no avail at the end. Seek the company of holy men, And learn to meditate on God. Set your mind on crossing the sea of life; Life is being wasted away in pursuits of sensual pleasures. Essentially, according to Sikh philosophy, human beings should free themselves from the cycle of reincarnation births and deaths by abandoning self-centeredness and embracing God-centeredness.
In Sikhism, God is metaphorically known as Truth. With this in mind, a human being who embraces God-centeredness is living a life devoted to the fulfillment of Truth. Furthermore, Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh prophet states that:. In Sikhism, surrendering to the Will of God implicitly requires that man abandon ego.
Guru Nanak makes this point clear when he addresses God, saying:. Sikh philosophy is composed of progressive ideals, a positive worldview, and a crystal-clear message: a Sikh constantly learns to be a better human being. Not coincidentally, the word itself, Sikh disciple , is indicative of the perpetual learning process that is life. In Sikhism, a human being, in order to attain God, must rise above five basic vices: lust, anger, greed, pride, ego.
Anyone who successfully avoids these five transgressions, and who lives a truthful living, is considered to be a God-conscious person. Sikhism recognizes other faiths as equally conducive for the development of spirituality; however, as a revealed and distinct religion in of itself, Sikhism offers its followers a viable path toward the selfsame goal, God. The founder of the Sikh religion was Guru Nanak who was born in He preached a message of love and understanding and criticized the blind rituals of the Hindus and Muslims.
Guru Nanak passed on his enlightened leadership of this new religion to nine successive Gurus. The final living Guru, Guru Gobind Singh passed away in The Khalsa uphold the highest Sikh virtues of commitment, dedication and a social conscious.
The Khalsa are men and women who have undergone the Sikh baptism ceremony and who strictly follow the Sikh Code of Conduct and Conventions and wear the prescribed physical articles of the faith. One of the more noticeable being the uncut hair required to be covered with a turban for men and the Kirpan ceremonial sword. Before his death in Guru Gobind Singh declared that the Sikhs no longer needed a living and appointed his spiritual successor as Sri Guru Granth Sahib, his physical successor as the Khalsa.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is unique in the world of religious scriptures because not only is it accorded the status of being the spiritual head of the Sikh religion, but besides the poetry of the Gurus, it also contains the writings of saints of other faiths whose thoughts were consistent with those of the Sikh Gurus. Sikhism does not have priests, which were abolished by Guru Gobind Singh.
The Guru felt that they had become corrupt and full of ego. All people of all religions are welcome to the Gurudwara. A free community kitchen can be found at every Gurudwara which serves meals to all people of all faiths. Guru Nanak first started this institution which outline the basic Sikh principles of service, humility and equality.
It is the inspirational and historical center of Sikhism but is not a mandatory place of pilgrimage or worship. The holiest of the Sikh scriptures is Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Granth Sahib is the only world scripture which was compiled during the life time of its compiler. All other world scriptures were compiled many years after the death of the prophet. The work of compilation was started in and finished in Hindu saints were from both higher and lower castes, e. The Bhagats also represented different parts of India, e.
The text of Guru Granth Sahib is composed in poetry and is arranged in Musical measures. Thirty one out of the 39 Chapters have a musical measure as a heading. Musical measures refer to the timing, rhythm, and mood of singing a particular hymn. There are 31 musical measures ragas used in the Granth. The structure of the compositions differ from hymn to hymn. The popular formations are as follows:.
Verses of praise Chhants of different lengths. Each composition composed by the Sikh Gurus ends with the name Nanak as the composer. The heading of the hymns, however, indicates the name number of the Guru who had actually composed it.
Guru Arjan has used a numeral system to number the hymns included in Guru Granth Sahib to avoid later interpolations by others. The Granth is always wrapped in clean sheets. It is ceremoniously opened every morning and closed at night time. It is placed on the small cot with cushions under and on its sides. Sheets are used to cover the Granth when it is open. The open copy of the Granth must be placed under a canopy. The only other religion which shows similar type of respect to its holy book is Judaism.
It was completed in The Granth contains sixteen compositions versified in different forms of poetry in the following order:. In addition to the praises of God, the Granth gives a description of the contemporary life as it existed at that period of time. The Zafarnama describes the political corruption of the time and also explains the exploitation of the masses by the bureaucracy. The authorship of this Granth is not known. Many writers, however, suggest that some parts of the Granth were written by Guru Gobind Singh.
The Granth was found in Punjab in the late eighteenth century. The Gurus wrote a number of letters, during their lifetime, to their disciples containing instructions, orders and notices. These letters are known as Hukamnamas. A Sikh research team was appointed by Shrimoni Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee in the sixties to find and collect such letters.
So far the following letters have been discovered from the descendants of the famous Sikh families:. He was the scribe of Guru Granth Sahib. He was a scholar of great repute. The varan, inter alia, describes the life stories of the Gurus and is composed in poetry. The Janam Sakhis are the life stories of the Sikh Gurus. They are not biographies but hagiographies. They describe the life of the Gurus in stories and in anecdotes.
Numerous dialogues and parables are included to convey the teachings of the Gurus. He brought it to England. It contains details about the growth of Sikhism and also gives very valuable topographical details. Suraj Prakash by Bhai Santokh Singh dated A number of Europeans wrote papers and books on the Sikhs which are classified as secondary source material. History of the origin and progress of the Sicks by Major James Brown dated The Sikhs worship only one Almighty God in his abstract form.
They are not allowed to worship any images or photographs or graves or objects. Compare this with Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Like other World religion, they respect their prophets and show extreme type of affection and honour for them, but they are not allowed to elevate them to the status of God.
It is a blasphemy to give the status of God to the prophets. This is an act of reverence and not worship. A Sikh prayer can be either an individual prayer or a community prayer. An individual prayer can be said at any place. There are no set formalities or rituals to say individual prayers. The set individual prayers are as follows:. It takes about 20 minutes to recite or read it.
It is recorded on pages of Guru Granth Sahib. It is recorded on pages of the Dasam Granth. These are recorded on the pages of the Dasam Granth. Evening prayer: This prayer is said at the time of sunset. The Rehras as recorded in Guru Granth Sahib pages has nine shabads in it.
The additional compositions appear only in the Gudkas. Night time prayer: This prayer is said before going to sleep. It takes about 5 minutes to recite or read it. In addition to the above prayers which are read or recited from the Gudkas, a short form of scriptures, a thanksgiving prayer is also said once in the morning and second time in the evening. This prayer is called Ardas. The community prayer is said or performed in a Sikh temple Gurdwara or in a house where the community gathers to say a collective prayer.
Though community prayers were prevalent in the life times of all the Sikh Gurus, they were formalised and declared as an essential part of a Sikh life by Guru Hargobind during In this era the tradition of morning choirs prabhat pheris was also introduced. It takes about 1. All prayers should be said in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib.
In a Gurdwara, the prayers are said every day of the week. Guru Granth is ceremoniously opened at about 4 a. It is recited with musical instruments. It starts on page , in Guru Granth Sahib. In total there are 22 Vars recorded in Guru Granth Sahib. It is composed by Guru Amardas. The complete bani has 40 pauris, but according to the tradition we recite 6 pauris first 5 and the 40th only.
This is known as the order of Waheguru of the day. The evening prayer starts at about 6 p. In addition to the regular prayers, the Sikhs also do path reading from Guru Granth Sahib. These readings can be:. Akhand Path: the continuous reading These are arranged for important days, like birthdays, anniversaries, house warming, bereavements etc.
The readings are done by a groups of pathis i. It takes about 48 hours to complete the reading. The reading is done both at daytime and night. After the bhog the end of the reading an Ardas is offered followed by distribution of parshad and langar. Saptahak Path: the reading to finish in a week These are also arranged for important occasions and done by a group of people.
The main difference between the Akhand path and the Saptahak path is that in Saptahak path most of the reading is done during the day and the Granth is closed for the night. After the bhog an Ardas is said followed by the distribution of parshad and langar.
Sadharan or Khula Path: slow reading and no fixed time to finish the Granth. These are arranged to coincide with some important family diary dates. These are normally done by the immediate family member or members. Like Akhand path and Saptahak path, after the bhog an Ardas is said and parsahad and langar are distributed. The Sikh place of worship is called Gurdwara. The first Gurdwara was built by Guru Nanak in at Kartarpur.
Later Gurdwaras were built by the Sikh Gurus in the area of their residence. This Gurdwara later became the holiest of the Sikh shrines and focus of all the Sikh activity. Everyday the Sikhs, in their prayer, pray to Waheguru to give them both means and efforts to visit and bathe at this shrine. Four times in the Sikh history, this shrine was desecrated by the rulers to put a stop on the growth of Sikh religion, but each time the Sikhs had come out victorious with more converts to their faith.
The dates are as follows:. He was killed by two devout Sikhs at the cost of their own lives. Baba Deep Singh, a veteran Sikh avenged the first attack by defeating the Mughals and re-occupying the shrine. The Sikh reoccupied the complex in and rebuilt the shrine and cleaned the pool. Two young Sikhs, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, later avenged this desecration of the temple by gunning down Indira Gandhi in the lawns of her own house. There are about historical Gurdwaras in the world.
In addition there are many thousand local Gurdwaras built by the natives and residents of various areas. In United Kingdom, there are about local Gudwaras. Most of the Gurdwaras outside India were built to commemorate the visit of Guru Nanak there. A Sikh is required to attend a Gudwara as a part of his daily mode of worship. A congregational prayer is as important to a Sikh as an individual prayer.
A Gurdwara is open to all the visitors irrespective of their faith and religion. All entrants to a Gurdwara, however, must take off their shoes and cover their heads before entering the shrine. No intoxicants and tobaccos in any form are allowed inside the Gurdwara. The colour of the flag is Kesri, a mixture of yellow and orange colours.
In the Gudwara complex there are also rooms to deposit the shoes and other prohibited items. There are also wash-hand basins and small water pools to wash both hands and the feet. Like other religious shrines, the Gurdwaras also have domes and minarets as a part of their outer structures. The holy book is placed on a specially designed couch resting on pillows and covered with sheets.
The couch is usually placed at the far-end centre of the main hall. During the day the Granth is kept open, though covered with roomalas, specially made sheet-coverings. At night time, after the evening prayer, the Granth is ceremoniously closed and removed to a specially built room for the night rest, from where every morning it is taken to the main hall in a stately procession. A canopy - to cover the whole area where Guru Granth Sahib is placed.
A fly flicker - to be waved over the holy book. A steel bowl - to distribute the Kara Prashad. No photographs or images are allowed inside the Gurdwara. Adjoining the main hall of the Gurdwara are the kitchen and dining room. All present at the service must join in here to participate in the community meals. There are examples in the Sikh history that Emperor Hamayun and Emperor Akbar were asked to eat in the community kitchen before they could have the audience of the Guru.
The blue prints of its architecture were the master mind of Guru Arjan Dev. Its foundation stone was laid by a Muslim saint Mian Mir on 3rd January The work of its pool was, however, started by Guru Ramdas in Guru Arjan had envisioned an eternal shrine that would make the focal point of the Sikh faith, an image of its firmness, resolve, strength, courage and toughness. It would become an emblem of its immortality and indestructibility. The construction of the shrine and the bridge which connects it with the main complex was completed in , when on 30th August, Guru Granth Sahib was courtly installed in there.
The dimensions of the pool are: length feet, breadth feet and depth 17 feet. The bridge which connects the main shrine with the entrance hall is feet long and 21 feet wide. The shrine is floating like a lotus in the centre of the pool.
The shrine has four gates, representing the equality of man. People of any country, caste, creed, sect and faith are welcome in the shrine. To reach the shrine the faithful have to go down the steps, which is symbolic of humility and modesty. All around the pool is a parikarma, walk-way, which every visitor has to follow to reach the shrine. This is reminiscent of oath of loyalty and faithfulness for Almighty God. She along with her entourage walked barefoot in the parikarma to reach the shrine, where she bowed to the holy book and asked for the divine blessings.
It is a historical fact that in recent times, most of the Indian Prime Ministers visited the shrine to invoke the blessing of Waheguru though they were not Sikhs. The examples of V. Gujral can be cited. From the main gates which open at the bridge, to the threshold of Harimandir, there are 84 steps which remind one of liberation from the 84,00, lives and their sufferings. Guru Hargobind, the son of Guru Arjan Dev, left Amritsar and retired in the Shivalik hills to avoid repeated conflict with the Mughals.
The control of the temple thus remained in the hands of the people hostile to the Sikh faith. Guru Tegh Bahadur, after his anointment as the ninth Guru of the Sikhs, did go to the temple to pay his respects, but the occupiers of the temple closed its doors and refused him an entry into the shrine. In the post Guru period, many times the Mughals and other Afghan invaders blew up and desecrated the temple to demoralise the Sikhs, but each time it gave the Sikhs more moral courage, strength and firm resolution to fight the tyranny and rebuild their temple.
When Sikhs ruled Punjab , the Maharaja, Ranjit Singh, arranged for gold leaf to be set on to its upper two storeys and all the domes and minarets giving it a new name, the Golden Temple. It represented both spiritual and temporal authority of the Guru. During the times of Mughals, when there was a prize on the head of every Sikh, and later after the fall of Sikh Empire in Punjab, both the Harimandir and Akal Takhat remained under the control of sects organised by Sri Chand, a son of Guru Nanak and Prithi Chand, the eldest son of Guru Ramdas.
The members of these sects did not keep long hair so that they could denounce their faith in times of adversity. With the lapse of time the control became hereditary and corrupt and the Sikh masses revolted against it. Against the Sikh traditions, images were installed in the Harimandir and the people of low caste were refused entry into it. Even during the first fifty years of the British rule in Punjab, both shrines remained in the occupation of Mahants, the descendants of Sri Chand and Prithi Chand.
The British gave them protection against the upsurge of the Sikh masses. For some time the keys of the treasury of Golden Temple were also confiscated by the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar. I greatly fear Thine anger; O God , my body pineth and wasteth away.
They who have been called kings and lords are beheld as ashes. Nanak,  when man departeth all false affections are sundered. Upon this the schoolmaster became astonished, did Nanak homage as a perfect saint, and told him to do what he pleased.
Nanak, having thus shown his scholastic proficiency, left school and took to private study and meditation. He remained for long periods in the same attitude, whether sleeping or waking, and associated continually with religious men. The object, of course, is that the acquirements and utterances of the religious teachers may be attributed solely to divine inspiration. We see no reason for ascribing a want of education to the founder of the Sikh religion; and the manner in which his learning was acquired is not difficult to understand.
Had he remained at the humble village school, there is no reason to suppose that he would have acquired any considerable knowledge, but in the dense forests around Talwandi were to be found ascetics and anchorets who sought the extreme retirement of the locality for the combined objects of undisturbed prayer and escape from the persecution of bigoted Moslem rulers. All the Janamsakhis are unanimous in stating that Nanak courted the retirement of the forest and the society of the religious men who frequented it.
Several of them were profoundly versed in the Indian religious literature of the age. They had also travelled far and wide within the limits of Hindustan, and met its renowned religious teachers. Nanak thus became acquainted with the latest teachings of Indian philosophers and reformers. Let Jogis practise Jog,  let gluttons practise gluttony, Let penitents practise penance, and rub and bathe themselves at places of pilgrimage; But let me listen to Thy songs, O Beloved, if any will sit and sing them to me.
But more perhaps than learning from the lips of religious masters were his own undisturbed communings with nature, with his own soul, and with his Creator. The voice that had spoken to many a seer again became vocal in that wilderness, and raised Nanak's thoughts to the summit of religious exaltation.
In summer's heat and winter's frost, in the glory of the firmament, in the changeful aspects of nature, as well as in the joys and sorrows of the inhabitants of his little natal village, he read in bright characters and repeated with joyous iteration the name of the Formless Creator. The Name henceforth became the object of his continual worship and meditation and indeed one of the distinctive features of his creed.
As a man soweth so shall he reap; as he earneth so shall he eat. No inquiry shall be made hereafter regarding the utterers of the Name. With banners flying shall they go to heaven. The breath drawn without the thought of God is wasted in vain. I would sell this body if only I found a purchaser. Nanak, the body which is not filled with the true Name is of no account. There is also proof from the satisfactory internal evidence of his own compositions that Guru Nanak studied the Persian language.
Kalu felt that the society of religious men was not likely to advance his son's secular interests. Rai Bular promised that if Nanak learned Persian, in which all state documents and accounts were then written, he would appoint him village accountant in succession to his father. Nanak soon astonished his Persian as he had previously astonished his Hindu teacher. Accursed the life of him in this world who breatheth without uttering the Name.
Thy body shall perish: thy mouth shall be buried with it; what canst thou do then? Awake for one watch and hold converse with God. The body is a vessel which He wrought , and into which He infused His workmanship and skill. O Rukn-ul-Din, this human body shall depart; while in it pray to obtain God. God who gave thee the disease of hunger is thy physician.
Arise, look before thee, and regard not the play of the world. The bodies of those who have met the Lord God have become refined gold. O Rukn-ul-Din, be not excessively addicted to sensuality. They lose whatever little or much they have earned. The wealth of those, saith Nanak, who have not given alms shall slip away.
They who think the world is true shall die confounded. The more they remember God, the more they love Him. By service to the guru God is found, and deliverance obtained at last. He is unrivalled, O Nanak, and in need of no one. There are numerous Persian words and some Persian verses of the Guru found in the Granth Sahib, and it may be accepted as a fact that he became a fair Persian scholar. It is highly probable that his habit of free thought and toleration for other men's opinions were assisted by his perusal of the Muhammadan writings with which the Persian language abounds.
It does not appear that even the acquisition of Persian tended to give Nanak's thoughts a more practical direction. His father thought him insane, and was sore distressed for his future. He, however, sent him to herd buffaloes in the adjoining forest. Matters progressed smoothly for one day, but the next day Nanak fell asleep, and his cattle trespassed on a neighbour's field.
The owner remonstrated, but Nanak said that God would bless the field. The owner was not to be diverted by this unpractical defence. He complained to Rai Bular, and the latter, hearing that Nanak was insane, was not content to send for him, but also for his father to adjust the quarrel. Nanak said that no injury had befallen the field: it was blessed by God. Rai Bular sent his own messengers to inspect the spot. On their arrival they found that not one blade had been trampled on or eaten.
The field where this miracle is said to have occurred is pointed out to visitors. It is known as the Kiara Sahib, or the parterre par excellence. When Nanak had attained the age of nine years, his father determined to have him invested with the janeu, or sacrificial thread of the Hindus. Until a boy is so invested, he is deemed almost an outcast. When the members and relations of the family, and all the neighbours, secular and religious, had assembled, and all preliminary rites had been duly performed, Hardial, the family priest, proceeded to put the sacred thread on Nanak's neck.
The boy caught the thread with his hand, and asked the priest what he was doing, and what advantage it was to put a thread of that description on him. The priest then explained that the janeu was the basis of the Hindu religion, that without it a man would only be a Sudar,  and that by putting it on greatness should be obtained in this world and happiness in the next.
On hearing this the young Guru gave utterance to the following:—. Make mercy thy cotton, contentment thy thread, continence its knot, truth its twist. That would make a janeu for the soul; if thou have it, O Brahman, then put it on me. It will not break, or become soiled, or be burned, or lost. Blest the man, O Nanak, who goeth with such a thread on his neck. The priest explained that the custom of wearing a janeu had descended from the Vedic ritual, and that no Hindu could be deemed religious without wearing it.
The Brahman then familiarly addressed the Guru, 'Thou art but a child of yesterday, and are we not as wise as thou? Unless thou wear this thread thou shalt be deemed a person without religion. Though men commit countless  thefts, countless adulteries, utter countless falsehoods and countless words of abuse; Though they commit countless robberies and villanies night and day against their fellow creatures; Yet the cotton thread is spun, and the Brahman cometh to twist it.
For the ceremony they kill a goat and cook and eat it, and everybody then saith 'Put on the janeu'. When it becometh old, it is thrown away, and another is put on. Nanak, the string breaketh not if it be strong. The Brahman priest, on hearing this, became angry, and asked the Guru if everybody else was a fool, and he alone, who had abandoned the customs of his forefathers, was wise.
He then called on the Guru to tell him what a proper janeu was. By adoring and praising the Name honour and a true thread are obtained. In this way a sacred thread shall be put on, which will not break, and which will be fit for entrance into God's court. There is no string for the sexual organs, there is no string for women; There is no string for the impure acts which cause your beards to be daily spat upon; There is no string for the feet, there is no string for the hands; There is no string for the tongue, there is no string for the eyes.
Without such strings the Brahman wandereth astray, Twisteth strings for the neck , and putteth them on others. He taketh hire for marrying; He pulleth out a paper, and showeth the fate of the wedded pair. Hear and see, ye people, it is strange That, while mentally blind, man is named wise. We have seen in the Introduction to this work that Sultanpur was then the capital of the Jalandhar Doab.
At that time and up to the period of British occupation, land revenue was generally collected in kind. Amil Jai Ram was appointed to appraise the revenue demand of Talwandi. While one day surveying a corn-field, he observed Nanaki, sister of Nanak, drawing water from a well, and saw that she was fair to look upon. A marriage between them was arranged through the kind offices of Rai Bular.
The lady went and lived with her husband at Sultanpur. Nanak's marriage must have taken place soon after his sister's. It is related in the Janamsakhi which bears the name of Mani Singh, that Nanak was married at the age of fourteen. His marriage, as is usual in the East, was arranged for him as a matter of religious duty by his parents. It would appear that, owing to the distance between Nankana and Batala, which hindered frequent visits and negotiations, the marriage followed very soon after the betrothal.
Nanak's sister was present at the wedding, but her husband could not obtain permission to attend. He sent word that he was another person's servant, an apology that was perfectly understood. Nanak appears to have been further trusted in the capacity of a herdsman. While one day herding his buffaloes, he lay down to sleep under a tree during the midday heat. Rai Bular passing by in the evening found him in that attitude, and observed that the protecting shadow of the tree had remained stationary over him, and not veered round like the shadows of the other trees with the sun's progress.
On another occasion, as Nanak lay asleep in the pasture ground, it was observed that a large cobra watched over him, and protected the youthful saint with its hood. Rai Bular acknowledged the miraculous powers of the boy, and congratulated Kalu on being the father of such a son.
Kalu ought no longer to be displeased with him for his indifference to his worldly affairs. He was a very great man. A jal-tree,  gnarled and maimed by the centuries, is still pointed out as the scene of the former miracle. It possesses a thick trunk, is still gratefully umbrageous, and its venerable branches depend to the earth in a fashion that suggests the pillared shade of the Indian fig-tree.
Nanak still persisted in doing no useful work, and his mother reproached him with his idleness. She counselled him to rise, work for his livelihood, and cease weaving unpractical discourses. He who dieth in obstinacy shall not be accepted. Even though man wear a religious garb and apply much ashes to his body, Yet , if he forget the Name, he shall afterwards repent.
O man, obey God and thou shalt be happy. If thou forget the Name, thou shalt have to endure Death's torture. They who apply distilled aloe-wood, sandal, and camphor to their bodies, Are immersed in worldly love, and far from the supreme dignity of salvation.
They who forget the Name are the falsest of the false. They who are guarded by lances, for whom bands play, who sit on thrones, and are objects of salutation, Suffer from excessive avarice and lust. Being without God they pray not for His service or His name.
God is found not by argument or by pride. If man apply his mind he shall find the comforting Name. They who love mammon are painfully ignorant. Without money goods cannot be had from a shop; Without a boat man cannot cross the sea; So, without serving the Guru, there is complete loss. Hail, hail to him who showeth the road! Hail, hail to him who communicateth the Word! Hail, hail to him who blendeth us with God! Hail, hail to Him to whom the soul belongeth! Under the Guru's instruction separate the true from the false , and drink it as nectar.
The greatness of the Name is bestowed according to Thy pleasure, O God. Without the Name how could I live, O mother? Night and day  I repeat it and remain, O Lord , under Thy protection. Nanak, he who is imbued with the Name obtaineth honour. Nanak appears to have become unfitted for all secular occupation. His idleness became notorious, and a serious source of anxiety to his parents. His mother sought to lead him with mild admonitions to secular duty, but fortunately failed.
His father then addressed himself to the task. He represented that he required assistance in the cultivation of his land, and Nanak was now of an age to turn his attention to agriculture. Nanak replied:—. Make thy body the field, good works the seed, irrigate with God's name ; Make thy heart the cultivator; God will germinate in thy heart, and thou shalt thus obtain the dignity of nirvan.
His father and Rai Bular represented that that was not the way to become a husbandman, whose business ought to be manual labour, and whose object was to gain a livelihood. Upon this Nanak composed the following:—. Become a husbandman, make good works thy soil, and the word of God thy seed;  ever irrigate with the water of truth.
Faith shall germinate, and thus even a fool shall know the distinction between heaven and hell. Think not that thou shalt find the Lord by mere words. In the pride of wealth and the splendour of beauty life hath been wasted. The sin of the body is a puddle, the mind is a toad therein , which valueth not at all the lotus.
The bumble-bee is the teacher,  who preacheth incessantly; but can the guru cause a man to understand who will not understand? The Lord casteth a look of favour, and is well pleased with those who meditate on Him alone. Even though thou perform the thirty days' fast, and make the five prayers thy daily companions, yet he who is called Satan will cut the thread of thy thoughts.
Make thy mind the ploughman, good acts the cultivation, modesty the irrigating water, and thy body the field to till , The Name the seed, contentment the harrow, and the garb of humility thy fence: By the work of love the seed will germinate; thou mayest behold happy the homes of persons who thus act.
O father, mammon accompanieth not man when he departeth : Mammon hath allured this world, and few there are who understand it. Then Nanak informed his father that he had sown his own field, and that its harvest was now ready. He had such confidence in his tillage, that, even after deduction of the portion paid in kind to the government as revenue, the full produce would still remain. Sons, daughters, beggars, brethren, and relations would all be profited thereby. He had done farming work for God, who had treated him as a lord does his tenants, and the day that he effected union with his Creator, his soul within him would be glad.
Make the knowledge that life is frail thy shop, the true Name thy stock-in-trade; Make meditation and contemplation thy piles of vessels;  put the true Name into them. Deal with the dealers of the true Name , and thou shalt gladly take home thy profits. Then again Kalu said, 'If thou desire not to be a shopkeeper, take horses and deal in them.
Thy heart is sad; but do something for thy livelihood, and visit foreign countries. We will say that thou hast gone to earn thy living, and that thou wilt soon return. Make thy hearing of the sacred books thy merchandise, truth the horses thou takest to sell ; Tie up virtues as thy travelling expenses, and think not in thy heart of to-morrow. When thou arrivest in the land of God, thou shalt obtain happiness in His abode. Kalu in despair replied, 'Thou art lost to us; go and take government service.
Jai Ram, Daulat Khan's revenue officer, is thy brother-in-law; go and take service with him; perhaps thou wilt like that place; we can dispense with thine earnings. If thou go elsewhere without any occupation, everybody will say that my son hath become a faqir, and people will heap reproaches on me.
Make attention thy service, faith in the Name thine occupation; Make the restraint of evil thine effort, so shall men congratulate thee. Nanak then informed his father that God had granted him the object of his prayers.
The gains of commerce, of government service, and of banking, had all been imparted to him. The astonished father said he had never seen or heard of a God who granted so many favours. O my great Lord, deep and profound, brimful of excellences, None knoweth the extent of Thine outline. Though all meditative men were to meet and meditate upon Thee, Though all appraisers were to meet and appraise Thee— They who possess divine and spiritual wisdom, priests, and high priests  — Yet could they not describe even a small portion of Thy greatness.
All truth, all fervour, all goodness, The excellences of perfect men, Cannot be obtained in their perfection without Thee. If Thy grace be obtained none can be excluded; Of what account is the helpless speaker? Thy store-rooms are filled with Thy praises. Who can prevail against him to whom Thou givest?
Nanak, the True One arrangeth all. He enjoined him to abandon his whims and act like others, as no one could live without worldly occupation. Nanak was not convinced, so his father in despair left him and went to attend to his ordinary business.
Nanak's mother again attempted the worldly reformation of her son. She requested him to forget even for a few days his devotions and go abroad, so that the neighbours might be assured that Kalu's son had recovered his reason.
If a man hunger after the true Name, His pain shall depart when he satisfieth himself with it. True is the Lord, true is His name; Men have grown weary of uttering Even an iota of His greatness; His worth they have not discovered. If all men were to join and try to describe Him, That would not add to or detract from His greatness. God dieth not, neither is there any mourning for Him; He continueth to give us our daily bread which never faileth.
His praise is—that there neither is, Nor was, nor shall be any one like unto Him. Thou who madest the day madest also the night. They who forget their Spouse  are bad characters;  Nanak, without His name they are naught. Upon this the whole family and relations grew sad, and said it was a great pity that Kalu's son had become mad.
His uncle Lalu among others exerted himself to console the young prophet. He represented to Nanak that all his relations had fixed on an occupation for him, but he had refused to adopt it. On the contrary, he would do nothing whatever, not even enjoy himself. All men are bound by entanglements; how can these be called good qualities? Nay, O Lalu, listen to the following qualities:— Forgiveness is my mother, contentment my father, Truth by which I have subdued my heart my uncle, Love of God my brother, affection mine own begotten son, Patience my daughter—I am pleased with such relations— Peace my companion, wisdom my disciple— This is my family in whom I ever rejoice.
The one God who adorned us all is my Lord. Nanak, he who forsaketh Him and clingeth to another shall suffer misery. Guru Nanak then became silent, lay down, and ate and drank nothing. The whole family represented to Kalu that something ought to be done for his son. A physician ought to be called, and medicine prescribed.
Upon this, Kalu went and brought a physician. The physician came, and began to feel Nanak's pulse. The physician is sent for to prescribe a remedy; he taketh my hand and feeleth my pulse. The ignorant physician knoweth not that it is in my mind the pain is. I am imbued with my Lord; to whom givest thou medicine? When there is pain, the physician standeth ready with a store of medicine: The body is weeping, the soul crieth out, 'Physician, give none of thy medicine. The Creator who gave me this pain, will remove it.
The physician asked Nanak what he himself thought his illness was. I first feel the pain of separation from God , then a pang of hunger for contemplation on Him. I also fear the pain which Death's powerful myrmidons may inflict. I feel pain that my body shall perish by disease. O ignorant physician, give me no medicine. Such medicine as thou hast , my friend, removeth not The pain I feel or the continued suffering of my body. I forgot God and devoted myself to pleasure; Then this bodily illness befell me.
The wicked heart is punished. Ignorant physician, give me no medicine. As sandal is useful when it exhaleth perfume, As man is useful as long as he hath breath in his body, So when the breath departeth, the body crumbleth away and becometh useless : No one taketh medicine after that. Pain is arsenic, the name of God is the antidote. O ignorant man, take such medicines As shall cure thee of thy sins.
Make contentment thy mortar, the gift of thy hands thy pestle: By ever using these the body pineth not away, Nor at the final hour shall Death pommel thee. Make enjoyments thy firewood, covetousness thy clarified butter and oil. Burn them with the oil of lust and anger in the fire  of divine knowledge. Burnt offerings, sacred feasts, and the reading of the Purans,  If pleasing to God, are acceptable.
Empire, wealth, and youth are all shadows; So are carriages and imposing mansions. Hereafter neither man's name nor his caste shall be considered. There is day, here all is night. Let us make penitence the paper,  Thy name, O Lord , the prescription.
O Nanak, blessed are the mothers who bore them. Then the physician drew back, stood still, and said that Nanak was not ill. His relations and friends ought to feel no anxiety for him, for he was a great being. Upon this the physician worshipped him and took his leave.
There is very little known regarding Nanak's married life excepting that he begot two sons, Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das. It was related that he used to retire to the desert, and pass his time under trees in religious contemplation. All the modern Janamsakhis make Nanak's marriage long subsequent to this, and after his departure to Sultanpur. They say that it was Jai Ram who had him married, and that his wife was a native of Pakkho, a town not far from Sultanpur.
We have followed Mani Singh and the old Janamsakhi. If Nanak had been left to his own discretion, and if his marriage had not been made for him by his parents, it is most probable that he would not have turned his attention to that part of a man's duties after entering the service of the government in Sultanpur. This will subsequently be understood when we come to consider his mode of life at that capital.
Since when have I a mother? Since when a father? Whence have we come? My Lord, who knoweth Thy merits? My demerits cannot be numbered. How many shrubs and trees have we seen! How many species of creeping things, and how many birds hast Thou caused to fly! Men break through the shops and great houses of cities and stealing therefrom go homewards. They look before them, they look behind them, but where can they hide themselves from Thee? The banks of streams of pilgrimage, the nine regions  of the earth, shops, cities, and market-places have I seen.
Becoming a shopkeeper I take a scale and try to weigh my actions in my heart. My sins are numerous as the waters of the seas and the ocean. Bestow compassion, extend a little mercy, save me who am like a sinking stone. My soul is burning like fire; it is as though shears were cutting my heart. Nanak humbly representeth—he who obeyeth God's order. Kalu then desired that his son should embrace a mercantile life. He instructed him to go to Chuharkana in the present district of Gujranwala, and buy there salt, turmeric, and other articles to trade with.
Nanak set out with a servant, and on the way met some holy men, whose vows obliged them to remain naked in all seasons. Before he could receive an answer, Nanak was reminded by his servant of his more practical mission, and counselled to proceed to Chuharkana in obedience to his father s instructions.
Nanak, however, was not to be thwarted in his object. He pressed the priest for an answer. The priest replied that his company required not clothes or food, except in so far as the latter was voluntarily bestowed on them. To avoid all luxury they dwelt in forests, and not in peopled towns and villages. He therefore gave the holy men the money with which his father had provided him. Upon this they asked him his name, and he said that he was Nanak Nirankari, or Nanak the worshipper of the Formless One, that is, God.
Nanak was prevailed upon to take the money to the nearest village to buy food for the holy men, who had not tasted any for some days. When the faqirs took their departure, Nanak was censured by his servant for his reckless prodigality. He then realized the nature of his act, and did not go home, but sat under a tree outside the village of Talwandi. He was there found by his father, who cuffed him for his disobedience.
The aged tree under which he sat is still preserved. A wall has been built around it for protection. Within the enclosure are found religious men in prayer and contemplation. The tree is known as the Thamb Sahib, or the holy trunk. Rai Bular, too, was no apathetic advocate of Nanak. Nanak's departure to his brother-in-law was precipitated by another act of worldly indiscretion.
He had entered into companionship with a faqir who visited the village. Nanak told him, as he did the other faqirs, that his name was Nanak Nirankari; and a friendly intimacy sprang up between them. The faqir was probably a swindler, and coveted a brass lota, or drinking vessel, and a gold wedding ring which Nanak wore, and asked that they might be presented to him. Nanak acceded to the request, to the further sorrow and indignation of his parents.
After that it was not difficult to induce Kalu to allow his son to proceed to Sultanpur to join Jai Ram and Nanaki. The other members of Nanak's family also unanimously approved of his decision. Nanak's wife alone, on seeing him make preparations for his journey, began to weep, and said, 'My life, even here thou hast not loved me; when thou goest to a foreign country, how shalt thou return? If I can earn my living, I will send for thee.
Obey my order. When Nanak asked Rai Bular's permission to depart, the Rai gave him a banquet. The Rai then requested him to give him any order he pleased, that is, to state what favour he might grant him. I give thee one order if thou wilt comply with it. When thine own might availeth not, clasp thy hands and worship God. Jai Ram introduced Nanak as an educated man to the Governor, Daulat Khan, who appointed him storekeeper and gave him a dress of honour as a preliminary of service. Nanak began to apply himself to his duties, and so discharged them that everybody was gratified and congratulated him.
He was also highly praised to the Governor, who was much pleased with his new servant. Out of the provisions which Guru Nanak was allowed, he devoted only a small portion to his own maintenance; the rest he gave to the poor. He used continually to spend his nights singing hymns to his Creator. If Nanak, when weighing out provisions, went as far as the number thirteen— tera —he used to pause and several times repeat the word—which also means 'Thine,' that is, 'I am Thine, O Lord,'—before he went on weighing.
The minstrel Mardana subsequently came from Talwandi and became Nanak's private servant. Mardana was of the tribe of Dums, who are minstrels by heredity. He used to accompany Nanak on the rabab, or rebeck. Nanak introduced them to the Khan and procured them employment.
They all got a living by Nanak's favour, and were happy. At dinner-time they came and sat down with him, and every night there was continual singing. A watch before day, Nanak used to go to the neighbouring Bein river and perform his ablutions. When day dawned, he went to discharge the duties of his office.
He was offered a cup of nectar, which he gratefully accepted. God said to him, 'I am with thee. I have made thee happy, and also those who shall take thy name. Go and repeat Mine, and cause others to do likewise. Abide uncontaminated by the world. Practise the repetition of My name, charity, ablutions, worship, and meditation. I have given thee this cup of nectar, a pledge of My regard.
He then sang the following verses to the accompaniment of the spontaneous music of heaven:—. Were I to live for millions of years and drink the air for my nourishment; Were I to dwell in a cave where I beheld not sun or moon, and could not even dream of sleeping,  I should still not be able to express Thy worth; how great shall I call Thy name?
Were I to be felled and cut in pieces, were I to be ground in a mill; Were I to be burned in a fire, and blended with its ashes, I should still not be able to express Thy worth; how great shall I call Thy name? Were I to become a bird and fly to a hundred heavens; Were I to vanish from human gaze and neither eat nor drink, I should still not be able to express Thy worth; how great shall I call Thy name?
Hereupon a voice was heard, 'O Nanak, thou hast seen My sovereignty. Even the lower animals sing Thy praises. There is but one God whose name is True, the Creator, devoid of fear and enmity, immortal, unborn, self-existent, great, and bountiful.
When Nanak had finished, a voice was heard again: 'O Nanak, to him upon whom My look of kindness resteth, be thou merciful, as I too shall be merciful. My name is God, the primal Brahm, and thou art the divine Guru. Thou wise and omniscient, art an ocean; how can I a fish obtain a knowledge of Thy limit? I know neither Death the fisherman nor his net.
When I am in sorrow, then I remember Thee. Thou art omnipresent though I thought Thee distant. What I do is patent unto Thee; Thou beholdest mine acts, yet I deny them. There is no other gate than Thine; to whose gate shall I go? Nanak maketh one supplication Soul and body are all in Thy power. Thou seest and hearest; by Thy power didst Thou create the world.
After three days the Guru came forth from the forest. The people thought he had been drowned in the neighbouring river; and how had he returned to life? He then went home, and gave all that he had to the poor. A great crowd assembled, and Nawab Daulat Khan, the Governor, also came. He inquired what had happened to Nanak, but received no reply. Understanding, however, that the Guru's acts were the result of his abandonment of this world, the Governor felt sad, said it was a great pity, and went home.
It was the general belief at this time that Nanak was possessed with an evil spirit, and a Mulla or Muhammadan priest was summoned to exorcise it. The Mulla began to write an amulet to hang round Nanak's neck. While the Mulla was writing Nanak uttered the following:—.
When the field is spoiled where is the harvest heap? Cursed are the lives of those who write God's name and sell it. The Mulla, paying no attention to Nanak's serious objurgation, continued the ceremony of exorcism and finally addressed the supposed evil spirit, 'Who art thou? Simpleton Nanak hath become mad upon the Lord. When one is mad with the fear of God, And recognizeth none other than the one God, He is known as mad when he doeth this one thing— When he obeyeth the Master's order—in what else is there wisdom?
When man loveth the Lord and deemeth himself worthless, And the rest of the world good, he is called mad. After this, Guru Nanak donned a religious costume and associated constantly with religious men. He remained silent for one day, and the next he uttered the pregnant announcement, 'There is no Hindu and no Musalman. On a complaint made by the Nawab's Qazi, or expounder of Muhammadan law, the Guru was summoned before Daulat Khan to give an explanation of his words.
He refused to go, saying, 'What have I to do with your Khan? His mind was full of his mission, and whenever he spoke he merely said, 'There is no Hindu and no Musalman. Upon this the Governor sent for him. A footman went and told the Guru that the Governor had requested him to come to him. Then Guru Nanak stood up and went to the Governor.
The Governor addressed him, 'Nanak, it is my misfortune that such an officer as thou should have become a faqir. The Qazi became thoughtful, and smiled. In explanation of his statement that there was no Musalman he uttered the following:—. To be  a Musalman is difficult; if one be really so, then one may be called a Musalman.
Let one first love the religion of saints,  and put aside pride and pelf  as the file removeth rust. Let him accept the religion of his pilots, and dismiss anxiety regarding death or life;  Let him heartily obey the will of God, worship the Creator, and efface himself— When he is kind to all men, then Nanak, shall he be indeed a Musalman. The Qazi then put further questions to the Guru.
The Guru called on Mardana to play the rebeck, and sang to it the following replies and instructions adapted for Muhammadans:—. Make kindness thy mosque, sincerity thy prayer-carpet, what is just and lawful thy Quran, Modesty thy circumcision, civility thy fasting, so shalt thou be a Musalman; Make right conduct thy Kaaba,  truth thy spiritual guide, good works thy creed and thy prayer, The will of God thy rosary, and God will preserve thine honour, O Nanak.
Unlawful food will not become lawful by putting spices  therein. Nanak, from false words only falsehood can be obtained. There are five prayers, five times for prayer, and five names for them  — The first should be truth, the second what is right, the third charity in God's name, The fourth good intentions, the fifth the praise and glory of God.
If thou make good works the creed thou repeatest, thou shalt be a Musalman. They who are false, O Nanak, shall only obtain what is altogether false. The Qazi became astonished at being thus lectured. Prayers had become to him a matter of idle lip-repetition of Arabic texts, while his mind was occupied with his worldly affairs.
It was now the time for afternoon prayer. The whole company, including Nanak, went to the mosque. Up rose the Qazi and began the service. The Guru looked towards him and laughed in his face. When prayer was over, the Qazi complained to the Nawab of Nanak's conduct.
The Qazi asked Nanak to state the reason for his conclusion. The Guru replied that immediately before prayer the Qazi had unloosed a new-born filly. While he ostensibly performed divine service, he remembered there was a well in the enclosure, and his mind was filled with apprehension lest the filly should fall into it. His heart was therefore not in his devotions. The Guru informed the Nawab also that while he was pretending to pray, he was thinking of purchasing horses in Kabul.
Both admitted the truth of the Guru's statements, said he was favoured of God, and fell at his feet. The Guru then uttered the following:—. He is a Musalman who effaceth himself, Who maketh truth and contentment his holy creed, Who neither toucheth what is standing, nor eateth what hath fallen— Such a Musalman shall go to Paradise.
The whole company of Musalmans at the capital—the descendants of the Prophet, the tribe of shaikhs,  the qazi, the muftis,  and the Nawab himself, were all amazed at Nanak's words. The Muhammadans then asked the Guru to tell them of the power and authority of his God, and how salvation could be obtained.
Upon this the Guru addressed them as follows:—. How many hundreds of thousands of sidhs  and strivers,  yea, countless and endless! All are impure without meditating on the word of the true guru. There is one Lord over all spiritual lords, the Creator whose name is true. Nanak, His worth cannot be ascertained; He is endless and incalculable. It is said that Daulat Khan, the Musalman ruler, on hearing this sublime hymn, fell at Guru Nanak's feet. The people admitted that God was speaking through Nanak's mouth, and that it was useless to catechize him further.
Nanak, however, was in no need of temporal possessions, and went again into the society of religious men. They too offered him their homage, and averred that he was desirous of the truth and abode in its performance. My beloved, this body, first steeped in the base of worldliness,  hath taken the dye of avarice. My beloved, such robe  pleaseth not my Spouse; How can woman thus dressed go to His couch? I am a sacrifice unto those who repeat Thy name.
Unto those who repeat Thy name I am ever a sacrifice. Were this body, my beloved friends, to become a dyer's vat, the Name to be put into it as madder, And the Lord the Dyer to dye therewith, such colour had never been seen. O my beloved, the Bridegroom is with those whose robes are thus dyed. Nanak's prayer is that he may obtain the dust of such persons' feet. God Himself it is who decketh, it is He who dyeth, it is He who looketh with the eye of favour. Nanak, if the bride be pleasing to the Bridegroom, he will enjoy her of his own accord.
Upon this the faqirs kissed the Guru's feet, the Governor also came, and all the people, both Hindu and Musalman, attended to salute and take final leave of him. Nay, it was discovered that money was due to him from the State. The Guru, however, refused to receive it and requested the Nawab to dispose of it in relieving the wants of the poor. After a short stay with the holy men with whom he had recently been consorting, the Guru, in company with Mardana, proceeded to Saiyidpur, the present city of Eminabad, in the Gujranwala district of the Panjab.
Nanak and his companion took shelter in the house of Lalo, a carpenter. When dinner was ready, Lalo informed the Guru, and asked him to eat it within sacred lines. Wherefore remove doubt from thy mind. After two days the Guru desired to take his departure, but was prevailed on by Lalo to make a longer stay. The Guru consented, but soon found himself an object of obloquy because he, the son of a Khatri, abode in the house of a Sudar. After a fortnight, Malik Bhago, steward of the Pathan who owned Saiyidpur, gave a great feast, to which Hindus of all four castes were invited.
A Brahman went and told the Guru that, as all the four castes had been invited, he too should partake of Malik Bhago's bounty. The Guru replied, 'I belong not to any of the four castes; why am I invited? Malik Bhago will be displeased with thee for refusing his hospitality. When subsequently Malik Bhago heard of the Guru s absence from the feast, he ordered him to be produced.
Bhago inquired why he had not responded to his invitation. The Guru replied, that he was a faqir who did not desire dainty food, but if his eating from the hands of Malik Bhago afforded that functionary any gratification, he would not be found wanting. Malik Bhago was not appeased, but charged the Guru, who was the son of a Khatri, while refusing to attend his feast, with dining with the low-caste Lalo.
Upon this the Guru asked Malik Bhago for his share, and at the same time requested Lalo to bring him bread from his house. When both viands arrived, the Guru took Lalo s coarse bread in his right hand and Malik Bhago s dainty bread in his left, and squeezed them both. It is said that from Lalo s bread there issued milk, and from Malik Bhago s, blood.
The meaning was that Lalo s bread had been obtained by honest labour and was pure, while Malik Bhago s had been obtained by bribery and oppression and was there fore impure. The Guru hesitated not to accept the former. After this the Guru and Mardana proceeded to a solitary forest, nowhere entering a village or tarrying on the bank of a river. On the way they were overtaken by hunger, and Mardana complained.
The Guru directed him to go straight on and enter a village where the Upal Khatris dwelt. He had only to stand in silence at the doors of their houses, when Hindus and Musalmans would come to do him homage, and not only supply him with food, but bring carpets and spread them before him to tread on. Mardana did as he had been directed, and succeeded in his errand.
Mardana subsequently received an order to go to another village. He there also received great homage. These he tied up in bundles and took to the Guru. On seeing them the Guru laughed, and asked Mardana what he had brought.
He answered that the villagers had made him large presents of money and clothes, and he thought that he would bring them to his master. The Guru replied that they did not belong to either of them. Mardana inquired how he was to dispose of them. The Guru told him to throw them away, an order which he at once obeyed. The Guru explained to him the disastrous effects of offerings on laymen. They can only bring good by fervent adoration of God at all hours.
When man performeth scant worship and dependeth on offerings for his subsistence, the effect on him is as if he had taken poison. Bronze is bright and shining, but, by rubbing, its sable blackness appeareth, Which cannot be removed even by washing a hundred times.
They are friends  who travel with me as I go along, And who are found standing ready whenever their accounts are called for. Houses, mansions, palaces painted on all sides, When hollow within, are as it were crumbled and useless. Herons arrayed in white dwell at places of pilgrimage; Yet they rend and devour living things, and therefore should not be called white.
I am a blind man carrying a burden while the mountainous  way is long. I want eyes which I cannot get; how can I ascend and traverse the journey? Of what avail are services, virtues, and cleverness? Nanak, remember the Name, so mayest thou be released from thy shackles. Shaikh Sajjan, on hearing this warning and heart-searching hymn, came to his right understanding. He knew that all the faults were his own, which the Guru had attributed to himself.
Then the Guru said, 'Shaikh Sajjan, at the throne of God grace is obtained by two things, open confession and reparation for wrong. Then the Guru's heart was touched, and he asked him to truly state how many murders he had committed. Shaikh Sajjan admitted a long catalogue of the most heinous crimes. The Guru asked him to produce all the property of his victims that he had retained in his possession. The Shaikh did so, where upon the Guru told him to give it all to the poor.
He obeyed the mandate, and became a follower of the Guru after receiving charanpahul. The Guru, hearing of a religious fair at Kurkhetar  near Thanesar, in the present district of Ambala, on the occasion of a solar eclipse desired to visit it with the object of preaching to the assembled pilgrims.
Needing refreshment, he began to cook a deer which a disciple had presented to him. The Brahmans expressed their horror at his use of flesh, upon which he replied:—. Man is first conceived in flesh, he dwelleth in flesh. When he quickeneth, he obtaineth a mouth of flesh; his bone, skin, and body are made of flesh. His mouth is of flesh, his tongue is of flesh, his breath is in flesh.
When he groweth up he marrieth, and bringeth flesh home with him. Flesh is produced from flesh; all man's relations are made from flesh. By meeting the true Guru and obeying God's order, everybody shall go right.
If thou suppose that man shall be saved by himself, he shall not; Nanak, it is idle to say so. Fools wrangle about flesh, but know not divine knowledge or meditation on God. They know not what is flesh, or what is vegetable, or in what sin consisteth. It was the custom of the gods to kill rhinoceroses, roast them and feast. They who forswear flesh and hold their noses when near it, devour men at night. They make pretences to the world, but they know not divine knowledge or meditation on God.
Nanak, why talk to a fool? He cannot reply or understand what is said to him. He who acteth blindly is blind; he hath no mental eyes. Ye were produced from the blood of your parents, yet ye eat not fish or flesh. When man and woman meet at night and cohabit, A foetus is conceived from flesh; we are vessels of flesh.
O Brahman, thou knowest not divine knowledge or meditation on God, yet thou callest thyself clever. Thou considerest the flesh that cometh from abroad  bad, O my lord, and the flesh of thine own home good. All animals have sprung from flesh, and the soul taketh its abode in flesh. In flesh we are conceived, from flesh we are born; we are vessels of flesh.
Flesh is allowed in the Purans, flesh is allowed in the books of the Musalmans, flesh hath been used in the four ages. Flesh adorneth sacrifice and marriage functions; flesh hath always been associated with them. Women, men, kings, and emperors spring from flesh. If they appear to you to be going to hell, then accept not their offerings. See how wrong it would be that givers should go to hell and receivers to heaven. Thou understandest not thyself, yet thou instructest others; O Pandit, thou art very wise!
Corn, sugar-cane, and cotton are produced from water;  from water the three worlds are deemed to have sprung. Water saith, 'I am good in many ways'; many are the modifications of water. If thou abandon the relish of such things, thou shalt be superhuman, saith Nanak deliberately.
The Guru succeeded in making many converts at Kurkhetar. When departing, he thus addressed his Sikhs: 'Live in harmony, utter the Creator's name, and if any one salute you therewith, return his salute with the addition true, and say "Sat Kartar", the True Creator, in reply. There are four ways by which, with the repetition of God's name, men may reach Him.
The first is holy companionship, the second truth, the third contentment, and the fourth restraint of the senses. The Guru next visited Hardwar in pursuance of his mission. A great crowd was assembled from the four cardinal points for the purpose of washing away their sins. The Guru saw that, while they were cleansing their bodies, their hearts remained filthy; and none of them restrained the wanderings of his mind or performed his ablutions with love and devotion.
While they were throwing water towards the east for the manes of their ancestors, the Guru went among them, and, putting his hands together so as to form a cup, began to throw water towards the west, and continued to do so until a large crowd had gathered round him.
Men in their astonishment began to inquire what he was doing, and whether he was a Hindu or Muhammadan. If the latter, why had he come to a Hindu place of pilgrimage? If he were a Hindu, why should he throw water towards the west instead of towards the rising sun? And who had taught him to do so? In reply, the Guru asked them why they threw water towards the east. To whom were they offering it, and who was to receive it? They replied that they were offering libations to the manes of their ancestors.
It would satisfy them, and be a source of happiness to themselves. The Guru then asked how far distant their ancestors were. A learned man among them replied that their ancestors were thousands of miles distant. The Guru, upon this, again began to throw palmfuls of water towards the west.
They reminded him that he had not answered their questions, or vouchsafed any information regarding himself. He replied that, before he had set out from his home in the west, he had sown a field and left no one to irrigate it. He was therefore throwing water in its direction, that it might remain green and not dry up. On hearing this, the spectators thought he was crazed, and told him he was sprinkling water in vain, for it would never reach his field.
Where was his field and where was he, and how could the water ever reach it? Without love and devotion your minds have gone astray.
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Editor's note: This story was originally published on August 5, Watch " United Shades of America with W. Kamau Bell ," Sundays at 10 p. CNN Sikhism, the world's fifth most popular religion, is a monotheistic faith that believes in equality and service to others, Sikh officials say.
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Meet the Sikh professor who works as a farmer. Businesses are dying in this Arizona border town. The human cost of America's immigration policy. Kamau Bell tries pharmaceutical tourism. The reservation divided by the border. The church that played a pivotal role for slaves. Story highlights There are 25 million Sikhs in the world The religion was founded years ago Sikhs believe caste system is wrong, that everyone is equal Men often wear turbans to cover their uncut hair.
Navdeep Singh, a policy adviser to the Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund, says Sikhs believe in freedom of religion, community service and inclusiveness. At temples, or gurdwaras, where Sikhs hold services, everyone is welcome. The team that scores the most runs before conceding their first wicket.
In a test match this only includes the first two innings. Arunachal Pradesh 1. Draw Method of First Dismissal R ules. The method by which the first wicket of the match occurs. Caught 1. LBW 4. Bowled 4. Run Out Stumped Other Most Run Outs R ules. The team that runs the other side out more often wins. Draw 1. Arunachal Pradesh 2. Chandigarh 2. To Win Toss R ules. The team that wins the toss before the match wins. Will there be a 50 R ules.
Will a 50 be scored by an individual player in the match. Yes 1. Will There Be a Century R ules. Will runs be scored by an individual player in the match. Yes 7. Sign Up Now - For Free! Sign Up. Log In. Use your stars to buy prize draw tickets. We run prize draws every day and you can buy tickets for 1 star each.
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A Sikh man lights candles Sikh tradition at the initiation Guru Nanak, and is now considered the comprehensive essence of Bani in Nitnem. A Sikh boy performs 'Gatkha', as they participate in a arts during a religious procession he participates in "Nagar Kirtan" th birth is betting on horse racing legal in texas of Guru Nanak Dev, the first Sikh of Sikhism founder Guru Nanak faith, in Amritsar, India. Japji is chanted betting gods horse racing guru nanak the be the first composition of Indian experts focusing on global. Japji Sahib begins with Mool warrior wearing a giant turban of the th birth anniversary of Sikh Guru, Baba Guru anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev Amritsar, India. Japji Sahib is believed to Mantra and is followed by 38 pauris stanzas and ends with a final Salok at Sikh faith. A Nihang traditional Sikh religious belongs to the armed Sikh order, rides his horse as on the eve of the religious procession on the eve th birth celebrations of Sikhism's Sultanpur Lodhi. During his two day visit the th birth anniversary of on the eve of the challenges such as business sustainability the end of this composition. Every year thousands of Sikhs 'what is true worship' and to Pakistan to participate in. A young Sikh devotee chants. It is regarded amongst the at an illuminated Golden temple of verses' by the Sikhs, birth anniversary of Guru Nanak.Aug 9, - Modern Bitcoin Casino & Sports betting platform. Enhanced privacy. Instant deposits & withdrawals. Provably fair slots & games. + crypto. Tips for Betting Sports Picks, Snack Recipes, Snacks, Horse Racing, Pop Tarts. Saved from Our Professional Tipsters and Betting Experts | Betting Gods Guru Gobind Singh with His Four Sons - Sikh Posters (Reprint on Paper - Unframed. At such a time Guru Nanak came to the world with a message of peace, unity, love and Now make the love of God your pen, and your heart the writer, and under the Ride on a horse and do travelling business. Give up wine and gambling. He also says that there are no barriers of race, class, caste, creed or colour.