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Rightmost bitcoins

The point is you can create transactions that pay zero or more fees. Whether or not they confirm is another matter. Thanks for the responses. Due to mostly smaller sized transactions the merchant cannot wait for confirmations. Given this primary constraint I'm trying to find out how to take precautions to minimize double spend attacks.

That's why I was trying to identify some parameters that can be used for defence - e. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. I followed my dreams and got demoted to software developer.

Podcast How to think in React. Featured on Meta. Opt-in alpha test for a new Stacks editor. Visual design changes to the review queues. Reminder: Please don't just answer bad questions, edit them into shape. Revisit close reasons in Related 1. Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Once it reaches , another kilometer won't set it to because there's no room to show that number. It'll go back to The exact same thing happens with numbers in computers — once they surpass the maximum integer value, they overflow and reset to 0.

Bitcoin currently has 8 decimal points. The smallest Bitcoin fragment is called a Satoshi. The theoretical maximum number of bitcoin is 21 million, so 2,,,,, two quadrillion one hundred trillion Satoshi. If we cut off the last 8 digits from the maximum integer that can be stored 18,,,,,, so it matches Bitcoin's protocol, we get: ,,, In other words, because of its decimal points the biggest possible value in the Bitcoin protocol is actually a little over billion instead of the full eighteen million trillion.

But in , the software had a critical bug. When sending BTC from addresses to addresses in Bitcoin it's actually possible to send from multiple addresses to multiple addresses , the software was checking for total input values and total output values, but not the things that happen in between.

During one such transaction, the perpetrator gave the program the following instructions simplified for easier understanding :. The sum of the A and B transactions was ,,, That's exactly Satoshi away from the maximum. Other amounts in the transaction combined with this number caused an integer overflow and the total amount fell to just Address A and address B each got billion completely valid bitcoin, even though at the time there were only around 1.

Satoshi, Theymos, Jeff Garzik, and others who noticed this weird transaction quickly started thinking about solutions out loud. In the span of a few hours a patch was written for the code to fix this issue for future transactions, along with a proposal to roll back and undo the transaction that occurred.

This patch was added to the Bitcoin Core software — the node which signs and sends transactions. A suggestion was made in the forum: have everyone stop processing transactions until the fix is in place, and ignore the block that processed this transaction and all the blocks after it.

There was even some concern about Bitcoin being too decentralized to have the information reach everyone in time, but luckily the ecosystem was young enough for this to still be possible. Everything went smoothly and the hack was undone. You'll often hear maximalists say that Ethereum is centralized around Vitalik or that it's not a real blockchain because of the The problem was resolved in exactly the same way: a hard fork which reverted the state and refunded people their investments.

That move caused a contentious fork to form: Ethereum Classic. Whether or not fighting the bad guy this way was a good decision is up for discussion, but it's important to wonder — if BTC had been as popular and widespread as Ethereum at the time of its incident, would a Bitcoin Classic have happened? Are maximalists right in their judging of Ethereum just because of this difference in popularity? And if so, where's the line a system needs to cross before becoming too popular to change?

Mistakes happen and some can be catastrophic for the system if left unfixed. Ideals such as a ledger's immutability can and should be ignored for the greater good and a long term benefit of the whole community. This fix was one such incident — the amount of BTC created from nothing would have done too much damage to the entire system even if they had opted to mark those manufactured bitcoins as invalid in a future version of the Core software.

The cheaper and easier solution was rolling the situation back to a past state, and it was the right choice. The line between technical and political gets blurrier as time goes by, however.

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It is impossible to recover from a successful doublespend attack should the conflicting transaction be included in the blockchain. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. What are conflicting transactions? Does it mean BTC lost permanently? Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 2 months ago.

Active 4 years, 1 month ago. Viewed 2k times. Improve this question. Fakeer Fakeer 4 4 bronze badges. Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. Improve this answer. Looking a the inputs and outputs, does it look like the transaction was initiated with zero fees? I don't see how does that help. The point is you can create transactions that pay zero or more fees. Whether or not they confirm is another matter. Thanks for the responses.

Due to mostly smaller sized transactions the merchant cannot wait for confirmations. Given this primary constraint I'm trying to find out how to take precautions to minimize double spend attacks. That's why I was trying to identify some parameters that can be used for defence - e. The theoretical maximum number of bitcoin is 21 million, so 2,,,,, two quadrillion one hundred trillion Satoshi. If we cut off the last 8 digits from the maximum integer that can be stored 18,,,,,, so it matches Bitcoin's protocol, we get: ,,, In other words, because of its decimal points the biggest possible value in the Bitcoin protocol is actually a little over billion instead of the full eighteen million trillion.

But in , the software had a critical bug. When sending BTC from addresses to addresses in Bitcoin it's actually possible to send from multiple addresses to multiple addresses , the software was checking for total input values and total output values, but not the things that happen in between. During one such transaction, the perpetrator gave the program the following instructions simplified for easier understanding :.

The sum of the A and B transactions was ,,, That's exactly Satoshi away from the maximum. Other amounts in the transaction combined with this number caused an integer overflow and the total amount fell to just Address A and address B each got billion completely valid bitcoin, even though at the time there were only around 1. Satoshi, Theymos, Jeff Garzik, and others who noticed this weird transaction quickly started thinking about solutions out loud.

In the span of a few hours a patch was written for the code to fix this issue for future transactions, along with a proposal to roll back and undo the transaction that occurred. This patch was added to the Bitcoin Core software — the node which signs and sends transactions. A suggestion was made in the forum: have everyone stop processing transactions until the fix is in place, and ignore the block that processed this transaction and all the blocks after it.

There was even some concern about Bitcoin being too decentralized to have the information reach everyone in time, but luckily the ecosystem was young enough for this to still be possible. Everything went smoothly and the hack was undone. You'll often hear maximalists say that Ethereum is centralized around Vitalik or that it's not a real blockchain because of the The problem was resolved in exactly the same way: a hard fork which reverted the state and refunded people their investments.

That move caused a contentious fork to form: Ethereum Classic. Whether or not fighting the bad guy this way was a good decision is up for discussion, but it's important to wonder — if BTC had been as popular and widespread as Ethereum at the time of its incident, would a Bitcoin Classic have happened? Are maximalists right in their judging of Ethereum just because of this difference in popularity? And if so, where's the line a system needs to cross before becoming too popular to change?

Mistakes happen and some can be catastrophic for the system if left unfixed. Ideals such as a ledger's immutability can and should be ignored for the greater good and a long term benefit of the whole community. This fix was one such incident — the amount of BTC created from nothing would have done too much damage to the entire system even if they had opted to mark those manufactured bitcoins as invalid in a future version of the Core software. The cheaper and easier solution was rolling the situation back to a past state, and it was the right choice.

The line between technical and political gets blurrier as time goes by, however. In the case of Eth, I chose the Eth side and not ETC because I think the Eth side has morally superior even if ideologically inferior developers and leaders, and I want to see where they can take the technology. As you can see, this forking for finance did not get out of hand — the recent Parity problems were just as big in scale, and no fork occurred. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

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