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Litecoin Price Prediction Litecoin price predictions from cryptocurrency experts continue to be favourable. Moreover, thinking about DLT applications can prompt conversation about innovative ways of storing data, especially as the IAEA, regulators, and operators are tasked to manage increasing volumes of information. Given that transactional data are replicated and shared, private DLT platforms consolidate information across authorized stakeholders, consequently empowering them to trust the data — in effect spreading confidence and responsibility in enforcing governance.
NMAC in facilities is designed primarily for effective safeguards implementation by providing operators and competent authorities with accurate, complete, and reliable information on nuclear material. But NMAC also has direct benefits to security, since a strong accounting system plays a critical role for inventory controls and determining discrepancies from unauthorized removal.
However, not all regulators or facilities have an effective NMAC system. Either some elements of recordkeeping are still done via hardcopy, there are significant challenges in reconciling data amid the multiple streams of information coming from different actors, or — even worse — an NMAC system does not exist at all. Several nuclear security practitioners have noted that matching operator and regulator records can be incredibly cumbersome, causing delays in detecting irregularities as well as wasted labor and other resources.
With DLT, information or activity about the flow of nuclear material within a facility or across facilities can be protected in such a way that if an insider threat attempts to manipulate records, the adversary would also have to change the rest of the chain and risk detection.
In a permissioned DLT, selected stakeholders can be provided specific access rights — information about material flows from operator to regulator, for example — which allows for easy and secure segregation of data to those with a need to know. A DLT layer in this regard could also apply to material in transport whereby carriers, shippers, and relevant national authorities share the status of shipments to ensure continuity of knowledge during transit, i. Transparency among actors those granted access for permissioned DLTs could also allow for earlier detection of suspicious activity, since all participants would have an identical set of information about the ledger.
In theory, any actor along the chain would have the means to spot abnormalities in the transaction history, making it difficult for anyone to subvert the system. Such interfaces already exist to track the routes of minerals and foods; applied in the nuclear sector, they could potentially provide state authorities with instantaneous information on the location of nuclear materials in facilities and in transit.
Overall, evaluating the utility of DLT for NMAC necessitates a conversation between security and safeguards practitioners; there could be promising overlapping benefits, shared lessons, or if not careful overstepping of boundaries in technological adoption.
The inability to detect an insider threat can become an Achilles heel; one recent security breach in a nuclear power facility caused by a well-tailored malware suggests that an insider was provided information that could have been used to modify the attack for maximum damage.
Insider threats are a universal challenge for all sectors, and some companies are exploring DLT applications to support human reliability programs. For instance, a DLT layer could assist in monitoring activities related to personnel and other sensitive operations such as blueprints, equipment, and computer patches internal to the facility. When necessary, this information could be shared with state authorities e. Several companies are piloting projects that pair DLT with IoT, such as biometric devices to implement facial recognition security for employees, especially those handling highly sensitive and valuable information.
While this concept is still in its nascent stages and must overcome technical and political hurdles, the goal is to create digital identities for high-level personnel to authenticate their credentials and track the data they share with whom, when, and for how long.
Today, 5 Under this DLT overlay, personnel activity is logged onto the chain, not the actual sensitive information itself. Thus, DLT would operate orthogonally to existing information security measures, which follows the principles of defense in depth for nuclear facilities.
If this DLT use case is proven effective, it could have broader implications in protecting source material, including source code. Those implications could be particularly useful in critical infrastructures like nuclear facilities that must maintain mechanical integrity, i. Companies, Bloom. Businessweek 4 Oct. Nuclear material is especially vulnerable when in transit, given that sensitive materials are taken out of tightly controlled environments i. According to a recent analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA, more than half of incidents categorized as theft of radioactive material between and occurred while the material was in transport.
It is also important to remember the global magnitude and reach of nuclear transport activities: An estimated 20 million shipments are regularly transported within countries and across borders every year via air, road, or rail. A major incident during transport is likely to inflict adverse knock-on effects to the greater community, as it could harm people along the path especially unwitting citizens that encounter stolen material taken out of containers or restrict the movement of other goods if traffic is severely disrupted.
Regional relationships could also be compromised should a security incident occur amid cross-border transit. In such an event, rapid response and information sharing would be desirable, but it is unclear to what extent such communication channels are readily available among neighbouring states.
DLT could potentially contribute an organized tracking system to complement existing security measures for transport. Currently, the web of information facilitating transport of nuclear materials comprises hardcopy e. Moreover, the type of security for a given shipment will have different requirements depending on the type of nuclear material, i. Transporters must be mindful of the risks associated with these materials and the ways in which these varying risks impact the development of a robust transport security plan.
Data about these shipments are highly sensitive and must be conveyed to the right person at the right time. For example, information about the quantity of material should only be made privy to certain actors e. The complexity of this ecosystem may be compounded by safety guidelines that are mostly electronically distributed, while security information is more likely to be transmitted via hardcopy to deter the likelihood of being shared easily.
Most importantly, transport involves synchronized movement of information documentation and material the asset in transit. While paperwork is passed around, stakeholders must have assurance that the physical material is where it should be throughout transport.
For example, shippers rely on GPS technology to monitor truck locations, but this does not necessarily guarantee that nuclear material casks and packages are still loaded on the truck. Although nuclear transport has not experienced a major security incident to date, continuous evaluation and improvement is a core value in nuclear operations, which includes a critical look at the efficiency and efficacy of existing security measures and procedures.
A private DLT platform could offer an added layer of assurance on the flows of sensitive data related to transport by logging information onto the chain as nuclear material travels from origin to destination. With smart contracts, these data — such as personnel credentials or authentication of necessary documents — could be monitored and accessed by specific personnel depending on their need-to-know requirements proportionate to the risk i.
Stakeholders in the nuclear sector are interested in the ways in which private DLT platforms compare with existing systems and procedures that secure and streamline the information and material flows during transport. While the transport industry has a good track record of keeping nuclear materials secure, a number of incidents over time in several countries serve as a reminder that security approaches must be continuously evaluated and improved.
The political, economic, and social fallout of COVID is undeniably a stress test on current systems and raises questions about how our reliance on technology will change, for better or worse, as our global security landscape shifts over time. The purpose of the prototype would be to identify the benefits — whether they be improved information security, efficiency gains, or cost savings — in utilizing a DLT platform to manage and validate a subset of information related to nuclear materials transport.
If successful, this framework would not only provide an immutable record of checkpoints for a given shipment in real time, but also monitor the activities of individuals handling the materials directly detection of any activities that could indicate insider threat.
DLT is finding a footing in a variety of sectors, positioning itself as one of the innovations that will dominate and shape our new technological frontier. The hype that open, public DLT platforms in the form of cryptocurrencies have stirred over the years has led to an explosive rise in start-ups for all types of applications, which gives the impression that DLT is a solution blindly seeking an answer.
While DLT has shown transformative gains in healthcare and supply chain markets, many projects are still in the testbed phase such that positive results have yet to demonstrate sustainability. These prototypes are not only putting the technology to the test, but are also gauging savings and costs — with respect to installation fees, computational efficiencies, maintenance, and workforce — compared to existing data management systems and security methods. For high-cost industries such as the nuclear sector, achieving top security should not come at the expense of maintaining a cost-effective business.
Thus, applications for nuclear security must demonstrate that the system can be harmonized with rest of the enterprise with little to no added costs. For example, studies conducted by safety engineers have shown that added safety measures in certain circumstances can make complex systems less safe. Safety Prog. It may also be true for security: the use of DLT must serve to improve and streamline, and not confuse security systems in nuclear facilities. Thus, some form of physical verification would still be necessary.
The DLT system design must fit neatly within the ecosystem of activities and governance, which in turn dictates the conditions and types of information shared in the ledger. The success of the technology is dependent on whether its role is clearly defined and how it will seamlessly interact or intersect with other technologies already being used.
It will also be critical to achieve corporate acceptability, which will require a detailed articulation of how DLT will tangibly reduce security risks while maintaining reasonable security costs that will not impact other aspects of business.
As with any new technology, there are also barriers to learning and eventually accepting the concept of DLT as a legitimate technological system or service. Nuclear stakeholders will need to understand that DLT itself is not going to be a direct solution to improved security, but rather presents a new way of working and sharing information that could yield greater efficiencies, streamlined processes, and a stronger security practice. At this stage, it cannot be definitively stated that a DLT-backed platform can enhance nuclear security.
But witnessing the promising pursuit of DLT applications for other sectors to secure data management that have parallel circumstances for nuclear security presents a question on whether lessons can be learned and eventually transferred into the nuclear field. With any technological breakthrough, finding the answer requires rigorous questioning, research, and experimentation.
As the new technological frontier becomes the norm, it will be incumbent on governments, industries, and organizations to keep pace. Ultimately, this research aims to assist the nuclear community in sifting through the opportunities and pitfalls of DLT for nuclear security, leading any positive discussion and concrete interests into an appropriate prototype, and ultimately a proof of concept. Overall, the study hopes to present a thoughtful process for navigating the technological frontier, identifying what can make nuclear security stronger along the way.
National Nuclear Security Administration for their generous support in funding this research. Their open-mindedness, as well as thoughtful critique, provided this paper a strong foundation of research. The Stimson office is closed to all visitors. All public events are now online. Staff remain available via email, phone, and video conference. During this time, the Stimson Center will continue its important work, informing policymakers and the public — here, on social media, and via email.
Skip to content Research. Policy Paper. Complementing the Padlock: The prospect of blockchain for strengthening nuclear security. Download PDF. June 26, On this page.
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