Utz, N. Cummins Co. Reibstein, N. Minetto-Meriden Co. American Mfg. Bottini, N. Rosenwald, N. Trimble, N. Kehaya, N. Spring, N. Rabinoff, N. United States Steel Corp. Illinois Surety Co. Exeter Mach. Works, N.
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Bosson, N. International Ry. Nichols, N. McKinnon, N. Charles L. Doran Contracting Co. Yonkers R. Clark, N. Graves, N. Naef, N. New York, S. Dykeman, N. New York, A. Walter, N. Connors, N. Norcross Bros. Criscuoli, N. Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank, N. Lanzetta, N. Miller, N. Lucey, N. Brooklyn Heights R. United Stores Realty Co. Hilfiker, N. Long Island R. Otis Elevator Co. Gortner, N. Keystone Varnish Co. Western Development Co.
Interboro Rapid Transit Co. Decker, N. Mercantile Warehouse Co. Wickwire Steel Co. Austro-Americana S. Sees, N. Goodman, N. Cadillac Hotel Co. McCormack Real Estate Co. New York Evening Journal Pub. Huxley, N. Komancek, N. Loonen, N. Hofferberth, N. American Museum of Natural History, N. Di Paolo, N. Kunstler, N. Crowley, N. Truman, N. Auburndale Realty Co. Maher, N. Sylvieus, N. Cardone, N. Horace E.
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Collins, N. Wait, N. Burnett, N. Wagner, N. McDonough, N. West Side Mason Contracting Co. Long, N. John E. Sullivan CO. Doherty, N. Levy, N. Stoddard, N. Butterick Pub. Lowe, N. Hoadley, N. Supreme Council of Royal Arcanum, N.
Lehigh Valley Structural Steel Co. Turner, N. Hoops, N. Ryan, N. Village of White Plains, N. Reardon, N. Royal Antiseptic Toothpick Co. Gallagher, N. Syracuse, B. Willis, N. Hauser, N. Healy, N. Schuchman, N. Wolff, N. Picker Bros. Sonntag, N. Ricketts, N. New York Rys. Bell, N. City of Auburn, N. Plymouth Rubber Co. Israel, N. Olcott, N. Hyams, N. Stoutenbrugh, N. Hudler, N. Baldwin, N. New York Mills, N. McMahon, N. Olson Const. New York Times Co.
Thomas Crimmins Contracting Co. Duffy Co. Todebush, N. Bowes, N. Tynberg, N. Hackett, N. Crombie, N. Faeth, N. Joseph L. Presser, N. Columbia Kid Hair Curlers Mfg. Wasserman, N. Raffy, N. Kendal, N. Board of Education, N. City of Troy, N. Schuster, N. Spadaro, N. Singer Sewing Mach. Cowperthwait, N.
Womanada Land Ass'n, N. Dorland, N. Mahle, N. David, N. Bob, N. Rochester, S. Secor, N. Berkowitz, N. Whiting, N. Lipper, N. Guardian Trust Co. Pamlico Realty Co. Magistral Chemical Co. Longworth, N. Barber, N. Colonial Life Ins. Kirby, N. Hatch, N. Boskowitz, N. Buffalo, R. McCormack, N. Seymour, N. McHugh, N. Nimmcke, N. Stillman, N. Goldstein, N. New York Life Ins. American Exch.
Bank, N. Fischer, N. Ryall, N. May, Inc. Crumb, N. Fullerton Weaver Realty Co. Multi-Speed Shutter Co. Springer, N. Horowitz, N. Gold Sticker, N. Kelly, N. Battle, N. Haff, N. Moyer, N. Meretzky, N. Casualty Co. Weisberger, N. Lemkau, N. New York Dock Co. Whitman, N. Schenectady Ry. De Forest, N. O'Connor, N. John J. Mitchell Co. Gowen, N. Gourlay, N. Magee, N. Waterman Bldg. Snyder, N. Mulligan, N. Bingham, N. Daniel Winent Inc. New York Mail Co. Blake, N.
Orsino, N. Robin, N. Archimede, N. Statler's Restaurant, N. National Chain Co. Monroe County Oil Co. Carnochan, N. Harrison, N. Haverstraw Water Supply Co. Owens, N. Pelz, N. Bernstein, N. Consiglio, N. Greenberg, N.
Cohen, N. Hinchey, N. Furcolo, N. Kerr, N. Horman, N. Hawkins, N. Fitzpatrick, N. Forcarazzo, N. Brunori, N. Grutz, N. Freeman, N. Fultz, N. Hudson, N. Sage, N. Sorrentino, N. Rothenberg, N. Manghavita, N. Ogujenovich, N. Skeel, N. Metropolitan Surety Co. Randazzo, N. Baldwin v. Prescott, N. Shippant, N. Jansen, N. Cassidy v. Burke v. Thompson, N.
Central Auto Sales Co. Board of Assessors, N. Buckley v. Conklin, N. Chapman v. Conger v. Town Board of Smyrna, N. Craugh v. Cusick v. Daly, N. Varley v. Iannarone v. Doyle, N. Mauser Mfg. Purdy, N. Griffenhagen, N. Kelly v.
Hayes v. Pellecchio v. Gallo, N. Squires v. Hand, N. Buffalo, L. Seaman, N. City of Fulton, N. Heffner, N. Mills, N. Hills, N. Alexander, N. Prentice, N. New York, L. McNaught, N. General Electric Co. United States Oxygen Co. Carter, N. Washburn, N. Empire State Degree of Honor, N. Leray Paper Co. Sax, N. Locke, N. Plaut, N. Rubin, N. Lawyers' Title Ins. Charles H. Ditson Co. Early, N. New York Transp.
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Rhyming is very important in music because it creates a rhythm that further creates meaning, emotion, and feeling. It also creates an echo in the lyrics. With children, rhyming is a very important tool. Rhyming teaches children how language works, helps them understand the rhythm of language, and learn how to make predictions. In other words, rhymes teach children phrases to anticipate and rhymes enhance their memory. Ready for a challenge?
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The Yiddish language, still existing, was a combination of German dialect and Hebrew words. The Jews were engaged in this area in trade and in money business, the trigger of the setting up of a local economy. For the many back and forth Jewish migrations occurring in Poland, the Jewish names did not last long enough to take roots, except for the names derived from places, and as a result there are no typical Polish names from that time.
Sephardim family names are for example: Esperanza, Belmonte, Cordova and Abravanel. Despite of continuous harassment of groups and individuals, what can be called the Jewish Polish culture developed considerably from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The messianic movement of the pseudo-Messiah Sabbatai Zevi in Turk- ish Smyrna, called the Sabbatian sect was founded in and was fol- lowed by many eastern Jews, especially in Poland as far as the 18th century, up to the French revolution.
At that time, the social order in Poland was very reactionary: great land- owners reigned over millions of serfs. The Jews lived in between. The re- stricted middle class hated the Jews. The Cossack and peasant revolt of , led by Bogdan Chmielnicki, resulted in a succession of massacres of Jewish communities in Ukraine and Eastern Poland. In , having been caught between warring Russians and Poles, Jewish communities were destroyed.
Those who lived under the power of Prussia or Austria, remained in these main coun- tries and partially moved to the border areas of the Empire: to Moldavia, Hungary and Bulgaria. The frequently German sounding names of Polish Jews is because of the changing allocation of Polish provinces to Prussia and Austria. There were often imposed German names to Jews cfr. The Aschkenasim were most willing to accept these changing names.
On the contrary, the Sephardim were more linked to their original names. Bernick from the town Berniki. Blashki from Blaszki. Bromberg today Bydgoszcz. Brostoff from Brzostowica. Burstein from Bursztyn. Cornfeld or Kornfeld. Dissen or Dzisna, from Dubow Eichenwald. Gravier from Grajewo. Kovarsly from. Kowarsk, Kutner f. Kutno, Kutoff f. Kuty, Kwileski from Kwilez. Lagover f. Lagov, Lenoff f. Leniew, Lowitz from Lowicz, and Lysagora Berggipfel.
Metchik from Mieczyk, Mosak from Mozak. Naymark from Naymark. Ostrow in Poland and later in Russia, Ozarovsky from Ozarov. Rothenberg from the town of, Rovner from Rowin. Sloninsky from Slonin Slon also elephant , Steiner from Kamien. Tartakover from Tartak, Tichtin from Tykocin.
Turbin from Turbin, Turowitz from Turowicze. Warte from Wartele. Zaretsky from Zaretky. Bukzpan Buxbaum, as wood worker or carver. Bulka The baker who makes small rolls. Dekovnik A person who makes thatched roofs. Dratwa Wire string for shoes and boots. Forman Furmann too, a carter. Galinsky A dealer of the best quality of wheat. Gutmacher Is a hatter. Imber A ginger dealer. Kovarsky A smith or a metal worker. Krachmann too.
Kushner A furrier. Ligorner From Lugarniarz, a bleacher of cotton. Lopatov too. Meltz er Form Mielcarc, and Malz is the owner and the name of a brewer. Naparstek Is a thimble. Prochownik Powder maker or pharmacist. Robalow A fish dealer.
Rubenchick A cabinet maker or carpenter. Schrift A type-setter. Sklar A glass maker. Tabachnik A salesman of snuff. Targownik Is a dealer. Toporek Is a hatchet for workers. Tygel Is a melting pot. Wigodney too. Winokur A distiller of brandy. Zeleznikov An iron dealer. Zupnick A government official responsible for salt-works. Al- though the Russian Orthodox Church was opposed to the Jews, the king gave them financial support as trade people.
In the second half of the 16th century, there were hardly any Jews living in Mos- cow and Russia. They did not return until the 17th century. Most of the Tsars placed restrictions on the Jews. But some baptised Jews, however, found favour with him. Jews were generally prohibited from entering the establishment, however, despite mixed fortunes, they were more or less tolerated.
At the end of the 18th century more than a million Jews came to Russia in the wake of the partition of Poland by Russia, Austria and Prussia. Russia thus had the largest Jewish population in the East. New laws re- stricted retail businesses, but some Jews were allowed to deal as real estate landowners, farmers and distillers.
However, the situ- ation gradually improved by the end of her reign. He founded universities and sought reforms in government, proposing a modern constitution and rules of conduct. This divided the Jewish people into three categories: farm workers or peasants, manufacturers or producers, and retailers. They were promised much land in the South East of Russia. Living and developing in the Russian Empire remained a difficult, every- day task for Jews.
Joseph II of Austria endeavoured to make favourable reforms but was blocked both by the local church and the politicians. The gradual change in their emancipation status exacted a high price on the whole Jewry as a majority of them wanted to retain their orthodox and Chassidic traditions. Their children were compelled to attend local schools and to learn Russian although they had little in common with the Russian people. According to Prof. After his death, important reforms were granted to Jews.
The October Revolution of did not bring about any change on Jewish family names. The Soviet Union tried early to stop the emigration of Jews from the former Russia, but they did not succeed. Russian Trade and Occupational Names Duchovny as a clergyman. Gittelmacher as a tailor of jacket or smock. Gubermann as an oat dealer. Kabakoff as an inn keeper. Kolatch is a white bread for Jewish feasts. Kotelchick as a boiler maker. Krensky as a bleacher, or from Krems in Austria. Kushner as a furrier.
Lichtermann as man of the Sabbath lights in Austria and Russia. M o lotok as a producer of hammers. Muchnik as a producer of flour. Pasternack as chive. Plotkin or Plotke-a as silver scaled fish. Plotnick as a wood worker. Portnoy as a tailor. Potashnik as a producer of potassium. Reiter as a horseman. Sapoznik as a shoemaker. Schupack as a fish dealer. Senelnick as dyer of natural colours. Shaffran is a vegetable. Sholk as a silk or silk dealer.
Solodar as a goldsmith. Spector as an inspector or school supervisor. Spivak as a singer. Sukenik as a dealer of cloths. Talmach as a Tolmach, interpreter. Winnick as a distiller. Zitnik as a corn dealer. Andrussier from Andruszowce. Anixt er from Aniktzty. Batwinnik diminutive for someone who comes from Lithuania. Dolinsky from Dolina, in Lithuania and Galicia. Dubin from Dubina, region of an oak wood. Dvoretz from Grodno, region of a forest.
Kolodkin from Kolodky. Koslowski from Kolowo. Lome from Lome. Litwack someone who comes from Lithuania. Manowsky from Mankowce, in Poland, Lithuania and Russia. Melnik from Mielnik, part in Poland and Lithuania. Meslansky from Meslany.
Meslin or Maslin from Meslany. Mytow v sky from Myto. Neviaser short form of Poneviaser from Ponevias. Poneviaser from Ponevias. Pikelny from Pikeln, Province Kovno, Lithuania. Rogov from the place name Rogovo. Salander Sallender Snitke from Sznitki. Skudin from Skudy. Skier from Skiery. Smilasky from Smilanka.
Smorgansky from Smorgan. Svirsky from Svir, near Kovno. Trok from Troki. Zager from Zagory. Portugal Jews had already settled here, when in the Portuguese independent State was formed from a province of Castille under the rule of the Burgundian Dukedom. The Jewish communities could not compete in numbers and significance with the Spanish Jews. Their economic and social proportions were however nearly the same. He bore the seal of arms of Portugal and released instructions in the name of the King.
Till the beginning of the 13th century, Portuguese law guaranteed the Jewish people the same legal equality as the Spanish town code. But in the follow- ing centuries the Clergy battled with the Portugal cities, against the fact that Jews were favoured by the Crown. They managed to forbid Jews from lending money, to exact heavy taxes on their fortunes, to prevent the richest of them from emigrating; and finally ordered Jews to bear a distinct mark of recognition a star, etc.
Ever since that time the Jewish culture in Portugal has gained significance for the entire Jewish culture. They attained residence there for eight months. Later, because of such aver- sion, the King offered the emigrants a complete boat at their disposal to sail to more hospitable countries. King Joao II practised an unsteady policy towards the Jewry. The Marranos Those Jews who were baptised by force were called Marranos in Spain and Portugal, but they remained faithful to their religious tradition.
Both Spanish and Portuguese Catholic Churches were very busy effecting as many conversions from the 15th century on, with all the related difficulties of integrating such a consistent group. Many Marranos emigrated overseas, or to other countries, such as the Ottoman Empire, where the return to Judaism was not considered a set- back. Even today some Jewish groups in Spain observe specific rites, prov- ing their origin of Marranos. United Kingdom and U. They had been expelled from England in and got official permission to return only in the year In the meantime there were only small communities in hiding, and meeting Jews was virtually impossible.
When firstly Antonio Fernandez Carvajal arrived in in London, he returned officially to his Hebraic faith. Furthermore the Portuguese Ambassador in London, Antonio de Suza, was using the Catholic chapel annexed to the embassy as a meeting place for the Marranos of the capital. It is still today the oldest historical marvel of English Judaism. During the 18th century the most important Jewish families accepted being baptized, in exchange for their acceptance in English high society.
The Bevis Marks Synagogue was built in the year , still today the oldest Jewish centre of the Sephardim community with the best influence for Judaism. The Aschkenazim did not benefit from an agreement, they built how- ever several synagogues in the year The Asckenazim Rabbis were of German culture and education. Adler promoted a religious conservatism of English Judaism.
At that time the most outstanding Jews in England were: Dr. The most important family names in the U. The influence of Michel Friedlaender and A. Buechler as the rectors of the Jewish college was a great improvement. The other two famous Jewish names in the U. It also gave shelter to an impressive number of persecuted and poor Jews. They were guaranteed a position under the American constitution, although their emancipation process had been rat- her slow.
In the year the Jewish people did not have in the U. The new spirit was now Puritanism. This meant a strong connection to the Old Testament. Consequently all religions were considered at the same level, and fa- vouritism to the local Church or prejudices against Jews were forbidden. Many French Jews immigrated to America during the Napoleonic times. In the main U. But Jews preferred to stay in New York where in they numbered 1. Later in the West big cities were created and new opportunities were offered to Jewish migration.
Economic emancipation and progress for these immigrants developed slower than expected. The German Jews started there as peddlers or retail- ers, and then as owners of Jewish shopping centres: Strauss, Altman, Gimbel, Stern and Bloomingdale. They were leaders in the metal and mining industry. Very soon they took the leadership in the Press. After the census of , the American Diaspora or Jewish population reached 5,, 2.
Most of the Jewish U. The Jewish families had translated their names into English, it is therefore hard to recognise some time their name of ori- gin. The alteration and transformation of so many Jewish names are impressive. Benzion Kaganoff, the author of a Name book, was surprised that only few Jews were informed about History at large and especially the origin of their own family name.
Some examples: Baker Was originally Becker. Butcher Was Fleischer. Brewer Was Breuer. Weaver Was Weber. Painter Was Farber. Leather Was Leder. Thimble Was Fingerhut. Needle Was Nadel. Shears Was Schere. Israel It is remarkable, probably unique in modern history, as in only twenty years from the foundation of Israel, on the 14 May to the end of the Sixties, a mass of immigrants could be integrated into a State.
In two decades, three million Jews, of different geographical and social origins, became integrated in a little band of land in the Middle East. Obviously, such a kind of integration has had dramatic repercussions in the development of family names in the area. On the one hand we find names coming from all over Europe and Asia, on the other hand a considerable effort is put forward to unifying the name- giving.
Israel Into Isserles, Isler, Schrulmann. Manasse Into Mannes, Monash and Mann. Salomon Into Salom, Salmon and Salinger. Zacharias Into Sacher, Sacharow and Sacks. Curious changes of sense were made from German speaking Jews, who were obliged after the Names Edict of by Joseph II of Austria, to carry hateful names. Chalef A knife, used by the butcher.
Geffen Gopen As wine, Gopen is the vine. Krochmal Is a starch dealer. It is the name for corn, or wheat dealer. Charry Chasan reb Yosef, son-in-law of Reb Yosef. Imaginary Names in Israel: Boruchschomer First word in the prayer-book at the morning prayer. Chodosch Hebrew they bore this name to be again a new man. Meersand In the Genesis, they said to Jacob, that his numerous progeny Will be like sand on sea.
Prochownik The big Abraham Prochownik was king of Poland. The word means powder maker or chemist. Sameth Sammet for someone with the name Schimon or Simon. Twersky Menachem Nachun von Chernobyl died , was the founder of an important dynasty of Chassidism.
He bore Twersky as his family name. There is a name place in Russia, named Tver, and someone could come from there. Yischtabach Place name in the district of Siddur, used by many Ukrainian families. Baru Ben reb Wolff, son of the Wolff. Behar Ben Harav, son of the Rabbis. The family name Katzenellenbogen is of great interest. The name origi- nates from the dukedom of Hesse and from the place name of Katzeneln- bogen. The very old colony Katzenelnbogen was a settlement of the Katten, a Germanic people, probably the ancestors of the inhabitants of Hesse.
Later the name Cattimelibocus was changed into Katzenelnbogen. Meir Katzenellenbogen was then a derivation. He was Rabbi of Padua in Italy and died in , and was intensely honoured during the entire 15th century. His descendants used many different names, as Katzenellenbogensohn. After simplifying that family name with 20 letters, the name presented the following forms: Katzenelson, or Katznelson, or the more shortened Nel- son.
Other imaginative possibilities were: Bogensohn, Elbogen and Ellen- gogen. See more in the general List at the end of this work in the initial K. A false opinion is that the name Trebitsch, form the town Trebitsch in Moravia, could derive from the same origin Treves. Some examples of acceptance of wrong writing errors are the follow- ing: The family name Deutsch was in some official documents written by an officer not knowing German.
A surprising alteration exists with the family name Pollak. Some of the families bearing the name in Wien Vienna , changed the name from Weiner into Wiener because of their residence, and the whole metamorpho- sis from Pollak into Wiener was completed. Trade or occupational name Many Jewish family names take their origin from the numerous trades and occupations of the whole European Jewry.
House and store sign or signboards During the years War, strong regulations were ordered against Jews in Frankfort on Main. They had to carry badges on their clothes, and their houses had to be recognized by signs or signboards. At that time people were still illiterate, they could not read names, but they could recognize signboards which identified houses and stores, and sometimes these signs of objects or animals replaced the names of the owners.
Within the ghetto of Frankfort, people were better known by the signs which they displayed at their homes and stores, so that later they acquired surnames from those signs. That system was applied also to mark people with double names, first name or Christian name and then surname or family name.
In this case ten first names and ten surnames are enough for a hundred people. The number of combinations grow in geometric progression. The patronymic was used among German and Slavic people. Some ex- amples are Peterson son of Peter and Johnson son of John. Place Names The place name are very common in the Jewish communities as with the non- Jews. But for the Jewish group such names are much more important and numerous, because of their huge migrations, from one country to another, from Germany to Poland, from Spain to Turkey, from Bohemia to Ger- many, etc.
Glesinger proposed the following list of such groups of place names, for a complete study of all the migration processes of the Chosen people: a. Simple names, without ending Moravia, Oistrach, Sachs ; b. Only diminutives Hessel, Saxl, Turkel ; f. Personal Characteristics The most common Jewish names here concern colours, in the sense of the colour of the hairs or of skins. We will end with a second list of names concerning some other physi- cal characteristics. Other Characteristics The names of this group derived its meaning in a positive sense, and rarely in a negative one.
Adaptation towards other Languages In the USA the Jewish families coming from Germany and from the other countries of Eastern Europe adapted their family names and translated many of them. But generally it is today always possible to observe the old Jewish ori- gin or root in the new names: Blumenfeld is Bloomfield. Davidsohn is Davidson or Davies. Feld is Field. Freimann is Freeman.
Goldstein is Goldstone. Gutmann is Goodman. Hirschfeld is Hershfield. Isaaksohn is Isaacs. Levi is Lewis or Lewit. Leawitt is Loewy or Lowy. Mayer is Myer. Mueller is Miller. Katzenellenbogensohn is Nelson. Preuss is Price. Rabinowiz is Robinson. Rosenblueth is Rosen. Silberstein is Silverstone. Weiss is White. Zuckermann is Sugarman. In Hungary the family names were transcribed sometimes to unrecog- nizable conditions and were presented in three ways.
Moreover, you can consult this same web site to obtain more informa- tion and details from the author, about Jewish family names. Abravanel Abarbanel Abraham Name of the patriarch, in Palatinate. Ach Place name, Baden Ackermann Under Rhine, a peasant. Ethel Adelson Son of aristocracy. An other form is: Edelsohn. Aguilar Place name, in Spain. Alcalay From Alcola, Spain. Alkus From Alkusz, a town in Poland. Alt Given name, Under Rhine, Baden Altdorfer In Baden Altschul Place of origin of the old school Synagogue in Prague.
It exists in the towns of Rastatt and Landamt in the area of Under- Rhine Only in Baden at Heidelberg and Weinheim. Eastern Jews think that it could derive from Raslau or Namslau in Silesia. Andrussier From the town of Andruszowce, in Lithuania. Anger Anhanhausen From a dialect place name, Baden Anixter From the town Onixt of Onikszty in Lettish.
Anker Anker is Symbol of hope. Ansbach From the town of Ansbach, in Bavaria. Name used from a shoemaker. Apelowitz From the town of Opole, in Poland. Apt It is the Jewish term for the town of Opatow in Galicia. Apter Arfa Polish word for a tool to horn cleaning. The family name derived from a horn trader. Arnheim New name instead of Aaron, Baden Aronow Arzt Name found in the 15th century.
Asher Name of Hebraic origin, Baden At the beginning of the 11th century Aschkenasim Aschkenazy takes the sense of Germany, and Aschkenasi was translated as Esknazy German. Astruck Name of Greek, French and Latin origins. Auerbach From the town of Auerbach in Hesse-Darmstadt, where the judge Moses Auerbach in the 15th century was the first who bore the name. Auspitz From Auspitz, in Moravia and Czechia.
In the area of von Bacharach Baden, it exists in two places, at Gailingen by the lake of Bacherach Constance , and at Durlach Baecker In Baden , in the district of Under Rhine. In Stebbach also Baerlau Baden Bamberg er From the town of Bamberg in Bavaria, Barnas New name, Baden Baron Coming from bar Aron, son of a priestly family. Probably the name comes also from Bari in Italy, Son in Aramaic. Bart From the whole of Baden in Baruch means the blessed. Bauer In Baden Bauernfeind In Baden Baumgarten Baum A name shortened from Schlagbaum, an excise man on the main street.
Also in the district of Under Rhine. It means that Jews were interested in jobs other than usurers. Baker is the English translation of the German word. Bechor A name given to the first son by Sephardim. Bedwinek In Polish it means a traveller trader who is partner with a Bedouin.
Beja Place name nearby Alentejo in Portugal, on the border of Algarve. Beierthal Place of origin, Baden Belgrader From the main city of Yugoslavia, Belgrade. Bender From a little town in Rumania, or from the job of cooper. Ben The American short name. Bensheim From the town of Bensheim, Baden The Jews changed the Hebraic term of Baruch to Berger. In Mainbernheim and Eichstetten. Berwanger Place of origin from Berwanger, Baden Besser From a title of official in the Habsburgs court; also a tax collector in the Jewish community, or a Rabbi-judge besser as the best.
Bettinger A new name for Edinger. Bettelheim A Hungarian-Jewish name, someone who is begging. Beuerle From the district of Under Rhine, Baden Bielefeld Town of origin, Baden Billig Given name, Baden Binheimer Place of origin, Baden Bischofsheimer Place of origin, Baden Bischofswerder Blaser The player of horn in the Synagogue had an important part in the rite.
Bleibtreu Christian baptized name in the 17th century. Bloch After the persecutions against the Jews in the 14th century a Block lot of them went to Poland. Boehm Coming from Bohemia, Baden Bonfelder From the town of Bonfeld, Baden Bonyhadi From Bonyhad place of origin in Hungary. Born Exists in the towns of Mannheim and Karlsruhe, both in Ba- den.
Borochius Latin name for Baruch, name of Hebraic origin, Baden Botnick In Slavic Botinka means boot. Boxermann Brandeis Place of origin, Brandeis on the river Elbe Braun Braun is a given name; Brown is the American translation. Names of descent or extraction like Cohen or Levi are also borne as surnames. Place of origin Breisach, district Upper Rhine-Baden. Breittenbach From Breitenbach, place of origin.
Breitenbach Brettauer From Bretten, Baden Brettenheimer From Bretten or Brettenheim in Wurttemberg. Brewer Brikheimer Place name in Baden. Brittfeld Place name, Baden Bruchsal Place of origin in Baden. Bruckenstein Paving-stone, Brick is the Yiddish word for paving. Brumberg From the area of Breisach, Baden Braunberg Brunberg Brummi Exists in Baden Bronner Comes from Brunner.
Buchsbaum Name from the Frankfurter Judengasse in Burger Someone living in the country also with city rights, in the area Burgheimer of Emmendingen, in the Eichstetten district of Upper Rhine, and in Breisach, Baden Butenheimer Fishmonger of turbot Heilbutt , Baden Buttermilch Burlay, as French translation. Buxbaum Common as permanent name in the district of Upper Rhine. Kalwari Calish From Kalisz, a town in Poland. Cannstatt Cariewski From Carew without suffix.
Karlebach Carsen Another name for Cohen. Carlsruher From the town of Karlsruhe, Baden Karlsruher Carlton From Cohn as Cohen. Carmona Place name near Sevilla, Spain. Casen It exists since in the district of Under Rhine, Baden. Castro De Castro, name in Spain. Caub From the town on the Rhine, Baden Beer Chagall Surname of the painter, born in Russia, working in Paris with numerous works of art in glass with Christian motives. Clark Old form for Cohen.
Clifton Also old form for Cohen. Cogan Slavic term for Kohen or Cohen. Ko a gan Cohn Cohn from an aristocratic origin, of the family of Aarons. Cooper Kupferschmied as cooper. Cooperman Cordovero Place name from Cordova, Spain. Cornfeld Kornfeld is changed name for Kohen. Creutzberger Crossby, without the suffix. Czegledi Place name of Czegled in Hungary. Danielsohn Danson is the shortened form in the US. Danson Dar e nbacher Exists in Baden Daube Since existing in the Judengasse in Frankfort on Main.
Davis David was changed for Tewel or Tewele since in Palati- nate. Dedelbach From the town of Dettelbach, Baden Diener A servant, Baden Dornacher From Dornach in the suburb south of Basel, Switzerland, Drach Shield or sign in the Judengasse of Frankfort on Main.
Drachen Drechsler From Drechsler, Baden Drehnbacher From the town of Treunbach, Baden Dreifus s Since it is a place name from Treves or Troyes. Dreyfuss is in Breisgau, Baden since The south of Baden had the highest of concentration of this resident name. Dressner From the town of Dresden, Baden Drucker Name of occupation, Drucker as printer. Dubowsky Variant of Dubow. Duchovny Russian name for priest, also name of a Rabbi or a Kohen. Ducas since in Durlach, Baden. Dukatenzeiler Is a counter of ducats coins , also the form of Ducat.
Dunkelmann A priest from Russia. Durchschlag As a weariness, also a sieve tool. Ebstein Changed for Levi because this name was too Hebrew, and the authorities preferred a new biblical term, in Rust-Baden. Edelmann Aristocratic man or man of a noble woman. Edelschild Since in Rastatt, Baden. Also a not identifiable name of house in Frankfort on Main in Edesheimer Place name from Edesheim near Speyer, Baden. Edheimer Edighofer Place name, Baden Eger from a town in West Bohemia.
Egers Ehmann In numerous communities wedding licences were not granted before serving in the army. Many Jews were married only by a Rabbi and their marriages were never registered. It is an old form for Aaron or Kohen. Someone coming from an Aaron or a Kohen. Bronner Eichenwald Wood of oaks. Wald short name. Eichstetter From the town of Eichstetten, Baden. Eichtersheim From Heimer without suffix.
Einstein A well-known Jewish family name. Two possible origins: or from Katzenellenbogen see above or from a twisted footpath, as in Frankfort on Main where it exists as a house name. Ellereich New name for Alsace. Engel Since the name exists in the Judengasse in Frankfort on Main. Enker As anchor, symbol of hope and salvation, luck-sign for houses Anker and stores. Also borne as a family name.
Erdheim Place name, Baden. Eschelbacher In Baden Essinger From Essingen, Baden Ettersfeld Place name near Etten in Dorfzaum, Baden After the organi- zation of the Jewish communities in , in Murg and Pfinz- kreis. Since it existed in Ettlinger, Baden-Durlach. Ezekiel Hebraic name as Hesekiel or Ezechiel. Fahrenbacher From Diersberg, Mahlberg area, Baden. Faikmann New name coming from the court decree of Baden of Falk Since name of German origin, was also a Surname.
Fardei Name from Andalusia, Spain. Estori Fardei was a Jewish scholar during the 14th century. Fath New name, Baden Also from Weinstein, Baden Weinstein Feivus Only after the 16th century used with F. Felsenstein Before the name was Levy; it exists in Breisach through the influence of the authorities and in Ihringen, Baden Ferber As Farber see above is an occupation name, a dyer.
Fetterer Given name, Baden Feuchtwanger Place name from Feuchtwangen in Bavaria. Wanger Shortened from the original name. Fichtenbaum From botany, the pine-tree becomes a Surname, Baden Find New name, Baden Fingerhut Name existing in the area of Under Rhine, Baden Fingerle Fink Flinker in German is a quick man. Common name in Germany Finkel during the Middle Ages. Flehinger From the town Flehingen, Baden New chosen names from some inhabitants, Baden Flusser Forchheimer Forchheim is a town in Bavaria.
Baden Fortlouis Name, Baden The family was non- Jewish in , but it became a Jewish name in Frankenstein Shortened from Frankestein. Finally in in the Judengasse in Frankfort on Main. Frankfurter From the Ghetto street in Frankfort on Main; the names of the houses here were so beloved, that the Jews opposed changing them by offering money in The name never appears in Baden. Freierlich Existing in the district of Under Rhine, Baden Freudenberger is common only in Angel- Freudenfels thurn, and Sinsheim, Baden Also in the area Friend of Under Rhine.
Friends Name in Baden. Froehlich It was an expensive name, Baden Frosch Coming from the legend, that Moses or his ancestors, were living in a house with the sign of a frog Kaganoff. It exists also in the North of Baden In Baden it was a title- name bestowing honour , existing in the Nonnenweiher, Mahlberg area and exclusive of north of Baden. Gabler Gailsmaier It exists only in the town of Ihringen, Baden Galizier From Galicia Poland.
Existing in Waldshut and Randegg, B Galpern Russian form for the town of Heilbronn Baden , see Halpern. Gamoran From the town of Gommern, in the East of Germany. Gassmann Exists in the district of Under Rhine, Baden.
This name is borne also from Christian families in Spain and South America. The Jewish family name originally comes from the town of Castro near Cordova in Spain. Geldersheim From the town of Geldern near Duisburg, Baden Gelnhausen From a town in Hesse, Baden Gerber In the district of Under Rhine, Baden Gernsbacher Existing in Baden Also in Silesia as Golberg.
Gochtersheimer From the town of Gochsheim, Baden. Goldberg From a town in Silesia, the first Goldberg lived there in When the Jews left Silesia during the 14th century, many of the banished bore the name Golberg. More than 60, Gold- bergs are living today in the US. Zolotovsky is the Slavic translation of Gold gold with suffix.
Goldhirsch Following is the list of the name Gold plus the different suffi- Goldkraut xes. Read More. Specializing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the digestive system. Schedule your screening colonoscopy now. We Offer Direct Access Colonoscopy Typically a face to face visit is required prior to a colonoscopy to review your health history and perform a physical exam.
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