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Aivazovsky - auction of Christie's. Kollektsiya works Dmitry Nalbandian Collectibles. Yerevan is a densely built city but still offers several public parks throughout its districts, graced with mid-sized green gardens. The public park of Erebuni District along with its artificial lake is the oldest garden in the city.

Occupying an area of 17 hectares, the origins of the park and the artificial lake date back to the period of king Argishti I of Urartu during the 8th century BC. In , the garden was entirely remodeled and named as Lyon Park , to become a symbol of the partnership between the cities of Lyon and Yerevan.

The Lovers' Park on Marshal Baghramyan Avenue and the English Park at the centre of the city, dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries respectively, are among the most popular parks for the Yerevantsis. The Yerevan Botanical Garden opened in , the Victory park formed in the s and the Circular Park are among the largest green spaces of the city. Formed in the s, the Yerevan Opera Theatre park along with its artificial Swan Lake is also among the favorite green spaces of the city.

In some of the public space of the park leased to restaurants was reclaimed allowing for improved landscape design. The Yerevan Lake is an artificial reservoir opened in on Hrazdan riverbed at the south of the city centre, with a surface of 0.

Yerevan has been the capital of Armenia since the independence of the First Republic in Situated in the Ararat plain, the historic lands of Armenia, it served as the best logical choice for capital of the young republic at the time. When Armenia became a republic of the Soviet Union, Yerevan remained as capital and accommodated all the political and diplomatic institutions in the republic.

In with the independence of Armenia, Yerevan continued with its status as the political and cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national institutions: the Government House , the National Assembly , the Presidential Palace , the Central Bank , the Constitutional Court , all ministries, judicial bodies and other government organizations.

The first city council formed was headed by Hovhannes Ghorghanyan, who became the first mayor of Yerevan. In addition to the national police and road police, Yerevan has its own municipal police. All three bodies cooperate to maintain law in the city. The total area of the 12 districts of Yerevan is square kilometres 86 square miles.

Originally a small town, Yerevan became the capital of Armenia and a large city with over one million inhabitants. Until the fall of the Soviet Union, the majority of the population of Yerevan were Armenians with minorities of Russians , Kurds , Azerbaijanis and Iranians present as well. However, with the breakout of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War from to , the Azerbaijani minority diminished in the country in what was part of population exchanges between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

A big part of the Russian minority also fled the country during the s economic crisis in the country. Today, the population of Yerevan is overwhelmingly Armenian. The population of Yerevan fell from 1,, in [72] to 1,, in [] and to 1,, in In , the capital had 1,, inhabitants. Yerevantsis in general use the Yerevan dialect , an Eastern Armenian dialect most probably formed during the 13th century. It is currently spoken in and around Yerevan, including the towns of Vagharshapat and Ashtarak.

Classical Armenian Grabar words compose a significant part of the dialect's vocabulary. It is currently the most widespread Armenian dialect. Yerevan was inhabited first by Armenians and remained homogeneous until the 15th century.

French traveler Jean-Baptiste Tavernier , who visited Yerevan possibly up to six times between and , states that the city is exclusively populated by Armenians. By the early 19th century, Yerevan had a Muslim majority. Until the Sovietization of Armenia, Yerevan was a multicultural city, mainly with an Armenian and "Caucasian Tatar" modern-day Azerbaijani population.

In , about 75, Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire arrived in Yerevan, mostly from the Vaspurakan region city of Van and surroundings. A significant part of these refugees died of typhus and other diseases. Thus, the ethnic makeup of Yerevan became more monoethnic during the first 3 decades in the Soviet Union. In the late s and the early s, the remaining 2, Azeris left the city, because of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Armenian Apostolic Christianity is the predominant religion in Armenia.

Many of the ancient Armenian and medieval churches of the city were destroyed by the Soviets in the s during the Great Purge. It is the largest diocese of the Armenian Church and one of the oldest dioceses in the world, covering the city of Yerevan and the Ararat Province of Armenia. Yerevan is currently home to the largest Armenian church in the world, the Cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator. It was consecrated in , during the th anniversary of the establishment of the Armenian Church and the adoption of Christianity as the national religion in Armenia.

After the capture of Yerevan by the Russians as a result of the Russo-Persian War of —28 , many Russian Orthodox churches were built in the city under the orders of the Russian commander General Ivan Paskevich. The Saint Nikolai Cathedral opened during the second half of the 19th century, was the largest Russian church in the city.

However, most of the churches were either closed or demolished by the Soviets during the s. The Saint Nikolai Cathedral was entirely destroyed in , while the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God was closed and converted first into a warehouse and later into a club for the military personnel. Religious services resumed in the church in , and in a cupola and a belfry were added to the building. The church was eventually consecrated on 7 October , with the presence of Catholicos Karekin II , Russian bishops and the church benefactor Ara Abramyan.

According to Ivan Chopin, there were eight mosques in Yerevan in the middle of the 19th century. A variety of nontrinitarian communities, considered dangerous sects by the Armenian Apostolic Church, [] are also found in the city, including Jehovah's Witnesses , Mormons , Seventh-day Adventists and Word of Life. Medical services in Armenia — except from maternity — are not subsidized by the government.

However, the government annually allocates a certain amount from the state budget for the medical needs of the socially vulnerable groups. Yerevan is a major healthcare and medical service centre in the region. The Research Center of Maternal and Child Health Protection is operating in Yerevan since , while the Armenicum Clinical Center was opened in , [] where researches are conducted mainly about infectious diseases and associated researches, including HIV , immunodeficiency and hepatitis.

The Liqvor Pharmaceuticals Factory operating since in Yerevan, is currently the largest medicines manufacturer of Armenia. Yerevan is Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as the seat of the national government with a large number of museums, important monuments and the national public library. It also hosts Vardavar the most widely celebrated festival among Armenians and is one of the historic centres of traditional Armenian carpet. Yerevan is home to a large number of museums, art galleries and libraries.

The most prominent of these are the National Gallery of Armenia , the History Museum of Armenia , the Cafesjian Museum of Art , the Matenadaran library of ancient manuscripts, and the Armenian Genocide museum of Tsitsernakaberd complex.

Founded in , the National Gallery of Armenia and the History Museum of Armenia are the principal museums of the city. In addition to having a permanent exposition of works of Armenian painters, the gallery houses a collection of paintings, drawings and sculptures issued from German, American, Austrian, Belgian, Spanish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, Russian and Swiss artists.

The Armenian Genocide museum is found at the foot of Tsitsernakaberd memorial and features numerous eyewitness accounts, texts and photographs from the time. It comprises a memorial stone made of three parts, the latter of which is dedicated to the intellectual and political figures who, as the museum's site says, "raised their protest against the Genocide committed against the Armenians by the Turks.

Among them there are Armin T. Cafesjian Museum of Art within the Cascade complex , is an art centre opened on 7 November The front gardens showcase sculptures from Gerard L. Cafesjian's collection. The Erebuni Museum founded in , is an archaeological museum housing Urartian artifacts found during excavations at the Erebuni Fortress. The city is also home to a large number of art museums.

Sergei Parajanov Museum opened in is dedicated to Sergei Parajanov 's art works in cinema and painting. Biographical museums are also common in Yerevan. Many renowned Armenian poets, painters and musicians are honored with house-museums in their memory, such as poet Hovhannes Tumanyan , composer Aram Khachaturian , painter Martiros Saryan , novelist Khachatur Abovian , and French-Armenian singer Charles Aznavour.

The National Library of Armenia located on Teryan Street of Yerevan, is the public library of the city and the entire republic. It was founded in and is operating in its current building since Other major public libraries include the Avetik Isahakyan Central Library founded in , the Republican Library of Medical Sciences founded in , the Library of Science and Technology founded in , and the Musical Library founded in In addition, each administrative district of Yerevan has its own public library usually more than one library.

The Matenadaran is a library-museum and a research centre, regrouping 17, ancient manuscripts and several bibles from the Middle Ages. It is located on Mashtots Avenue at central Yerevan. The Armenian capital was chosen for the quality and variety of the programme it presented to the selection committee, which met at UNESCO's headquarters in Paris on 2 July The National Archives of Armenia founded in , is a scientific research centre and depositary, with a collection of around 3.

Yerevan is one of the historic centres of traditional Armenian carpet. Various rug fragments have been excavated in areas around Yerevan dating back to the 7th century BC or earlier. The tradition was further developed from the 16th century when Yerevan became the central city of Persian Armenia. However, carpet manufacturing in the city was greatly enriched with the flock of Western Armenian migrants from the Ottoman Empire throughout the 19th century, and the arrival of Armenian refugees escaping the genocide in the early 20th century.

Currently, the city is home to the Arm Carpet factory opened in , as well as the Tufenkian handmade carpets since , and Megerian handmade carpets since The Yerevan Vernissage open-air exhibition-market formed in the late s on Aram Street , features a large collection of different types of traditional Armenian hand-made art works, especially woodwork sculptures, rugs and carpets. On the other hand, the Saryan park located near the opera house, is famous for being a permanent venue where artists exhibit their paintings.

The Armenian Center for Contemporary Experimental Art founded in in Yerevan, [] is a creativity centre helping to exchange experience between professional artists in an appropriate atmosphere. Jazz , classical , folk and traditional music are among several genres that are popular in the city of Yerevan. A large number of ensembles, orchestras and choirs of different types of Armenian and international music are active in the city. The Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra founded in , is one of the oldest musical groups in Yerevan and modern Armenia.

Folk and classical music of Armenia was taught in state-sponsored conservatoires during the Soviet days. Currently directed by Tovmas Poghosyan, the ensemble performs the works of prominent Armenian gusans such as Sayat-Nova , Jivani , and Sheram. The Komitas Chamber Music House opened in , is the home of chamber music performers and lovers in Armenia.

It is currently the largest indoor venue in Armenia. The Ars lunga piano - cello duo achieved international fame since its foundation in in Yerevan. Armenian religious music remained liturgical until Komitas introduced polyphony by the end of the 19th century. Starting from the late s, religious music became widely spread when Armenian chants also known as sharakans were performed by the soprano Lusine Zakaryan.

The state-run Tagharan Ensemble of Yerevan founded in and currently directed by Sedrak Yerkanian, also performs ritual and ancient Armenian music. Jazz is also among the popular genres in Yerevan. The first jazz band in Yerevan was founded in The Malkhas jazz club founded by renowned artist Levon Malkhasian, is among the most popular clubs in the city.

The[Yerevan Jazz Fest is an annual jazz festival taking place every autumn since , organized by the Armenian Jazz Association with the support of the Yerevan Municipality. Armenian rock has been originated in Yerevan in the mid s, mainly through Arthur Meschian and his band Arakyalner Disciples.

In the early s, there were a range of professional bands in Yerevan strong enough to compete with their Soviet counterparts. In post-Soviet Armenia, an Armenian progressive rock scene has been developed in Yerevan, mainly through Vahan Artsruni , the Oaksenham rock band, and the Dorians band.

Reggae is also becoming popular in Yerevan mainly through the Reincarnation musical band. The Cafesjian Center for the Arts is known for its regularly programmed events including the "Cafesjian Classical Music Series" on the first Wednesday of each month, and the "Music Cascade" series of jazz, pop and rock music live concerts performed every Friday and Saturday. Traditional dancing is very popular among Armenians.

During the cool summertime of the Yerevan city, it is very common to find people dancing in groups at the Northern Avenue or the Tamanyan Street near the cascade. Professional dance groups were formed in Yerevan during the Soviet days. It was followed by the State Dance Ensemble of Armenia in In , the Berd Dance Ensemble was formed.

The Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble founded in by Gagik Ginosyan is known for revitalizing and performing the ancient Armenian dances of the historical regions of the Armenian Highlands , [] such as Hamshen , Mush , Sasun , Karin , etc. Yerevan is home to many theatre groups, mainly operating under the support of the ministry of culture. Theatre halls in the city organize several shows and performances throughout the year. The Edgar Elbakyan Theatre of Drama and Comedy is among the prominent theatres run by the private sector.

Cinema in Armenia was born on 16 April , when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established upon a decree issued by the Soviet Armenian government. Namus was the first Armenian silent black and white film, directed by Hamo Beknazarian in , based on a play of Alexander Shirvanzade , describing the ill fate of two lovers, who were engaged by their families to each other since childhood, but because of violations of namus a tradition of honor , the girl was married by her father to another person.

The first produced sound film was Pepo directed by Hamo Beknazarian in In addition to the art festivals, the city organizes many public celebrations that greatly attract the locals as well as the visitors. Vardavar is the most widely celebrated festival among Armenians, having it roots back to the pagan history of Armenia. It is celebrated 98 days 14 weeks after Easter.

During the day of Vardavar, people from a wide array of ages are allowed to douse strangers with water. It is common to see people pouring buckets of water from balconies on unsuspecting people walking below them. As one of the ancient winemaking regions, many wine festivals are celebrated in Armenia. Yerevan launched its 1st annual wine festivals known as the Yerevan Wine Days in May The Yerevan Beer Fest is held annually during the month of August.

It was first organized in Many public and private TV and radio channels operate in Yerevan. The Public TV of Armenia has been in service since It became a satellite television in Many of the structures of Yerevan had been destroyed either during foreign invasions or as a result of the devastating earthquake in However, some structures have remained moderately intact and were renovated during the following years.

The remains of other structures from earlier periods are also found in Shengavit. The 4th-century chapel of the Holy Mother of God and the 6th-century Tsiranavor Church both located in Avan District at the north of Yerevan, are among the oldest surviving Christian structures of the city. Originally a suburb at the north of Yerevan, Avan was eventually absorbed by the city's gradual expansion. The district is also home to the remains of Surp Hovhannes Chapel dating back to the 12—13th centuries.

Katoghike Church ; a medieval chapel a section of once much larger basilica in the centre of Yerevan, built in , is one of the best preserved churches of the city. The Red Bridge of Hrazdan River is a 17th-century structure, built after the earthquake and later reconstructed in Yerevan Opera Theater or the Armenian National Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre opened in , is a major landmark in the city along with the Mesrop Mashtots Matenadaran opened in , and Tsitsernakaberd monument of the Armenian Genocide opened in Moscow Cinema , opened in on the site of Saint Paul and Peter Church of the 5th century, is an important example of the Soviet-era architecture.

In , a monument was erected near the Yerevan Railway Station dedicated to the legendary Armenian hero David of Sassoun. The monumental statue of Mother Armenia is a female personification of the Armenian nation, erected in , replacing the huge statue of Joseph Stalin in the Victory park.

Komitas Pantheon is a cemetery opened in where many famous Armenians are buried, while the Yerablur Pantheon, is a military cemetery where over 1, Armenian martyrs of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict are buried since Many new notable buildings were constructed after the independence of Armenia such as the Yerevan Cascade , and the Saint Gregory Cathedral opened in to commemorate the th anniversary of Christianity in Armenia.

In May , a monumental statue of the prominent Armenian statesman and military leader Garegin Nzhdeh was erected at the centre of Yerevan. Yerevan is served by the Zvartnots International Airport , located 12 kilometres 7 miles west of the city center. It is the primary airport of the country. Inaugurated in during the Soviet era, Zvartnots airport was renovated for the first time in and a second time in in order to adapt to international norms.

It went through a facelift starting in with the construction of a new terminal. The first phase of the construction ended in September with the opening of the arrivals zone. A second section designated for departures was inaugurated in May The departure terminal is anticipated, October housing state of the art facilities and technology. This will make Yerevan Zvartnots International Airport, the largest, busiest and most modern airport in the entire Caucasus. Currently there are no national airlines operating in Armenia.

A second airport, Erebuni Airport , is located just south of the city. Since the independence, "Erebuni" is mainly used for military or private flights. The Armenian Air Force has equally installed its base there and there are several MiGs stationed on Erebuni's tarmac. Public transport in Yerevan is heavily privatized and mostly handled by around 60 private operators.

As of May , 39 city bus lines are being operated throughout Yerevan. However, the market share these buses in public transit is only about But the These are about Russian-made GAZelle vans with 13 seats, that operate same way as buses, having 79 different lines with certain routes and same stops.

According to Yerevan Municipality office, in future, marshrutkas should be replaced by ordinary larger buses. Despite having about 13 seats, the limit of passengers is not controlled, so usually these vans carry many more people who stand inside. The Yerevan trolleybus system has been operating since Some old Soviet-era trolleybuses have been replaced with comparably new ones.

As of May , only 5 trolleybus lines are in operation 2. The trolleybus system is owned and operated by the municipality. The tram network that operated in Yerevan since was decommissioned in January Its operation had a cost 2. Since the closure, the rails have been dismantled and sold. Due to being dispersed among dozens of private operators, the transportation is barely regulated, with only trip fee is being a subject of regulation.

Thus, the quality of vehicles is often inadequate, with no certain regulations for safety. Unlike the majority of world capitals, there is no established ticketing system in Yerevan's public transportation. Passengers need to pay the money directly to the driver when getting out of the vehicle.

The fare -being one of the few things that is regulated- is fixed and controlled by authorities. The central station in Nor Kilikia neighborhood serves as bus terminal for inter-city transport, serving outbound routes towards practically all the cities of Armenia as well as abroad, notably Tbilisi and Tabriz. It has a single line of The interiors of the stations resemble that of the former western Soviet nations, with chandeliers hanging from the corridors.

The metro stations had most of their names changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the independence of the Republic of Armenia. A northeastern extension of the line with two new stations is currently being developed.

The construction of the first station Ajapnyak and of the one-kilometre 0. Another long-term project is the construction of two new lines, but these have been suspended due to lack of finance. Yerevan has a single central railway station several railway stations of suburbs have not been used since that is connected to the metro via the Sasuntsi Davit station.

The railway station is made in Soviet-style architecture with its long point on the building roof, representing the symbols of communism: red star , hammer and sickle. Due to the Turkish and Azerbaijani blockades of Armenia, there is only one international train that passes by once every two days, with neighboring Georgia being its destination. The only railway that goes to Iran to the south passes by the closed border of Nakhichevan.

For this reason, there are no trains that go south from Yerevan. During the first decade of the 21st century, the South Caucasus Railway CJSC — which is the current operator of the railway system in Armenia—announced its readiness to put the Yerevan-Gyumri-Kars railway line in service in case the Armenian-Turkish protocols are ratified and the opening of the borders between the two countries is achieved.

The Yerevan-Ararat-Yerevan route is temporarily not in operation, while the Yerevan-Tbilisi-Yerevan route will operate starting from 2 October Armenia is among the top 10 safest countries where one can wander around and go home alone safely at night. Even though the economic crisis of the '90s ravaged the industry of the country, several factories remain always in service, notably in the petrochemical and the aluminium sectors. Armenian beverages, especially Armenian cognac and beer, have a worldwide fame.

The 2 tobacco producers in Yerevan are the "Cigaronne" and "Grand Tabak" companies. Carpet industry in Armenia has a deeply rooted history with ancient traditions, therefore, carpet production is rather developed in Yerevan with three major factories that also produce hand-made rugs. Food products include processed meat, all types of canneries, wheat and flour, sweets and chocolate, dried fruits, soft drinks and beverages. Building materials mainly include travertine, crushed stones, asphalt and asphalt concrete.

As an attractive outsourcing location for Western European, Russian and American multinationals, Yerevan headquarters many international companies. The construction sector has experienced a significant growth during the 1st decade of the 21st century. This growth was coupled with a significant increase in real estate prices.

Many major construction projects has been conducted in Yerevan, such as the Northern Avenue and the rehabilitation of Old Yerevan on Aram Street. The Northern Avenue is completed and was opened in , while the Old Yerevan project is still under development. In the past few years, the city centre has also witnessed major road reconstruction, as well as the renovation of the Republic square, funded by the American-Armenian billionaire Kirk Kerkorian. On the other hand, the Argentina-based Armenian businessman Eduardo Eurnekian took over the airport, while the cascade development project was funded by the US based Armenian millionaire Gerard L.

However, the sector has significantly dropped by the end of the 1st decade of the 21st century, as a result of the global real estate crisis in — In February , the urban development committee of the government revealed its plans for the upcoming major construction projects in the city. The location of the city on the shores of Hrazdan river has enabled the production of hydroelectricity.

The city is also home to the Yerevan Thermal Power Plant , a unique facility in the region for its quality and high technology, situated in the southern part of the city. Originally opened in , a modern plant was built in , furnished with a new gas-steam combined cycled turbine, to generate electric power.

The power station will be in service in In addition to the mobile network providers, many other small and middle-size companies are also involved in internet services. Access to the Internet in Armenia is largely unfettered. However, according to Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of Armenia on Police, law enforcement has the right to block content to prevent criminal activity.

HayPost is the official national postal operator of Armenia. Based in Yerevan, it currently operates through postal offices across Armenia. Tourism in Armenia is developing year by year and the capital city of Yerevan is one of the major tourist destinations. Zvartnots airport has also conducted renovation projects with the growing number of tourists visiting the country.

Numerous places in Yerevan are attractive for tourists, such as the dancing fountains of the Republic Square, the State Opera House, the Cascade complex , the ruins of the Urartian city of Erebuni Arin Berd , the historical site of Karmir Blur Teishebaini , etc. The largest hotel of the city is the Ani Plaza Hotel. The location of Yerevan itself, is an inspiring factor for the foreigners to visit the city in order to enjoy the view of the biblical mount of Ararat , as the city lies on the feet of the mountain forming the shape of a Roman amphitheatre.

There are many historical sites, churches and citadels in areas and regions surrounding the city of Yerevan, such as Garni Temple , Zvartnots Cathedral , the monasteries of Khor Virap and Geghard , etc. Casino Shangri La and Pharaon Complex are among the largest leisure and entertainment centres of the city.

Many world-famous music stars, Russian music celebrities, as well as Armenian singers from diaspora, occasionally perform in concerts in Yerevan. The Yerevan Zoo founded in , the Yerevan Circus opened in , and the Yerevan Water World opened in , are among the popular entertaining centres in the city. Another popular landmarks is the Yerevan Cascade and the "Cafesjian Sculpture Garden" on Tamanyan Street with its pedestrian zone, featuring many coffee shops, bars, restaurants, and pubs at the sidewalks.

The "Cafesjian Center for the Arts" regularly organizes art events throughout the year, including classical music series, traditional folk dance events, and live concerts of jazz, pop and rock music. International study conducted by Mercer and published in identified Yerevan to offer higher quality of living, than other capital cities of Transcaucasia.

Yerevan is a major educational centre in the region. The rest of the schools about 40 are privately owned. The municipality also runs kindergartens throughout the city. As of [update] , around 60 higher education institutions are accredited and licensed to operate in the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan is home to about 50 universities, nearly half of which are public. Under the Soviet rule, Yerevan has turned into a major centre for science and research.

It was founded in as the Armenian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences to become the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science in Armenia. Football is the most played and popular sport in Yerevan and the entire country. Hrazdan Stadium in Yerevan is the largest sports venue of Armenia. The 2nd-largest stadium in the city is the Vazgen Sargsyan Republican Stadium which currently serves as the primary home ground of the Armenia national football team.

The Football Academy of Yerevan operated by the Football Federation of Armenia is an up-to-date training academy complex, opened in As of , there are around mini-football pitches among the courtyards of the Yerevan neighborhoods, built by the municipal authorities. Armenia has always excelled in chess with its players being very often among the highest ranked and decorated. In , despite the severe economic conditions in the country, Yerevan hosted the 32nd Chess Olympiad.

Armenian won the chess Olympiad for the 3rd time in in Istanbul. The Yerevan-born leader of the chess national team; Levon Aronian , is one of the top chess players in the world. Despite the popularity of basketball in Armenia, the country's national team only recently made headlines internationally through winning the FIBA European Championship for Small Countries. However, the country's best players are diaspora Armenians, mainly from the United States and Russia. The first ever season of the professional domestic basketball competition of Armenia, known as Armenia Basketball League A , was launched in October with 7 participating teams.

Tennis is also among the popular sports in Yerevan. Several tennis clubs operate in the city, with many of them founded during the Soviet days. Incourt Tennis Club -founded in — is the largest in the city, with many indoor and outdoor courts. Sargis Sargsian and Ani Amiraghyan are the most successful tennis players of Armenia. Armenia has produced many Olympic champions in artistic gymnastics during the Soviet days, such as Hrant Shahinyan , Albert Azaryan and Eduard Azaryan.

The success of the Armenian gymnasts in the Olympic competitions has greatly contributed in the popularity of the sport. Thus, many prominent competitors represent the country in the European and World championships, including Artur Davtyan and Harutyun Merdinyan. Yerevan has many state-owned schools of artistic gymnastics, including the Albert Azaryan School opened in and the Hrant Shahinyan School opened in Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex [] is the largest indoor arena in the city and the entire country.

It is mostly used for indoor sport events, including ice hockey and figure skating shows. On the other hand, Dinamo and Mika indoor arenas are the regular venues for domestic and regional competitions of basketball , volleyball , handball and futsal. Armenia Sports Union Spartak Sports Union between and is a sports society mainly involved in individual Olympic sports, including boxing , weightlifting , athletics , wrestling , taekwondo , table tennis , etc.

It was founded in , and is home to individual as well as team sport schools, such as wrestling, boxing, weightlifting, judo , athletics, acrobatic gymnastics , artistic gymnastics , swimming , table tennis, cycling, basketball, volleyball and handball.

It is a state of the art sports complex, with training facilities for most Olympic individual and team sports, as well as water sports. It is also home to the anti-doping medical centre and a hotel designated to accommodate more than athletes. Equestrian sport was introduced to Armenia in It is the centre of equestrian sport and horse racing in Armenia.

Golf has been introduced to the citizens of Yerevan in , with the foundation of the Ararat Valley Country Club in the Vahakni neighbourhood of Ajapnyak District. It is the first-ever golf course opened in Armenia as well as the Transcaucasian region. Arena Bowling and Billiards Club is an up-to-date sports and leisure centre opened in and located on Mashtots Avenue in central Yerevan.

Cycling as a sport is becoming popular among the young generation. The Yerevan Velodrome is an outdoor track cycling venue with international standard, opened in to replace the old venue of the Soviet days. Futsal is also among the popular sports in Armenia. Many companies as well as universities have their own teams who participate in the Armenian Futsal Premier League. It was founded in by Hayk Ghukasyan and currently runs several branches throughout the provinces of Armenia and Artsakh with more than 2, athletes.

Yerevan is twinned with: []. Yerevan also cooperates with: []. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Capital of Armenia. This article is about the capital of Armenia. For other uses, see Yerevan disambiguation. City in Armenia. See also: Timeline of Yerevan. See also: Kura—Araxes culture. Main article: Erebuni Fortress. See also: Satrapy of Armenia. See also: Kingdom of Armenia antiquity. See also: Persian Armenia and Marzpanate Armenia. See also: Arminiya.

See also: Bagratid Armenia. See also: Zakarid Armenia and Mongol Armenia. See also: Kara Koyunlu. See also: Iranian Armenia — and Erivan Khanate. See also: Armenian Oblast and Erivan Governorate. Main article: First Republic of Armenia.

See also: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. See also: List of mayors of Yerevan. Main article: Districts of Yerevan. See also: List of churches in Yerevan and Religion in Armenia. See also: List of museums in Yerevan. Main article: Armenian art. Main article: Music of Armenia. See also: List of theaters in Yerevan. Main article: Cinema of Armenia. Main articles: Monuments of Yerevan and List of statues in Yerevan.

Main article: Trolleybuses in Yerevan. Main article: Yerevan Metro. Main article: Armenian Railway. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. June Main article: Telecommunications in Armenia. See also: List of universities in Yerevan. See also: List of sports venues in Yerevan.

See also: Category:People from Yerevan. Armenian National Committee of America. Made of local pink tufa stones, it gives Yerevan the nickname of "the Pink City. Los Angeles Times. To Armenians, though, the stone is unique. They often refer to Yerevan, the capital of their homeland, as "Vartakouyn Kaghak," or the "Pink City" because of the extensive use of the stone, which can vary from pink to a light purple. Yerevan Municipality. Since this construction material gave a unique vividness and specific tint to the city, Yerevan was called "Rosy city".

Hayastani Hanrapetutyun in Armenian. Retrieved 1 February University of California Press.


Depending on your answer, you will precisely define the following:. Why your company should take part in the exhibition? Or in other words, what is the goal of your activities? Whatever the goals are, they are to meet the following: — The forthcoming outcomes to be available for qualitative and quantitative evaluation; — The goals should be measurable, attainable, realistic, have a timeframe and due date. Establish 50 quantity business contacts with potential qualitative customers interested in a new good namely.

As a result 10 sales amount should be closed by due date of time. Having defined goods and services, precede to the exposition layout to make it draw attention exactly to these items. Mistake: very often the firms engaged in manufacturing of several types of goods layout all assortment at a time.

What space is needed? First of all, the standing area is defined by your goals and your budget amount, with space left for personnel and visitors. What is the best place to locate the stand? Generally customers turn right or move to the center. Scrutiny the Floor Plan. Where are the sector big players? Where are your rivals? Located closer to a toilet or a bar, an exhibitor can get immense success.

How to design the stand? It should correspond to your style — hi-tech, state-of-the-art, steady, etc. Within 3 seconds, a customer should: — Notice your stand. Use slogans, signboards and headings. When at commodities fairs, focus on definite articles, not on the brand.

Transportation of equipment and exhibits. Information an exhibitor should know. A hired team? Pay attention to the adequate number of shelves and other facilities, as also to the space to demonstrating goods when in use. Container storage, etc.? With absolute certainty we can say that the result of the exhibition will directly depend on the preparatory work carried out by the exhibitor, clarity develop a plan and schedule.

In preparation for the exhibition, the participant must pay attention to the less important items: — Define the objectives and tasks that need to be translated in the course of the exhibition; — Plan your budget the cost of exhibition space, the cost of their equipment, the cost of work with visitors, labor costs of employees ; — Determine the type of stand and its location; — Select exhibits for display; — Plan activities advertising and presentation character actions, presentations, seminars during the exhibition; — To carry out coordination and guidance of the stand staff — their tasks, responsibilities and work schedule.

We also recommend that solve the problem of power, if necessary — Accommodation employees; — Prepare information materials: brochures, business cards, price lists. Printing products better categorized: inexpensive material for distribution to casual visitors, and more expensive brochures for distribution to visitors, exhibiting real interest and leave their names and addresses; — Summarizing exhibitions and activities after it.

Transportation of exhibition goods For the delivery of bulk items may need special transport, and you have to check the entire route — from the container until the stand. Book transport at a convenient time and do not forget about the return shipping. After the exhibition organize transport and store exhibits.

Make sure that the load was carefully dismantled and packed — perhaps more exhibits will take you to work or sale. Do not forget to specify in advance the schedule of delivery and removal of exhibits with the head of the exhibition, in fact, such large equipment requires more time for its installation and commissioning. If the exhibition is held in another country, you need to take care of all customs formalities, reliable transportation of cargo, and, if required, for permission to trade.

Despite the fact that you invite the press, it is advisable to have your own pictures, and honored guests of your stand or rank reception, then to use them in publications. Exhibits There is no doubt that the attractive exhibits will look, the faster they will gain the attention of visitors. Appearance exhibits can be improved by placing it in the window next to the attractive external object, or place on a material with a pleasant face fur, velvet, suede.

You can also use phyto-design. One of the important factors of presentation is to show exhibits in conditions close to actual practice, show video clips the need to think of ways the question of presentation equipment, as well as a way to showcase their services. Important role played by the lighting booth lighting. We recommend also immediately determine whether the exhibits to be available publicly, or they need to be further insure against unlawful actions failure, theft.

Organize stand cleaning. Dust and fingerprints do not decorate your exhibits. In the venues made mandatory cleaning passes, but the exhibitor should take care of its stand and hire workers that they cleaned it every day.

At such approach your expectations remain as they are and do not achieve results they are capable of. Fix on sociable employees. They should wish to promote at the stand. An employee you have chosen should be observant and notice modulations in communication, inclusive of non-verbals. She should be competent to answer any question of a visitor. The employee should be skilled in listening and asking leading questions.

People communication is a key argument to success. At the meeting cover the main items: 1. The aim of participation. The list of goods for the exposition no bolts from the blue at the opening! Requirements to the personnel at the stand — people should have individual plans meeting common aim what information to collect, how many presentations to hold, etc.

Practice the personnel in front of the team to demonstrate the goods from the stand, arrange efficiently potential customers. Make it a rule to finish every day with a brief meeting for the promoting personnel. It will help to eliminate mistakes when they are fresh before next day comes. The personnel working at the stand should be motivated through selling commission, or extra days off, etc.

Exhibition — is a place where the personnel can either credit to or ruin further contacts. They say a customer has 3 — 4 seconds to make a persistent view of the firm. The stand promoting personnel should have a respectable looking. Every firm has its own style of dressing.

Follow the tradition. Like actors on the stage. From the very beginning up to the close the personnel at the stand are like actors on the stage. Visitors come like spectators who are keen to see a performance. Their expectations are great as they endow with their time and it is precious.

Exhibition sale differs from a common one. Buyer and sellers are in equal position here, none having priority as in a common situation of selling. Time is money. The working hours of the show and time of the visitor is limited. The bigger the event, the less time of a visitor is left for each particular stand.

They have limited time to collect and analyze the information they come across. The stats say in general a visitor spends minutes to a stand. The number of would-be buyers is definitely higher as compared to a traditional sale. Potential buyers come up to the sellers by their own wishing. On the other hand you get a unique chance to demonstrate bulky equipment.

Sale will be sale. And buyers will be buyers. Main issues to be focused on: 1. A variety of people attend shows. Some of them have definite idea in mind, another enjoy just wandering around. Treat them as they wish to be treated.

Propose your point of view. Getting in contact. How to start a conversation? Prepare greetings and fishing questions in advance. Your questions should be of open-type starting with the words Who? They motivate thinking and may lead to start a conversation.

Examples of fishing questions: 1. In what way is your firm connected to: the branch of industry? How much is this or that benefit vital to you now? What are your daily needs regarding definite situation? Within the influx of visitors you may feel understaffed. Some of them feel awkward disturbing a conversation of personnel that made themselves comfortable some where at the stand.

The stand promoters are not allowed to drink, eat, read, sprawl out, look tired or indifferent as it may cause negative reaction of a viewer. And not a single booklet will be able to restore it. How to ask and define potential customers?

Pertinent questions and active listening can yield in good results. Conduct your conversation in a question-answer manner. Skillfully asked questions make the customer relax and get in contact. With one mouth and two ears, use a rate Try to find out the following: 1. Name and position: 2. Name of company: 3. Region of location Firms within your zone of extension should get your special attention : 4. Grade of quality required: Amount required: Terms of adoption of decision to purchase: Terms of means assigning: The information collected should be put down to a special list — questionnaire.

Attempts to decode information written on the back of a visit card after the exhibition is of low efficiency. Collected questionnaires are a valuable scope of material to be reviewed and analyzed after the exhibition. Active listening: Active listening assumes efforts and concentration. Avoid estimation. Get feedback through the words, gestures, non-verbals.

Several universal principals: — Make sure that every exhibit functions properly. Dominating type. Be brief and exact. Avoid using technical terms if not inquired. Focus on benefits, namely assets and time saving. Avoid using technical terms. Give personal assurance.

Be logical; use precise information. What if you are ready to terminate the conversation but the visitor is not intended to? Use non-verbal communication and thought-out closing phrases that you have prepared. Call the visitor by name. Change your posture, put your palms together, hand in a sample or a souvenir; use it as an excuse to terminate the conversation. While doing it try to avoid eye-to-eye communication.

As I understood we will be of little use to your now. In case the situation will change, please get in touch with me. Having paid for participation, a firm usually sets at ease and relies only on the organizers as for promotion.

We agree that the exhibitor pays for advertising by the participation fee. But please note that this ad campaign is held for the whole event! We undertake to hold general advertising campaign and to interest targeted audience. Here some methods to draw visitors to your stand. Use the following:. Personal Invitation Cards Personal Invitation Cards are posted to highly focused groups of visitors — patrons or would-be customers; the Cards being signed by the firm executive.

Invitations sent over telephone or faxed. Use invitation as a ground to telephoning your patrons. Direct mailing. Your mailing campaign should meet your goals specified for the exhibition partaking. Motivate your customers to visit the exhibition to get a gift or a souvenir, to watch goods when in use, obtain discounts, benefit, etc. Trace the action effectiveness via the coupons dissemination. Two or three times in intervals, mail to your addressees. Change the content of your messages.

The following mail should contain an invitation card inclusive of coupon to visit your stand. The main aim of your participation is to stimulate viewers to visit your stand. Not to be confused with advertising! While branding contributes to your business reputation and good will. What to do? Choose editions that will highlight the event progress. When drawing up the release, answer within one page frame the following questions: 1.

In what way? How much? Try not to focus on pure advertisement, as visitors may be interested in further information on the issue. Dedicated handouts. A view of visitors wandering around with an armful of booklets, leaflets, etc. But outside the show the major part of it turns out to be colorful literary trash. Comments on manufacturing materials:. The most common mistake is when a stand promoter hands out booklets to every one passing by. Booklet is a result of earnest conversation with a visitor.

Valid goods are used as free samples. They should bear your commercial information — brand, properties. A visitor is not imposed to liabilities on receiving a sample. Use samples as gifts for the visitors who say fill in questionnaire or leave information to your database. Due little tricks at mailing you can orient to the categories of visitors and use a relative style for negotiating.

For example: A Playing-Cards Method. Under one cover you post to crucial customers invitation and the King card; to suppliers you post the Queen, and Jack to likely buyers. In the attached letter ask the addressees to bring the cards with them to have a chance to get a gift in exchange for the card.

Step Five : Present the report to the relevant ministry for consideration. If need be, prepare a PowerPoint presentation to formally introduce the new idea s to the minister who can use the idea s to advance his or her duties and obligations to the country. Step Six : Follow up on the implementation of the ideas submitted for application in solving local or national problems. Ministers may forget the idea s submitted to them. Jogging their memory with a friendly note would be appropriate.

What is being suggested is not an independent think tank. It is a government entity responsible for providing the ministries with ideas to advance Armenia. If Armenia seizes the opportunity to become the first government to create a center to search for ideas to put the nation on the path to progress, then we should wholeheartedly embrace the idea of establishing a centre responsible for generating ideas.

I believe we should honor that long-standing promise to our next generation that they will inherit a better Armenia than we did because ideas are not only aplenty, they are free and are able to make changes in our lives. Research in the past had many challenges.

You had to go to the library and search the catalogs and the stacks of books for information to generate ideas. You can do all that work at home or at your workplace office. Few ideas have gone on to have as profound an effect on our current lives as the Internet. Without the Internet we feel lost due to its extraordinary abilities to connect us with all sorts of information.

The Armenian government would be the first ever to institute such an advisory board to serve the various ministries by providing them with ideas for progress. Without ideas humans would still be living in caves and hunting and gathering food.

If Armenia aspires for greatness, the search for ideas would be imperative by a centralized system in a special department—for ideas have changed the world, and ideas will change Armenia as well! Sounds all fine and dandy until you try to advance anything in Armenia, but then you get shafted by Armenia. Armenia has done me dirty in too many ways to forgive. No more bleeding heart to a nation and people who I tried to help with nothing to gain, which I was fine with.

I had no idea that not only was it nothing to gain, but it was to screw and squeeze everything else out of me. Then so be it RA. In an ideal world that would be ideal. Armenia will get there if people learn to listen. Powerful corporations through hired fakes, are now politicizing scientific facts to discredit experts and push their agendas forward.

Experts therefore, should not fall into their trap and play their games. Research and development are much needed in every aspect and every ministry, more urgently so, in the diaspora domain. Without it, implementation of laws cannot succeed. We keep hoping for the best, and believe in the new generation who are thinking differently. Comments containing inappropriate remarks, personal attacks and derogatory expressions will be discarded.

Your email address will not be published. By Keghart September 14, 3 comments Total. Share 5 people shared the story. Share 5. Tweet 0. Pin it 0. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Comments containing inappropriate remarks, personal attacks and derogatory expressions will be discarded. You May Also Like.

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The geology of Armenia was shaped by geological upheaval pushed up the Earth's crust to form the Armenian Plateau 25 million years ago. The Georgian—Armenian War was a short border dispute fought in December between the newly-independent Democratic Republic of Georgia and the First Republic of Armenia, largely over the control of former districts of Tiflis Governorate, in Borchaly Lori and Akhalkalaki.

Gerhart Eisler 20 February — 21 March was a German politician. Before the reunification of Germany, East Germany and West Germany played as separate entities — the two teams played separately until summer Following the realignment of UEFA's youth competitions in , international under football in Europe began.

A West German team, however, did not compete in the U European Championship until the qualifying round beginning in of the competition. West Germany competed in the first two under competitions, which finished in and The first under competition finals were in , and since the under competition rules state that players must be 21 or under at the start of a two-year competition, technically it is an under competition. The current Germany team can be legitimately considered as the current incarnation of the West German team, since the West Germany flag, uniform, and football association all became those of the unified Germany.

In effect, the West German team absorbed the East German team to become 'the Germany national under football team'. For these reasons, the record of West Germany for the U and U competitions is shown below. Arkomed, was an Armenian political activist and revolutionary, one of the founders of Social Democrat Hunchakian Party.

Gevorg Najaryan born 6 January is a Kazakh footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Shakhter Karagandy. The Gibraltar national under football team is the youth football team of Gibraltar, run by the Gibraltar Football Association. The Gibraltar national under football team represents Gibraltar in football competitions at under level and is controlled by the Gibraltar Football Association.

Currently works at Public Television of Armenia. Gohar Muradyan October 28, , Yerevan is an Armenian philologist, translator. Faegheh Atashin born 5 May , better known by her stage name Googoosh meaning 'Swan Bird' , is an Iranian singer known for her contributions to Iranian pop music, but also starred in a variety of Persian movies from the s to the s.

The Greeks of Armenia are, like the other groups of Caucasus Greeks, such as the Greeks in Georgia, are mainly descendants of the Pontic Greeks, who originally lived along the shores of the Black Sea, in the uplands of the Pontic Alps, and other parts of northeastern Anatolia. Gregory Markari Markarovich Garibian December 13, — June 8, was a Soviet Armenian physicist, academician-secretary of the Department of Physics and Mathematics of the — Hagopdjan de Deritchan in French sources; Acoljean de Richtan; b.

Halil Kut — 20 August was an Ottoman-born Turkish regional governor and military commander. Haplogroup G2b-M is a Y-chromosome haplogroup and is defined by the presence of the M mutation. The Harbord Commission was a U. In President Woodrow Wilson sent two missions to the Near East to gather information on issues relating to the future of the region in the immediate aftermath of World War I.

One group, later known as the "King-Crane Commission", was civilian, centered on Istanbul Constantinople , and tasked to interview community leaders and representatives of the Ottoman government. Hasmik S. Hayg Boyadjian born is an American composer of classical music whose work includes art song, chamber music and symphonies. Hayk F. Gyolchanyan born November 11, is a Russian record producer, sound director, musician and songwriter, works with many representatives of Russian show business.

Hayk Gyokchyan born December 11, in Yerevan is a Lebanese professional basketball player. Hayk Ishkhanyan born 24 June in Yerevan is an Armenian football player who currently plays as a defender for Gandzasar Kapan and the Armenian national team. Hayk S. Heads and Tails is a Ukrainian Russian-speaking television travel series that launched in The Hear the World Foundation is a corporate nonprofit foundation founded by Sonova working for equal opportunities and better quality of life for people with hearing loss.

Henry Martyn 18 February — 16 October was an Anglican priest and missionary to the peoples of India and Persia. Armenians have a long history in Cyprus, with the first confirmed presence of Armenians on the island dating back to AD, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justin II. The history of Chechnya may refer to the history of the Chechens, of their land Chechnya, or of the land of Ichkeria.

The history of lions in Europe is based on fossils of Pleistocene and Holocene lions excavated in Europe since the early 19th century. The history of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, dates back to at least the 5th century AD. The History of the Albania national football team dates back to the team's formation and first ever international match in The Los Angeles metropolitan area has a significant Armenian American population.

The history of the Jews in the Soviet Union is inextricably linked to much earlier expansionist policies of the Tsarist Russia conquering and ruling the eastern half of the European continent already before the Bolshevik Revolution of The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I.

As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople today named Istanbul in , the state grew into a mighty empire. The history of the Serbia national football team began in , when Serbia played its first international match. In aviation, hot and high is a condition of low air density due to high ambient temperature and high airport elevation. Ulubabyan, Bagrat.

Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, , vol. The Hasan-Jalalyan family was able to maintain its autonomy throughout several centuries of foreign domination of the region by Seljuk Turks, Persians and Mongols as they, as well as the other Armenian princes and meliks of Khachen, saw themselves of holding the last bastion of Armenian independence in the region.

Through their many patronages of churches and other monuments, the Hasan-Jalalyans helped cultivate Armenian culture throughout the region. By the late 16th century, the Hasan-Jalalyan family had branched out to establish melikdoms in Gulistan and Jraberd, making them, along with Khachen, Varanda and Dizak, a part of what was then known as the "Melikdoms of Khamsa. Hovsep Arghutian — , also known as Khanasori Ishkhan and Ishkhan Arghutian, was an Armenian military commander and political activist.

Hripsime Simonyan born on January 2 15 , in Kars — September 28, , Yerevan was an Armenian artist, sculptor, who made an invaluable contribution to the development of decorative art and ceramics. Human rights in Armenia tend to be better than those in most former Soviet republics and have drawn closer to acceptable standards, especially economically.

Armenia is a source country for women subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced prostitution; a source and destination country for women in forced labor; and a source country for men in forced labor. This article includes current squads of Hungary U and U national football teams.

The following is a list of Icelandic exonyms, that is to say names for places in Icelandic that have been adapted to Icelandic spelling rules, translated into Icelandic or are simply native names from Viking times i. ICRANet, the International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network, is an international organization promoting research activities in relativistic astrophysics and related areas.

The impact of the Arab Spring concerns protests or by the way attempts to organize growing protest movements that were inspired by or similar to the Arab Spring in the Arab-majority states of North Africa and the Middle East, according to commentators, organisers, and critics. The following represents the recent as well as the past results of the India national football team. The Indian Autorickshaw Challenge also known as Rickshaw Challenge is an international autorickshaw rally.


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