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Colonists took them to Europe, and from there, they spread around the world. Most of the Arawak left Antigua about A. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia , the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies.
They enslaved some and cannibalised others. The indigenous people of the West Indies built excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean resulting in much of the South American and the Caribbean islands being populated by the Arawak and Carib. On his voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary , including Montserrat and Guadeloupe. In , a group of English colonists left St.
Kitts to settle on Antigua. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent British settlement. For a large portion of Antigua history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean". It was located on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies.
Lord Horatio Nelson , a major figure in Antigua history, arrived in the late 18th century to preserve the island's commercial shipping prowess. There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes. Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about , when Christopher Codrington c settled at Betty's Hope plantation.
He came from Barbados, bringing the latest sugar technology with him. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar. The enslaved Africans adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour; they also provided medical services and skilled labour, including carpentry, for their masters.
However, according to a Smithsonian Institution article, the West African slave population in the Caribbean also had a high mortality rate, which was compensated by regular imports of very high numbers of new slaves from West and Central Africa. Sugar cane was one of the most grueling and dangerous crops slaves were forced to cultivate. Harvesting cane required backbreaking long days in sugar cane fields under the hot island sun.
Sugar cane spoiled quickly after harvest, and the milling process was slow and inefficient, forcing the mill and boiling house to operate 24 hours a day during harvest season. Sugar mills and boiling houses were two of the most dangerous places for slaves to work on sugar plantations. In mills wooden or metal rollers were used to crush cane plants and extract the juices.
Slaves were at risk of getting their limbs stuck and ripped off in the machines. Today, collectors prize the uniquely designed colonial furniture built by West Indian slaves. Many of these works feature what are now considered "traditional" motifs, such as pineapples, fish and stylized serpents.
By the mids, the number of slaves had increased to 37,, up from 12, in The British population had fallen from 5, to below 3, The Slave Act of made arbitrary murder of slaves a crime, but did not do much to ease their lives. Unrest against enslavement among the Black Antiguans became increasingly common.
In , a man named Hercules was hanged, drawn, and quartered and three others were burnt alive, for conspiring to kill the slave owner Crump and his family. In , an enslaved man called "Prince Klaas" whose slave name was Court allegedly planned an uprising in which British slavers would be massacred. Court was crowned "King of the Coromantees " in a pasture outside the capital of St. The coronation appeared to be just a colourful spectacle but was, for the enslaved people, a ritual declaration of war on the British slavers.
Due to information obtained from other slaves, colonists discovered the plot and suppressed it. Prince Klaas and four accomplices were caught and executed by the breaking wheel. However, some doubts exist about Court's guilt. The site of these executions is now the Antiguan Recreation Ground. The American War of Independence in the late 18th century disrupted the Caribbean sugar trade. At the same time, public opinion in Great Britain gradually turned against slavery. Slaveholders often counted as 'married' only those slaves with mates on the estate.
During his tenure, he tried to enforce the Navigation Acts. These acts prohibited trade with the newly formed United States of America. Most of the merchants in Antigua depended upon American trade , so many of them despised Captain Nelson. As a result, he was unable to get a promotion for some time after his stint on the island.
Unlike the Antiguan merchants, Nelson had a positive view of the controversial Navigation Acts: . The Americans were at this time trading with our islands, taking advantage of the register of their ships, which had been issued while they were British subjects. Nelson knew that, by the Navigation Act, no foreigners, directly or indirectly, are permitted to carry on any trade with these possessions.
He knew, also, that the Americans had made themselves foreigners with regard to England; they had disregarded the ties of blood and language when they acquired the independence which they had been led on to claim, unhappily for themselves, before they were fit for it; and he was resolved that they should derive no profit from those ties now.
Foreigners they had made themselves, and as foreigners they were to be treated. Nelson said: "The Antiguan Colonists are as great rebels as ever were in America, had they the power to show it. A dockyard started in , to provide a base for a squadron of British ships whose main function was to patrol the West Indies and thus maintain Britain's sea power, was later named "Nelson's Dockyard" in his honour.
While Nelson was stationed on Antigua, he frequently visited the nearby island of Nevis , where he met and married a young widow, Fanny Nisbet , who had previously married the son of a plantation family on Nevis. Following the foundation of the Ulotrichian Universal Union , a friendly society which acted as a trade union which were banned , the sugar cane workers were ready to confront the plantation owners when they slashed their wages. The cane workers went on strike and rioted when their leaders were arrested.
In , with Barbuda and the tiny island of Redonda as dependencies, Antigua became an associated state of the Commonwealth, and in it was disassociated from Britain. The mission provided high rate telemetry data for the Eastern Range and its space launches. The unit was deactivated due to US government budget cuts and the property given to the Antiguan Government. John's, between Yepton Beach and Runaway Beach.
The Antiguan racer is among the rarest snakes in the world. The Lesser Antilles are home to four species of racers. All four have undergone severe range reductions; at least two subspecies are extinct and another, A. Griswold's ameiva Ameiva griswoldi is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. It is endemic to Antigua and Barbuda. It is found on both islands. Local government is provided by six civil parishes : St.
The country's official currency is the East Caribbean dollar. Given the dominance of tourism, many prices in tourist-oriented businesses are shown in US dollars. Antigua's economy relies largely on tourism, and the island is promoted as a luxury Caribbean escape. Many hotels and resorts are located around the coastline. There is regular air service to Barbuda. There are also many other private schools but these institutions tend to follow the same local curriculum CXCs as government schools.
The island's medical schools cater mostly to foreign students but contribute to the local economy and health care. Antigua was one of the first nations to legalize, license, and regulate online gambling and is a primary location for incorporation of online gambling companies. Some countries, most notably the United States, argue that if a particular gambling transaction is initiated outside the country of Antigua then that transaction is governed by the laws of the country where the transaction was initiated.
This argument was brought before WTO and was deemed incorrect. In , the United States Congress voted to approve the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act which criminalized the operations of offshore gambling operators which take wagers from American-based gamblers.
Second, a rider to the arbitration ruling affirmed the right of Antigua to take retaliatory steps in view of the prior failure of the US to comply with GATS. These included the rare, but not unprecedented, right to disregard intellectual property obligations to the US. Antigua's obligations to the US in respect of patents, copyright, and trademarks are affected. Since there is no appeal to the WTO from an Arbitration panel of this kind, it represents the last legal word from the WTO on the matter.
Antigua is therefore able to recoup some of the claimed loss of trade by hosting and taxing companies whose business model depends on immunity from TRIPS provisions. Software company SlySoft was based in Antigua, allowing it to avoid nations with laws that are tough on anti-circumvention of technological copyright measures, in particular the DMCA in the United States.
Swiss American Bank Ltd. On 17 February , the U. On 27 November , Scotiabank , the leading commercial bank on the island, announced plans to sell its banking operations in Antigua and 9 other non-core Caribbean markets to Republic Financial Holdings Limited.
The major Antiguan sport is cricket. Vivian "Viv" Richards is one of the most famous Antiguans, who played for, and captained, the West Indies cricket team. Antigua was the location of a Cricket World Cup site, on a new Recreation Ground constructed on an old cane field in the north of the island. Both football soccer and basketball are becoming popular among the island youth. There are several golf courses in Antigua.
Being surrounded by water, sailing is one of the most popular sports with Antigua Sailing Week and Antigua Classic Yacht Regatta being two of the region's most reputable sailing competitions. Hundreds of yachts from around the world compete around Antigua each year. Sport Fishing is also a very popular sport with several big competitions held yearly. Windsurfing was very popular until kite-surfing came to the island.
Kitesurfing or kite-boarding is very popular at Jabbawock Beach. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Island in Antigua and Barbuda. This article is about the island. For the sovereign state that includes the island, see Antigua and Barbuda. For other places named Antigua, see Antigua disambiguation. For the Guatemalan city, see Antigua Guatemala. Map of Antigua showing the parishes. Council defends cash handouts to small businesses. Back to a Classic. In addition, a vendor under a CIF contract for the sale of goods who has shipped the agreed goods under a clean bill of lading and obtained the proper documents, can tender those documents to the purchaser notwithstanding he knows at the time of such tender of the loss of the goods.
Et c'est parti pour la Foire du Caire. An unregulated pooled investment fund, CIF is set up specifically for charities and pension funds in the UK. Note: Before transferring any centrally managed items to your CIF , give them your lateral transfer documentation and set a date for the actual transfer to occur. Clean sweep: commanders can move centrally managed OCIE off books.
On the way home, personnel can turn in their gear at the Buehring CIF. New CIF in Kuwait means less 'bag drag'.