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You can go for it for the price. They're worth it! It is the best bassy headphones under Rupees that you can get. It has a matte black finish with soft nylon earcups and head-cushion. Its really flexible and it fits tightly on all the ears.

The cable winder will be heavy when you wind the coil around it. The cable winder has a buckle which allows you to attach it to your shirt. In terms of performance these headphones are the best ones you can get under Rupees. These are meant for the people who love bass. Pros:Excellent sound. Perfect fit. Cons:Lengthy cable. These are the things that I could find by using these headphones.

Trust me Crisp clear mids and Highs. Right Bass just the way it's supposed to be! Though a JBL fan, but gotta give it to these badass Senhiesers!! S:I have used the product for 5 months before this review and on an average I had headphones on for hrs a day if not more. This product is really awesomeHave researched for a headphone under 3k purchase price for nearly days.

I ordered this on Thursday and got the delivery at zero additional charge on Friday - superb service by Amazon - Am really delighted with your service Amazon. Compared to the Sony MDR XB this one fits in neatly on the head and the ears - and has extremely good noise cancellation.

The cushion on the underside of the headband is another advantage point over the Sony headphoneThe only disadvantage for me is the long wire - though there is a winder provided but somehow it becomes an issue to manage when attached to my laptop or mobile phone. Additionally I got this at bucks lesser than the sony one at Amazon - Thumbs up to Amazon for that again. The sound output quality is brilliant the bass is not thumping though but at this price this may be the bestSo don't think too much and if you have below 3k budget go for this and this only.

Works well. A great deal and value product. Ordered this for my son and he loves it. Also comes with a cord winder which is very helpful. Comfortable ear pads help in extended headphone use. Frequency response and sound fidelity are very good. Highly recommended. I am using it with my cowon iaudio The detailing of music is excellent.

I discovered other instruments played in a song when I used these headphones. It was not audible in my earlier sony headphone. Covers the ears well. Too long wire is a hassle. Excellent bass. If you want bass with.

It also depends on your MP3 player's output capacity as well as the MP3 kbps. Of you hear a song at kbps, same headphone can give yiu better results. Using this headphone for the past 5 days and very satisfied with it. Can be used for desktop,mobile and MP3 players. It gives crisp and clear audio output with reasonable bass.

For people who are looking for extra bass this is clearly not the headphone for you. This one is best suited for average music loving and movie watching people. Really love purchasing this product and nice service and delivery from Amazon. Senn doesn't need any more reviews you also know that. For the past 5 years i've only used senn's music devices and they are absolutely amazing. If you have mind of buying this headphone, then i would suggest just go for it because as of now , there are not good pair of headphones out in the market in this price range.

Coming to the product the it feels awesome when you listen to songs through this. And for the durability let me tell you quite often I sleep watching movies and listening songs through my mobile thanks to the flexible ear cups, as they have large twisting angle so doesn't break. If you want to test this head phone with other listen to the track - Nicolas Jaar - Mi Mujer. But only major disadvantage is as many users reviewed is your ear starts to pain after some time, I have that problem.

Apart from this its an all-rounder. The most amazing headset for the price. I am using it for a year with rough usage, works fine very sturdy wires. I accidentally put a hot iron on the wires, the plastic covering the wire melted exposing the metal, but the headset till works fine. A quick fix with a tape Absolute value for money.

Don't think just buy. I will keep these pair in my office. I wanted a listenable device in office but did not want to spend fortune on that. Glad my choice was spot on with this pair. When it arrived, I found it smaller for over ear configuration. But sound quality wise it is clear, punchy and does a good job with bass. It is lightweight. Cable winder is a pretty useful accessory which comes in the packaging. I would say with current price, it is a deal to grab blindly. Go for it! BTW, I paid more but it is worth that money.

Hope it helps. Google and you will find good reviews for this piece. Only 4 stars because amazon disappointed me this time by delivering it lately. Overall as you even read other reviews this is best in this range. At first i got in tension as it was very uncomfortable as the band was exerting much pressure but after some 2 times usage of each mins, they got very comfortable because i think the band took up my head size.

Thats amazing. Don't ask about the sound quality, it is just awsome with decent bass in this range. The cordes and wires are of good quality. I would like to say that the whole product is very durable even the plastic pack was difficult to open. And the most discussing topic of this headphones is its cord length. I have only one answer for it. It is just like two sides of a coin. The only con is that it's not so much stylish like other sony,jbl or skull candy products but who cares i bought it for me just to listen music and not to show off.

One of the best headphones available in this price range. Sennheiser's customer service in Bangalore region is exceptional. And to be honest. These headphones are really worth it. No doubt you will experience great sound quality with decent bass when I say decent it means not too thumper nor light, perfect to suit your music. You can definitely go for this.. Have Fun!!! It is very awesome product. I am really satisfied with this. No any problems no any complains. I think anyone will think to purchase for this so u also have to do that.

Delivery was very good and in time. Talking about the headphone -I think it is the best headphone in this price. Sound clearity is just ossum. Bass is also decent. Overall very nice looking and excellent product by sennheiser. You want bang for your buck? Buy this. Sound: The EQ of the headphones is flat but if you tweak EQ in your phone for more bass or mids, this handles it with ease. Being over-ear headphones, if you tweak with reverb in the EQ section, it is very realistic and it's almost as if you are sitting in a large hall.

Ergonomics: The headphones are lightweight and comfortable to wear for long durations. The only downside is the super long wire which tangles very easily. Though the long wire might be handy for some users, for others it is a thing you'll have to live with. The wire is very sturdy and you don't have to worry about it cracking or splitting. I am writing this review after using them for 4.

The headphones stopped working after 1. I took them to the Sennheiser Service Centre and they replaced my headphones with a brand new pair within 10 minutes. The replacement still work but it's starting to show it's age. The leather on the earcups has weathered off. Even if it looks like you are overpaying for them right now, in hindsight they will be very affordable.

So i bought it from the seller My gadgets India. The seller is very good. Coming to the product, ive already used it for a month now and it really provides a stunning sound quality. The bass is perfect. Highs and lows r also good! Lets divide it into d pros and the cons. Pros: 1. Very comfortable. Very light in weight. Sound isolation is awesome. Ear cushions are leatherette and are easily replacable. The wire is unnecessarily very long. It's been nearly a year since I got these headphones and I feel it's about time I explain just how splendid my experience with them have been.

May be undesirable for some users. Full review: 1. Sound Quality: Fans of bass will find these headphones perfect, for they tend to amplify the bass of most music on their own to done extent and are very good at handling complex sounds without any distortion at even high volumes. On the other side, low volume playback is just as good, giving very accurate sounds.

Build: The heads are well made and very comfortable to wear, allowing one to wear them for a long time without their ears getting sweaty or uncomfortable. The heads provide moderately good muffling, but of course don't feature built in noise cancellation. The overall make of the headphones feels very professional and sturdy, and even today, a year after purchase and heavy usage, it looks classy and still holds strong.

Portability: The headphones are rather large and clumsy really, but they make up for that by having the option to detach the ears. Pulling the ears to the top position and turning them a little is enough to detach them, and this can be done without any damage to the headphones. It isn't recommended to do this too often though as wear and tear could lead to the heads becoming loose later on though this hasn't been noticed much so far after a year They're easy to attach back once you get used to it so it's very useful if you want the comfort and muffling of headphones while being able to take it around with you in your backpack.

Although it cannot compare in portability to other foldable headphones, it makes up for it easily in its other features. The detaching ability also doesn't interfere while wearing the headphones as they require them to be twisted in a way that doesn't usually occur when wearing them. Anyone who buys this should keep in mind that if one day you open your bag to find one of the heads has popped off, it's probably because it detached normally and it can be reattached.

Cable and extras: The cable quality is quite good, surviving well so far, but the main feature about it's cable is the length. It is approximately 5 metres long, and is given wrapped around a cable winder. The winder has indents on either side so the value can be unrolled to the appropriate length then put into the slot which holds the cable quite well. It's good for those who wish to use it with a desktop and require the length. With the cable and the winder is provided a 6.

This is particularly useful for connecting to musical devices and other devices such as keyboards, amplifiers, etc. Another reason for the length of the wire may be because it's designed to be extendable enough to use with such devices. Overall: The headphones are very well built and of very good quality for the price.

I can guarantee at least a year of usage without any problems. The size may be a bit of a drawback but it's still portable enough thanks to the detachability of its heads. I definitely recommend this product for all music enthusiasts. Its the best pair of headphones available in this price range. Pros: 1 Clarity of sound. My friend suggested to buy this headphones.

I got replacement after 22 months due to a small problem. Now using a new one. Hey guys, i just bought these amazing pair of Sennheiser HD II yesterday and have been constantly using it since then!!! It fits comfortably and sound output is simply mind-blowing!!!

I tried out both and both were really good.. They both cost around the same and also their specs are close enough. But frankly both provide really good powerful output. Another flaw that I found out with the JBL Tempo is that if you are listening to music in a silent environment, its audible even to people around you this doesnt mean that JBL has a better output. The JBL Tempo comes with a carry pouch which may come handy.

I personally found that unnecessary. Anyway they do provide us with a small plastic case to wind the wire which you can clip on your belt or pocket. Thus i would say that if you are looking for a low budget beginner's headphones with ultimate output, Sennheiser HD II is the best choice!!!!

Thank you. Senhnheiser has made an outstanding product if we talk about sound quality Music is crisp and clear. Bass of the system is awesome. But the biggest drawback of this product is that it's not lightweight and if you will listen for long periods then your ears would be badly in pain. So I suggest that you must listen through it for about an hour before buying it. Otherwise, none other product is even comparable to it at this range.

And btw I hadn't bought it from Flipkart I got it for 2K from a retailer No such difference is there in the price I'm satisfied with this senheiser is 2nd generation I hope you this review will help you. Just one word "awesome". One of the best in this price range.

Need to burn it out to get the quality sound. I have ordered it for second time. First one lasted for around 3. Go for it guys..?? I ordered them and was shocked to hear its sound quality. The bass is pretty good, better than sony, eyeball and skullcandy. The headphones sound soft on low volume and awesome on very high volumes. These work pretty good with equalizers also, and if you have a studio mixer or amp, then it is out of the world. Trust me, its "the boss" in its range.

Buy it! Right Now! Flipkart delivered it to me in less than a week. I purchased this product before 1 month from other online site But frankly both provide really good powerful output Having used it for more than a month, my experience Pros:- 1. Great sound quality 2.

Warranty Cons:- 1. It's 'Over the ear' but rests 'On the ear' thanks to small cup size 2. Ears start paining after listening for minutes 3. Material used for ear-pads is of low quality, may be that's where they cut cost 4. Wire is excessively long, that's painful most of the time. I Bought this Product Last Week and it was delivered to me the next day Outer Box was a lil Damaged but the Headphone was nicely packed inside.

Now Coming to the Headphone This is a Decent pair of Headphone if you listen to music at your home. This is not a that Portable as it is uncomfortable carrying the Long wire with you. If you want Crystal Clear Sound this might be the Headphone you should have. But in the Price Range of Rs. This Amplifies its sound as per the System you use it in. This Headphone is a GO!!! This is able to produce quality sounds with effective noise cancellation, but you cannot put it on for more than songs comfortably so there is not sense of producing good or bad music.

Uncomfortable, painful and makes ears sweat. I have an Onkyo dedicated theatre, and a Denon stereo amp with pol audio speakers. Was looking around for good bass laced headsets. Checked with JBL and other others. Felt awesome with Senns. Treble slights feels low. But bass is very punchy Cannot match with the real blasters. Yet it wont let u down on move Review after using it for more than a year: The quality of the sound is excellent. Build quality is also good. Only con is has very long cable Best Bestest..

Amazing headphones.. No doubt on Sennheiser quality.. Nothing beats you.. Technical has been given by lots of users so no point repeating One word - BEST.. If u need a quality headphone with long cable then u can have it. Otherwise there r better headphones in dis price!!!

In this price range, this is the most awesome product I must say. I have searched many headphones under Rs , the options was few like not so great jbl tsi, nice skull candy uproar, un clear super bass Sony xb , and this sennheiser hd II. Firstly, I have read thousands of reviews about all these headphones and watched you tube videos of each product mentioned, then I reached to a conclusion of buying Sony xb , but somehow my heart was on sennheiser hd , so I went to a store and used all these headphones.

The clear winner was Sennheiser, and I bought it and I'm very happy with this product, quality of sound is very good in this price Only one downside is its super lengthy cable of 3 mt, it's hard to manage Conclusion : Close your eyes and press the buy now button If you want an under rs head phones.

It is good in sound quality. But thw worst part of it is its extra long cable. It is burden to carry that extra weight and length with you. Sennheiser should have atleast given choice of extra long and normal length cable. I would reject this simply for this reason,unless you are looking for long cable.

Got these black beauties Now about the headphones I basically bought these headphones for studio use shrutinandan studios , they are die hard fans of this headphone And believe me these are the best headphones under this price tag Excellent clarity Superb bass Beautiful noise cancelling And of course the 6. But still one this I found was You may lose the lows a bit if your volume is very high Otherwise they are fine and lastly if u want to experience music the way they were originally made in the recording studios , go for this Hope it helps Hit like if u found this review helpful ,?

Its perfect in its sound performance but poor in look. Anyway I don't care about the look. Its best to watch movies and gaming in PC with its 3. I'm completely satisfied. Sennheiser is the king of sound. I'm satisfied with the quality of this product,it is made of high quality plastic it's quite comfortable but i would not recommend you to use this for a very long time,for that i would suggest you a pair of earphones. Thank you please express your gratitude with a like.

Gave it as a gift to my husband and he loved it. Thanks to flipkart.. Its always an amazing experience to shop here. Everything great except long cable and comfort. My ears hurt maybe because they are a bit larger than normal and the long wire makes it practically unusable. I fear while listening on the move even in home as I have already broken the cable once. Yes they replaced it but still buy another option because you need the freedom to move and enjoy a little bit while listening music.

Everything is awesome except the very long wire. This surely is worth every penny. Thanks flipkart for the quick delivery. Good product in this range. Good sound quality. Only drawback is its long wire. It is tedious to handle this much long wire! Of course wire winding thing is helpful but still its very long! Picked it up after a week of extensive research through the net. I'm a lover of music.

I already own a JBL si. HD II is a master piece. The best sound my ear heard from a headphone so far. Now listening to sounds that I never realized existed in my favourite songs. Good even with kbps mp3 songs. Mind blowing bass. Well balanced treble. Comfortable on ears. Well insulating the external noise. Only thing I disliked is the ridiculous cord length which is over 6 feet.

The product is amazing. The sound is crystal clear and though it has a good noise cancellation. Pros :- 1. High clarity. Deep bass. Good stereo. Loud enough to make you feel sick. Good styling. Comfortable to wear. Cons:- 1. Even with the cable winder the wire is just too long. Bass can be more powerful. Stylish design but looks pretty Fragile built. Tender and weak frame. Not compatible with PC. Headphones are very comfortable, sound quality and noise cancelation are awesome, bass is optimum and it doesn't reduces the sound quality.

Been using for months. Its durable, easy to travel with, yeah the wire is a bit long but it comes with a wire holder so no problems with that. The sound quality is amazing. The bass, the clarity everything is perfect. The long comes in handy when i plug it into my TV. It is one of the best headphones I've used so far and so much that it exactly fits to be at this price which is why I am content with it.

It's just awesome Studio usable Headphone. I'm fan of this product. The first item I received failed to register on the Sennheiser site. So I requested a replacement. Surprisingly, the second item too was duplicate and so I ordered a return. The sound quality was terrible, because they were both counterfeit products. Let's get straight to it.

Pros - 1 The sound quality is quite good. You can easily hear every detail if you have the right equalizer. But you can hear even very slow bass sounds very well. Cons - 1 The wire is a hassle. Verdict - Go for it! I promise there will be no dissapointment. Been using for 6 months now, great bass, great comfort, awesome sound quality.

The cable is really long and the headphones have great fitting. Must Buy! Have used this head phone for over 3 weeks so can give a honest review.. WOW Sennheiser — so u can be rest assured about the quality.. Anything you would want from a standard Headphone! Booming bass, clear mid frequencies, and crispy treble! Best buy in it's price tag. The only thing that bothers me is that it's kinda uncomfy if kept using for a long time!

For best experience, make sure your sound card is a good one! But with my Sony Xperia mobile the bass level goes down dramatically although sound quality remains the same but thats not a problem for me as i use it only with my laptop 2 build quality great but be careful about the 3.

First, Thanks a ton to flipkart who delivered it very fast. These headphones are best for bass lovers. It has amazing bass and awesome vocals. The treble is also good. The sensitivity is the reason for which I bought it. The sensitivity dB which you will not get in any headphones in such a low range. It has a great noise cancellation which helps to hear the vocals. Now it has been 3 weeks since I am using it and it is working amazingly. There is just one problem that its lead is unnecessarily long, but it gives you an advantages when you are using them with your laptop and you want to go away from it.

They have also given a clip to solve the problem I advise you to buy these. Looks good, feel is plastic. Bass is satisfactory. Listening experience beats the amount, but very little noise isolation. Its just a budget headphone, not much of a surprise but does have its perk. Good to travel also, with the cable winder hassle of the long 3m cable is negligible. This headphone provide good noise reduction as it makes firm grip on the ears.

It gets uncomfortable after some time. This is On Ear headphone. The bass is really good. Sound clarity is just fine. I am little disappointed about the sound clarity though after paying such price. Very nice headphones, provide little bit of noise cancelling, bass treble and mids are balanced and the headphones are loud enough without loosing quality. Cable winder is really necessary as the wire is too long. Before buying i tried the JBL tempo which were nice but were very tight and small.

For the price these headphones are really good. Its well worth to pay more bucks and upgrade from a HD This is a overall headphone that has all bass low notes too , not too much as would get in a in ear but the right amount to enjoy a nice movie on your laptop with a feel of a big audio system.

My friend has the HD that i tried, it had all the mid and high but lacked depth of bass The next version ,that is the HD is really not worth the upgrade as i guess the qulity is more or less the same ,and your just paying for more style than substance.

Cons -- 1 Gets sweaty and uncomfortable with half hour of usage but thats the problem with all circumaural headphones 2 Wire is long and even if the do provide a wire folder, you do get scared if the wire may get pulled and u need to lug around the palm sized plastic piece.

So not good for workouts , but good for home use NO complaints with build and make. Excellent value for money without a doubt!! Can be easily driven by most mobile phones to reasonably loud levels. Despite the cons, this is a neat little package from the Sennheiser stable. I've been using the HD s for over a year now medium use and the wires are still good and the foam padding hasn't torn.

You'll have to spend atleast another bucks to get significantly better sound IMHO. This is good value for money if you ask me. This is ultimate headphone. Crystal clear voice. Fantastic noise cancellation. Bass and treble are awesome. I wish had it been wireless in the range Anyways no matter the cable is 3m long and one can watch tv and laptop comfortably. This product is worth buying. Don't buy these Build quality.. Once you put on.. Sound Quality is good however comfort level is zero.

Buy these headphones if you love pain.. So choice is yours!!.. In the specifications, it is written that this is a "over the ear" headphone but it is actually not so. This headphone is an "on the ear headphone"! So it is not only not a great buy but also uncomfortable. But the audio is more or less ok but then again the built quality is very poor!

I suggest go with sony. But if you listen it, in quit place than it generate good voice. I am not like this product only because of voice cancellation. This is the most popular headphone, not just amongst the other headphones of same price range, but also the other sennheiser headphones of higher prices.

The sound quality is amazing and natural. Also provides natural noise cancellation. Pros 1. The design is very sturdy. Doesn't modify the sound of music and gives natural sound to the ears, unlike a few, which increase the bass and modifies the original music. Has a very long wire, which lets you move around freely. You can exercise while keeping them on.

Has good grip which doesn't let the headphones slip away. Ear pads are big enough to cover the ears properly. The thick ear pads provide natural noise cancellation. The headband has a bit inflexible shape, to which these ear pads are attached, which sometimes put more pressure around your ears, if they are not adjusted properly, which becomes a bit uncomfortable.

I miss the microphone in this great pair of headphones. These headphones are neat but suffer from the flaws of supra-aural headphones, i. Hence you can't use them for too long a stretch. Also the extra long cable is very hard to maintain with the accessory provided for it a nuisance. I bought my Seinheisser and was kind of excited about using it, but sadly, I have not enjoyed it that much. It has great noise cancellation, but its bass and volume is kinda too low when compared to its size and specification.

And the extremely long wire is just cumbersome! I don't know if it will be louder or with greater WOW impact if i use it with some other device, but with my Sony phone or Laptop, it has been disappointing. I do not think it is worth the money we spend on it. I was very much crazy before buying this headphone due to very good reviews from flipkart. At first i was totally confused between the sony mdr -xb and sennheiser hd ii. But after such a good reviews i decided to buy this sennheiser headphone.

But i am totally wrong,the sound isn't so good and after using 15 to 20 minutes ear becoming hot and painful. I can't use it more than 30 minutes maximum. The sound quality isn't so much clear but the bass is higher. The build quality is totally very very poor and the cables are made up of very low quality rubber. I didn't buys these headphones from Flipkart.

I bought it recently so I wanted to give a review of this product for those of who want to buy it. I bought it after reading and watching several reviews. Now after using these 3 headphone, and since they are all priced similar, I can give a good head to head comparison of these headphones. In many reviews people have mentioned that the Sennheiser has good Lows, Mids and Highs. Both headphones have good lows, so they produce good bass but Sennheiser has better mid compared to JBL so it sounds clearer than JBL tempo.

So there you have it. Hope my review was useful for you to decide which one to go for. Being it a bit costly, it came to my thought as one should try it out personally before buying. But rather I went ahead with it buying. The tight ear cups against both your ears gives you more headache. On wearing it, the negative ear pressure inside goes on increasing creating vacuum in the ear thus making it painful in the ear.

Its not at all recommended for long time use. Personally, I advice you guys just to stay away from this, moreover comfort-ability comes first for any product to its users than any other specs. Hi All, This product is one of my dream and now comes true with the help of Flipkart.

The quality of sound is fantastic and you can enjoy the theatrical effect. The cord length is 3meters, it helps me to listen the music by having a relaxing and rhythametic walk in my living room. I am recommending to you all. God Bless. Once agian, thanks a lot to Flipkart. I orders the product on 18th of april and received it on 23th of april. I don't understand why , major problem. I got them fre with Samsung grand. And I am not at all impressed with the quality of these headphones.

I have used many earphones and these phones are not worth more than Sound volume is pathetically low, quality of sound is just OK. I bought this on Sep'13 and it worked well till Feb'14 that is the period of 5 months, now it stopped working partially i. I bought this product for music production purpose and to use it with my Yamaha Synthesizer. So sound quality is okay flat as expected, not bass head , but it is really tight on the ears and head.

I kept it for 30 mins and it is literally hurting my ears. Cable is lengthy but its personal choice. I find it good as I can sit away from monitor or stand-up and play the key-boards. But the real problem is, though I have a moderate head size, it doesn't fit my head, it's very very tight cannot adjust it much also , hence returned.

If you have a very small head, then it is okay. I had Flipkart advantage, so I got the re-fund. Thanks to Flipkart. The build quality is decent of the headphones and also doesn't look very attractive. Portability is also not very good. The ear cups comes out preety often after some time. But the main feature of this headphone is the sound quality.

There is no headphone in this price range which can beat the sound quality of sennheiser. If you are music freak and loves to listen good quality music then I'll highly recommend this one. Apart from it's downsides the sound quality is awesome. Defective product received even after replacement. Now I have to go to Service Center in Gurgaon as 30 days have already expired. I read the other reviews, there I saw that they were talking about bass, packaging, long ware etc The new version has the perfect bass you have to choose the mode from equalizer what you want to select, from phone or pc.

I was speechless to hear the music. This is the best headphone you're gonna get in this range. Treble's awesome but tends to crack at very high pitches. Base is par. If you are an edm lover, go away. This isn't for you. But if you are into rock,metal,jazz,Indian classical, then this headphone is for you- its performance in this genres are excellent.

Have been using it for over a year and it works just like it did when it was new. Incredible sound I really like the German brands and this one is an absolute stamp on the quality standards that sets Sennheiser in a different league in budget headphones Amazing bass and clarity Superb stuff!!!! Excellent headphone I personally prefer over the ear type headphones The headphone provides excellent sound quality without any disturbance Noise cancelation is pretty good Not exactly a demerit but it's wire is pretty long But I will personally recommend sennheiser hd over its sony counterpart xb I bought these about 3 years ago and they're still in excellent shape I keep them carefully, though.

I mainly listen to rock and metal music on these, and I think they're good for that. Well-balanced sound. If you're looking for thumping bass, these are not for you. Perfect isolation with crisp sound. I've heard it from somewhere that the headphones will sound perfect after 48 hours of playback and this seems to true with this headphone.

The sound is so crisp with base at low ends make this headphone a perfect balanced headphone at this range. Really cool headphones I was confused between Sony MDR xb and this I brought both and to be honest this headphone is far better than Sony headphone I've been using this headphone for about a month now and its an amazing experience. PROS 1. Great bass 2. Correct configuration of media player and experience amazing surround sound HD 3. No distortion or noise 4. Great value for money 5.

Long wire so now I can watch movies in full surround sound lying on my couch and my parents don't have any problem. CONS 1. A little tight on ear I have a large head. Not suitable for prolonged more than 5 hrs usage. I use this mostly for cueing while DJing. One thing that I really liked is that noise isolation is just too good.

High impedance 32 ohms and included 6. I found the fit to be a little uncomfortable in the initial days but with usage the pads softened up and now its more comfy. The 10 feet long cord is a boon if you're DJing or using these while watching TV, but it's a real pain while on the move despite the presence of the manual cord winder.

These phones are not portable due to the fixed design. Sound is crystal clear with just the right balance of highs and lows. But in some cases, as the volume is turned up, the mids and highs tend to sound more pronounced while the lows go to the background.

To sum it up, this is a great pair of headphones for those looking for quality on a budget. I would definitely recommend it - you can go for it blindly! On a more brief note - Pros - 1 Superb sound quality for the price point 2 Comfortable ear pads 3 10 Feet long cable with manual winder 3 Amazing noise isolation 4 Sturdy design 5 High impedance 32 ohm 6 6. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development.

Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat 3R tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through six weeks of age.

We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short. We tracked development from birth to 3 years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain , by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal, and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination.

NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans, and non-human primates. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat 3R tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through 6 weeks of age.

We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short-lived laboratory animal models. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization.

A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia.

We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal postnatal day 6 and older postnatal day 20 age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice.

A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals. Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows.

High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat. The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years 1—3. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years 4,5. In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer.

Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single inci Naked mole-rat cortical neurons are resistant to acid-induced cell death. Abstract Regulation of brain pH is a critical homeostatic process and changes in brain pH modulate various ion channels and receptors and thus neuronal excitability. Naked mole-rats NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber are The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years1—3.

In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years4,5. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer2,6. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high molecular weight hyaluronan HA , which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA.

This high molecular weight HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues due to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 HAS2. Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signaling, as the naked mole rat cells have a higher affinity to HA than the mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signaling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells.

However, once high molecular weight HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, Hyal2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumors in mice. We speculate that naked mole-rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels.

This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer.

Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat 's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan HA , which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 HAS2.

Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice.

We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats. Naked mole-rats Heterocephalus glaber live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing.

Corticotropin-releasing factor CRF receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala.

Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats , and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat.

The naked mole rat Heterocephalus glaber is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis.

Although characterized Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations. The naked mole rat Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa.

Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat 's extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR RHAMM.

Published by Oxford University Press. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber. The naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors.

Due to naked mole-rats ' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors.

Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae.

We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs such as independent movement of the lower incisors.

These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber. In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia.

We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat , an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides e. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia.

In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution.

In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior.

We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice.

The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception. Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia.

Full Text Available Objective: To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked molerat in Eastern Ethiopia. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat.

Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat. The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years.

In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts.

The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways.

Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27 Kip1. In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16 Ink4a. Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16 Ink4a and p27 Kip1 in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16 Ink4a , and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27 Kip1.

We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource : facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations. RESULTS: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat 's extraordinary traits, inc However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood.

In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine 3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry.

The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat , and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells. The naked mole-rat response to oxidative stress: just deal with it.

The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species ROS and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat , have defied the most predominant aging theory. In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat , levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage.

Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. In addition to the naked mole-rat , other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan.

Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans.

Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat , may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Full Text Available The naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors.

Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats. Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network.

Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat. Acid-sensing ion channels ASICs are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment.

Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species.

We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues. Central visual system of the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber. Naked mole-rats are fossorial rodents native to eastern Africa that spend their lives in extensive subterranean burrows where visual cues are poor.

Not surprisingly, they have a degenerated eye and optic nerve, suggesting they have poor visual abilities. However, little is known about their central visual system. To investigate the organization of their central visual system, we injected a neuronal tracer into the eyes of naked mole-rats and mice to compare the neural structures mediating vision.

We found that the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus were severely atrophied in the naked mole-rat. The olivary pretectal nucleus was reduced but still retained its characteristic morphology, possibly indicating a role in light detection. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well innervated and resembles the same structure in other rodents.

The naked mole-rat appears to have selectively lost structures that mediate form vision while retaining structures needed for minimal entrainment of circadian rhythms. Similar results have been reported for other mole-rat species.

Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat. Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments.

Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age.

Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in , analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways e.

However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions e. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

The molecular basis of acid insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat. Acid evokes pain by exciting nociceptors; the acid sensors are proton-gated ion channels that depolarize neurons. The naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is exceptional in its acid insensitivity, but acid sensors acid-sensing ion channels and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel in naked mole-rat nociceptors are similar to those in other vertebrates.

Acid inhibition of voltage-gated sodium currents is more profound in naked mole-rat nociceptors than in mouse nociceptors, however, which effectively prevents acid-induced action potential initiation. We describe a species-specific variant of the nociceptor sodium channel Na V 1. Thus, evolutionary pressure has selected for an Na V 1.

Background Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. Objectives We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Results Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD50 values between 2- and fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice.

Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Conclusion Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity.

These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and.

Stress resistance in the naked mole-rat : the bare essentials - a mini-review. Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health.

We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD 50 values between 2- and fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice.

Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and progression of physiological declines.

Kasaikina, Marina V. It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase act Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat , mouse, and human.

Macrae Sheila L. Zhang Quanwei ; C. Lemetre Christophe ; I. Seim Inge ; R. Calder Robert B. Hoeijmakers Jan ; Y. Suh Yousin ; V. Gladyshev Vadim N. Seluanov Andrei ; V. Gorbunova Vera ; J. Vijg Jan ; Z. Zhang Zhengdong D. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat NMR , mouse, and human genomes.

Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat. Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat , the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species.

In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance.

Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO 2. Full Text Available Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber.

The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1—5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse Mus The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat , Heterocephalus glaber Mammalia, Rodentia.

Full Text Available The naked mole-rat , Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors.

It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat , as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography.

This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis.

The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae.

Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape—both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older.

Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages fold past their time to reproductive maturity. The protein sequences for the subtypes m of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse Mus musculus using basic local alignment search tool BLAST.

Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [ 3 H]-N-methylscopolamine. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.

The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor NGF , an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats.

Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia.

Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness. Published by Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor NGF, an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats.

Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P. Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains.

Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents.

We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch.

In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. Naked mole-rat acid-sensing ion channel 3 forms nonfunctional homomers, but functional heteromers.

Acid-sensing ion channels ASICs form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels that are activated by extracellular protons and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including pain and anxiety. ASIC proteins can form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels. The ASIC3 subunit has been shown to be of particular importance in the peripheral nervous system with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrating a role in pain.

Naked mole-rats , despite having functional ASICs, are insensitive to acid as a noxious stimulus and show diminished avoidance of acidic fumes, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Here we cloned naked mole-rat ASIC3 nmrASIC3 and used a cell-surface biotinylation assay to demonstrate that it traffics to the plasma membrane, but using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology we observed that nmrASIC3 is insensitive to both protons and the non-proton ASIC3 agonist 2-guanidinemethylquinazoline.

An amino acid alignment of ASIC3s between 9 relevant rodent species and human identified unique sequence differences that might underlie the proton insensitivity of nmrASIC3. Our observation that nmrASIC3 forms nonfunctional homomers may reflect a further adaptation of the naked mole-rat to living in an environment with high-carbon dioxide levels. Dominance and queen succession in captive colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat , Heterocephalus glaber. Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female the 'queen' and one to three males.

Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. Social structure was characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy before and after queen removal. Prior to queen removal, dominance rank was negatively correlated with body weight and urinary testosterone and cortisol titres in males and females.

Queen removal results in social instability and aggression between high ranking individuals. Dominance rank appears to be a good predictor of reproductive status: queens are the highest ranking colony females and are succeeded by the next highest ranking females. The intense dominance-related aggression that accompanies reproductive succession in naked mole-rats provides empirical support for optimal skew theory.

Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats. Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female referred to as the queen and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony.

Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride FLX on status-specific behaviors of subordinates Experiment 1 and dominant queens Experiment 2 were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm.

In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy.

Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats. In the adult mammalian central nervous system CNS , axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats , the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species.

In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells RGCs survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 STAT3 , whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury.

These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat.

Animals that have evolved exceptional capabilities, such as extraordinary longevity may reveal pertinent and potentially critical insights into biomedical research that are not readily apparent in standard laboratory animals. Naked mole-rats Heterocephalus glaber; NMRs are extremely long-lived 30 years mouse-sized rodents. They clearly have evolved superior anti-aging mechanisms as evident by the markedly attenuated age-related decline in physiological function, sustained reproductive capacity and pronounced cancer resistance throughout their long-lives.

These eusocial rodents, like the social insects, live in colonies with breeding restricted to one female and a few males. Subordinates are sexually monomorphic, yet retain the ability to become breeders, and can undergo growth surges and neural modifications at any time throughout their life. This plasticity in physiological and behavioral aspects may have contributed to their long-lives.

Naked mole-rats show numerous adaptations to life underground including extreme tolerance of hypoxia, acid insensitivity, as well as independence of photoendocrine systems. Here we review what is known about their unique social structure, sensory systems, endocrinology and neurobiology, and highlight areas that may be pertinent to biogerontology. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupt recognition of social hierarchy during antiphonal communication in naked mole-rats Heterocephalus glaber.

Generation of the motor patterns of emotional sounds in mammals occurs in the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain and is not directly controlled by the cortex. The medial frontal cortex indirectly controls vocalizations, based on the recognition of social context. We examined whether the medial frontal cortex was responsible for antiphonal vocalization, or turn-taking, in naked mole-rats. In normal turn-taking, naked mole-rats vocalize more frequently to dominant individuals than to subordinate ones.

Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupted differentiation of call rates to the stimulus animals, which had varied social relationships to the subject. However, medial frontal cortex lesions did not affect either the acoustic properties of the vocalizations or the timing of the vocal exchanges. This suggests that the medial frontal cortex may be involved in social cognition or decision making during turn-taking, while other regions of the brain regulate when animals vocalize and the vocalizations themselves.

The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber. The naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

The neuropeptide oxytocin OT influences prosocial behavior s , aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care.

Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters.

Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive ir , c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior.

Genome maintenance GM is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR.

Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the naked mole-rat , at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist.

In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

The naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair.

One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma Wilms' tumor , and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma Barrett's esophagus-like was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between and August One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

For permissions, please e-mail: journals. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition. Rodriguez, Karl A.

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