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Computational modelling of movement-related beta-oscillatory dynamics in human motor cortex. Neuroimage , pp. Bickerstaff, K. Constructing responsibilities for risk: negotiating citizen-state relationships. Environment and Planning A 40 6 , pp. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.
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Assessing visual search performance differences between Transportation Security Administration Officers and nonprofessional visual searchers. Visual Cognition 21 3 , pp. Who should be searching? Personality and Individual Differences , pp. Simultaneous scalp recorded EEG and local field potentials from monkey ventral premotor cortex during action observation and execution reveals the contribution of mirror and motor neurons to the mu-rhythm.
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The clinical application of deep touch pressure with a man with autism presenting with severe anxiety and challenging behaviour. British Journal of Learning Disabilities 35 4 , pp. Blake, Jonathan and Smith, Andrew Paul Effects of smoking and smoking deprivation on the articulatory loop of working memory.
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It is now considered the industry standard for artists, museums and galleries throughout the world. Sign Up. Log In. All Artists From the Studio. Art Is Past Auctions Consignments. You are following. A suspension of disbelief upon viewing imagery is no longer habitual but rather there exists an instinctive assumption of incongruity with reality. It is on this basic principle that the artwork of Wolfgang Ellenrieder is founded.
Ellenrieder employs a variety of sources including diverse archives, stock photography and his own photography, collage and models to create compositions of unique perspectives and unlikely spaces that are simultaneously figurative and abstract. His work has been featured in gallery and museum exhibitions internationally since Courtesy of RH Gallery.
Born Hometown Munich, Germany. Lives and Works Munich, Germany. Representing Galleries. Works Available for Purchase Browse All. Filter By:. No works. I accept the terms and conditions. Now, personalize your account so you can discover more art you'll love. LEARN through exclusive content featuring art news, collecting guides, and interviews with artists, dealers, collectors, curators and influencers.
BUY authentic artworks from across the globe. Sign In Sign in for personalized experiences, exclusive access to new works, special offers, invitations and features. Sign in now. Not a member yet? Join Artspace Forgot your password? Damien Hirst, Pardon, Untitled, , View Preference Center. Continue to Site. Detailed information on the exhibition is available in the Press Area on this page.
If you have questions about this exhibition, we are happy to assist you further. Download media information package. April Wolfsburger Nachrichten vom April April Wolfsburger Kurier vom April Wochenblatt Braunschweig und Umgebung, Ausgabe vom April Wolfsburger Allgemeine Zeitung vom 9.
Its radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant properties were comparable to or better than those provided by synthetic controls. Particular emphasis has been given to the use of NMR as a fast and reliable tool to discriminate O. Antiedematogenic effects of the polar fractions of Persea cordata Mez. Lauraceae on microvascular extravasation in rat skin. Persea cordata Mez. Lauraceae is a medicinal plant used in veterinary ethnopharmacology, which is a popular medicine used as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent, mainly on animal skin diseases, characterized by cutaneous open wounds, in South Brazil.
The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible antiedematogenic effect of ethyl acetate EtAc and butanol BuOH polar fractions of Persea cordata on Evans blue dye leakage induced by pro-inflammatory agents in rat skin.
Animals received intradermal injections 0. Skin samples were obtained in the extravasation sites of Evans blue dye. The amount of dye leakage in the tissue fragment was determined by a spectrophotometer nm. In a very similar manner in terms of potency and efficacy, systemic administration of EtAc and BuOH fractions caused dose-dependent inhibition of vascular Evans blue dye leakage induced by phlogistic agents in the rat skin. Let's get physical! I examine the methods described and their advantages and disadvantages.
I further discuss the other more Patients with Silver-Russell syndrome suffer from severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, relative macrocephaly and body asymmetry, among other characteristics.
It is caused by several genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in 11p Twenty patients with a diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome who were seen at the HIMFG from to , were evaluated according to international clinical criteria confirming the diagnosis in nine of the subjects. All patients showed intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation and short stature, both considered as major criteria of Silver-Russell syndrome. The clinical diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome is complex.
Short stature is the main reason for seeking medical attention and is helpful in the identification of a differential diagnosis. This situation underlines the importance of growth and development evaluation of all patients and particularly in those with short stature to identify those cases that may require molecular studies, with implications in management, prognosis and genetic counseling.
All rights reserved. In , we counted an even-aged cohort of seedlings that germinated in , then measured and tagged survivors in We also measured and tagged a second, smaller cohort of seedlings that germinated in We followed the subsequent survival of all seedlings through Seedling mortality was phenotypically, temporally, and spatially non-random.
Seedling density, which was strongly correlated with the proximity to the nearest conspecific adult, increased mortality. The observed mortality patterns suggest that processes consistent with the Janzen-Connell hypothesis operate during the recruitment phase of O.
However, the processes causing the observed density- and distance-dependent mortality may vary with factors such as total seed number, seedling size, and climatic variation, making it difficult to determine whether time-integrated seedling-to-adult spacing mechanisms other than self-thinning operate on a given plant population. We conclude that only long-term demographic data, collected at a variety of scales on a variety of species, will ultimately answer the question: do Janzen-Connell effects contribute substantially to structuring tropical forests?
Optimization, validation and application of headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography for the determination of 1-nitrophenylethane and methyleugenol from Aniba canelilla H. Mez essential oil in skin permeation samples. Aniba canelilla H. Mez is an aromatic plant from the Amazon region whose essential oil has 1-nitrophenylethane NP and methyleugenol ME as major compounds.
Despite of the scientifically proven antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities for these compounds, there is no report up to date about the topical permeation or quantification of NP and ME on skin samples. The aim of this study was the validation of an optimized bioanalytical method by solid-phase microextraction in headspace mode in gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector HS-SPME-GC-FID for the determination of NP and ME from the oil in different samples from permeation study, such as porcine ear skin PES layers stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis and receptor fluid RF.
The wide range of the calibration curve 2. Compounds permeation showed a progressive increase and penetration dependence based on the dosage applied. In conclusion, the. Mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in the bromeliad Pitcairnia burchellii Mez : biochemical adjustments and structural changes. Rocky outcrops represent the diversity center of vascular desiccation tolerant DT plants.
Vegetation in this environment is exposed to an extended dry season and extreme conditions due to rocky soils and high sun exposure. In this study, we demonstrated that Pitcairnia burchellii, a bromeliad from rocky outcrops, tolerates intense desiccation for about 90 days due to strategies as accumulation of compatible osmolytes and antioxidant substances together with leaf morphological changes.
In dehydrated plants, an increase in antioxidant activity was observed and the vacuolization of parenchyma cells was accompanied by proline accumulation in leaves and rhizomes. Precursors related to phenylpropanoid pathway increased significantly during plant dehydration.
Accordingly, increases in anthocyanin and phenolic contents as well as lignin deposition were observed in leaves of dehydrated plants. Cell divisions and a decrease in stored starch were observed in the rhizomes indicating starch mobilization. Anatomical analyses revealed the presence of a more developed water-storage tissue in dehydrated leaves. During desiccation, leaves curl upwards and the adaxial V deep water-storage tissue is supported by two larger lateral vascular bundles.
Cell wall folding and an increased proportion of arabinose-containing polymers was observed in leaves under dehydration, suggesting increasing of cell wall flexibility during desiccation. Such biochemical and morphological changes are consistent with the ability of P. Spatial distribution by Canistropsis microps E.
Canistropsis microps Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae is an endemic species of Atlantic rain forest areas in Rio de Janeiro State, which are very abundant in not very disturbed forests in Ilha Grande, on the southern coast of the State. In this study, we analyzed the vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the species in an area of rain forest with little evidence of disturbance at Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, relating the patterns to sunlight in the microhabitat.
We also identified the types of substrate used by the species and the rate of asexual reproduction. There was a significant inverse correlation between the incidence of sunlight in the habitat and the abundance of individuals. Rosettes were found up to a maximum height of 9. We conclude that vertical and horizontal distribution patterns in C.
Base Exterior Architecture Plan. Silver Morning Glory I Gal. Bougainvillea 1 to 5 Gal. Kuhio Vine 1 Gal. Moon Flower 1 Gal. Earth Planet. Amphispiza bilineata Black - throated sparrow Archilochus alexandri Black -chinned hummingbird Auriparus flavipes Verdin Bubo virginianus Great horned owl Meadowlark Sturnus vulgaris Joe Allen Farmer published a dissertation on the species in Studies on the Fort Hood population have begun under Woodhouse, S.
Responses were solicited from…. A taxonomic study of the genus Panesthia Blattodea, Blaberidae, Panesthiinae from China with descriptions of one new species, one new subspecies and the male of Panesthia antennata. Abstract One new species Panesthia guizhouensis sp.
The male of Panesthia antennata Brunner von Wattenwyl, and its brachypterous form are described and illustrated for the first time. Panesthia strelkovi Bey-Bienko, is redescribed and illustrated. Three known species, Panesthia birmanica Brunner von Wattenwyl, , Panesthia sinuata Saussure, and Panesthia angustipennis cognata Bey-Bienko, are illustrated. In addition, a key to all species of the genus Panesthia from China is presented.
Two new species are described for the Neotropics, four species are newly accepted, and four species and one variety are reported. The new species are: Cyathea grayumii A. Rojas and C. Cyathea alfonsiana L. Christ and C. Domin are recognized; Cnemidaria coclena Stolze, Cyathea andina H. Domin, C. Tryon, C.
Probing the interactions between CYP3A4 and chiral chemicals is thus essential for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of enantioselective metabolism. We developed a stepwise-restrained-molecular-dynamics MD method to model human CYP3A4 in a complex with cis-metconazole MEZ isomers and performed conventional MD simulations with a total simulation time of 2.
Our current study, which employs a combined experimental and theoretical approach, reports for the first time on the distinct conformational changes of CYP3A4 that are induced by the enantioselective binding of cis- MEZ enantiomers. Free-energy-perturbation calculations indicate that unfavorable van der Waals interactions between the cis- MEZ isomers and the CYP3A4 binding pocket predominantly contribute to their binding-affinity differences.
These results demonstrate that binding specificity determines the cytochrome P 3A4 mediated enantioselective metabolism of cis- MEZ. Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla Lauraceae and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum Rutaceae.
In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Phytochemical profiling of five medicinally active constituents across 14 Eutrema species. Wasabi or Japanese horseradish Eutrema japonicum is both a traditional condiment and a medicinally important plant with diverse uses. Its medicinally active constituents appear to include five isothiocyanates, but their spatial variations in naturally occurring congeners are unknown.
Thus, in this study we measured concentrations of these five active constituents in 20 populations of 14 species of Eutrema and one related species, Yinshania sinuata. Three to five of these constituents were detected in each of the examined species, at concentrations that varied greatly between sampled species and populations of the same species.
However, two species, Eutrema tenue and Eutrema deltoideum, had higher total concentrations of the five isothiocyanates and substantially higher concentrations of one or two, than the widely cultivated E. Thus, both of these species could be important wild resources for artificial cultivation, in addition to the currently widely cultivated E.
Review of the genus Signoretia Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Signoretiinae of the Oriental region with description of nine new species. A checklist of 20 species of the genus from the Oriental region including 9 new species is given. The new species described and illustrated are Signoretia dulitensis sp. Malaysia: Mt Dulit , S. India: Mizoram , S. Myanmar: Mishmi Hills , S. Malaysia: Quoin Hill , S. Thailand: Chiang Mai , S. India: Kerala , S. Vietnam: Fyan , S. India: West Bengal and S.
India: Andaman Is. Both S. Lectotypes are designated for S. Effects of combined treatment with interferon and mezerein on melanogenesis and growth in human melanoma cells. We have analyzed the effects of various human interferons produced in bacteria and the antileukemic compound mezerein MEZ on growth and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells. MEZ induced dendrite-like processes, cytoplasmic projections morphologically similar to those normally found in neurons and melanocytes, in all four melanoma cell lines, whereas none of the interferons tested had this effect.
The combination of interferon and MEZ resulted in a dramatic inhibition in cellular proliferation in all four melanoma cell lines. When cell extracts were assayed for melanin content, a marker of melanoma cell differentiation, the combination of IFN-beta and MEZ resulted in higher levels of melanin than with either agent alone. Dendrite-like formation was also prominent in the cultures treated with this combination. These results indicate that the antiproliferative effect of interferon toward human melanoma dells can be enhanced by treatment with MEZ and that this effect is associated with an enhancement of terminal differentiation.
In a rapidly changing world understanding of natural ecosystems response to human perturbations such as land use and climate changes as well as habitat destruction is crucial with respect to sustainability of ecosystem services. This is particularily true for tropical forest ecosystems which have significant effects on the major biogeochemical cycles and global climate. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of nitrogen cycling and GHG emissions of natural and managed ecosystems along land use and climate gradients at Mt.
Kilimanjaro, Tanzania including different forest ecosystems, homegardens, and coffee plantations. Soil N turnover rates were highest in the Ocotea forest and progressively decreased with decreasing annual rainfall and increasing land use intensity. Nitrogen production and immobilization rates positively correlated with soil organic C and total N concentrations as well as substrate availability of dissolved organic C and N, but correlated less with soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations.
By using indicators of N retention and characteristics of soil nutrient status, we observed a grouping of faster, but tighter N cycling in the semi- natural savanna, Helychrysum and Ocotea forest. This contrasted with a more open N cycle in managed systems homegarden and coffee plantation where N was more prone to leaching or gaseous losses due to high nitrate production rates. The partly disturbed lower montane forest ranged in between these two groups.
These finding could be supported by differences in natural 15N abundance of litter and soil across all sites. Comparing GHG emissions at the land use gradient showed, that with increasing intensification lower montane forest - homegarden - coffee plantation N2O emissions increased but at the same time the soil sink for atmospheric CH4 decreased.
GHG emission measurements at the climate gradient savanna, lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forest, Helychrysum revealed that differences in soil moisture. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects NTDs and cardiovascular diseases. The T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs.
In contrast, the frequency of the C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the T allele was derived from Amerindians while the C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity.
Military Civic Action in Colombia. G6 mez responded to this political crisis with inflammatory editorials in his newspaper El Siglo Silencing of Voices in a Swedish Science Classroom. In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and…. Epiphytes generally occupy arboreal perches, which are inherently unstable environments due to periodic windstorms, branch falls, and treefalls.
During high wind events, arboreal bromeliads are often knocked from the canopy and deposited on the forest floor. In this study, we used a common epiphytic tank bromeliad, Guzmania berteroniana R. Mez , to determine Xanthopimpla Saussure, is one of the largest and best studied genera of the family Ichneumonidae. It is most species rich in the Oriental and Afrotropical regions with only a few species occurring in Central and South America.
The present study reviews the Neotropical species of the genus including descriptions of four new species from Amazonia and Northeast South America. We define a new species group: the amazonica species-group, to accommodate the following five species: X.
The aurita species-group, which had hitherto been regarded as the only species-group in the Neotropical region, is currently represented by five species: X. The Andean species X. A key to Neotropical species-groups and species of Xanthopimpla is provided. Xanthopimpla aurita is recorded for the first time from Ecuador and Colombia and its extensive distribution is discussed. Xanthopimpla amazonica, X. Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly.
These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment.
We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect.
Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant-microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally. Knelman, Joseph E. Past research demonstrating the importance plant—microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly.
Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant—microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally. Effects of copper on composition species of periphyton in a Sierra Nevada, California, stream. An oligotrophic stream was continuously dosed for 1 yr at 2. The numerically most abundant taxa were Bacillariophyceae Achnanthes minutissima, Cocconeis placentula, Cymbella microcephala, C.
Population densities of Lyngbya spp. Population densities of the principal Chlorophyta Spirogyra spp. Of the 22 most abundant taxa, 16 were reduced in abundance by continuous exposure to 10 mu g l-1 CuT. There was no commensurate reduction in standing crop. Achnanthes minutissima was the primary replacement species. Other taxa more abundant at 5 mu g l-1 CuT than in the control were Ceratoneis arcus, Cocconeis placentula, Navicula spp.
Only A. Three resemblance measures Canberra metric, Bray-Curtis and Dice and diversity Brillouin's were evaluated for detecting differences in species composition among stream sections. The Canberra metric, an index sensitive to proportional rather than absolute differences, was the most informative. This paper describes the progress that we have made in assessing the feasibility of 'fingerprinting' using imaged SDS-PAGE gels of haemolymph proteins, to identify soft-bodied wood-boring insect larvae such as the Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motscholsky, Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.
Because of stringent import restrictions and difficulty in obtaining licences to work with these organisms, we opted to work with four species of scarab beetle, Mecynorhina polyphemus Fabricius, , Pachnoda sinuata Fabricius, , Eucidella shiratica Csiki, and Eucidella shultzeorum Kolbe, which have near identical larval morphologies.
The study also indicates that the technology copes well with noisy data and small training sets. The experience gained in undertaking this study gives us confidence that we will be able to develop a field deployable system in the medium term. We believe that as a high-throughput identification tool, this technology is superior to competitor technologies e. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. Euphorbiaceae in west Niger. This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel.
Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. Origin and potential impact on J. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in and for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. Insects Associated With Jatropha curcas Linn.
Euphorbiaceae in West Niger. Pollen, spore, macrofossil and carbon data from a peatland near Cordova, Alaska, reveal insights into the climate-vegetation-carbon interactions from the initiation of the Holocene, c. The Holocene period is characterized by early deposition of gyttja in a pond environment with aquatics such as Nuphar polysepalum and Potamogeton, and a significant regional presence of Alnus crispa subsp. This shift to sedge growth is representative of many peatlands throughout the south-central region of Alaska, and indicates a drier, more evaporative environment with a large decline in carbon storage.
The subsequent return to Sphagnum peat after 4 ka in the Neoglacial represents a widespread shift to moister, cooler conditions, which favored a resurgence of ericads, such as Andromeda polifolia, and increased carbon accumulation rate. The sustained Alnus expansion visible in the top 10 cm of the peat profile is correlative with glacial retreat and warming of the region in the last century, and suggests this colonization will continue as temperature increases and ice melts.
Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities? Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S. Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management logged-roaded vs.
Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder Alnus sinuata riparian cover. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.
Digging up food: excavation stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys. Capuchin monkeys at Serra da Capivara National Park SCNP usually forage on the ground for roots and fossorial arthropods, digging primarily with their hands but also using stone tools to loosen the soil and aid the digging process.
Here we describe the stone tools used for digging by two groups of capuchins on SCNP. Both groups used tools while digging three main food resources: Thiloa glaucocarpa tubers, Ocotea sp roots, and trapdoor spiders. One explanation for the occurrence of tool use in primates is the "necessity hypothesis", which states that the main function of tool use is to obtain fallback food. We tested for this, but only found a positive correlation between plant food availability and the frequency of stone tools' use.
Thus, our data do not support the fallback food hypothesis for the use of tools to access burrowed resources. The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown.
In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa.
Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here.
Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces. Fungal Planet description sheets: Syzygium jambos incl. Strelitzianaceae fam. Soil microbial metabolic quotient qCO2 of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon MBC and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world.
These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon C and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest , 5 seminatural disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah , 1 sustainably used homegarden and 2 intensively used ecosystems coffee plantation, maize field on an elevation gradient from to m a.
Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between and m a.
Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance. This fact cardinally changes the type of contrast in TEM images of particles Fig. On the structure of the. Evaluation of groundwater quality and selected hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Santa Isabel area, Puerto Rico, — Geological Survey, In , elevated nitrate concentrations were detected in the aquifer, near Santa Isabel and the foothills north of the coastal plain at Santa Isabel as part of a regional groundwater-quality assessment conducted by the U.
The increase in nitrate concentrations has been of concern to local government agencies because of its potential effect on public supply. The objectives of the study were to 1 define the groundwater-quality conditions of the aquifer, with emphasis on the distribution of nitrate concentrations; 2 identify potential sources leading to elevated nitrate concentrations; 3 estimate the nitrate loads from major sources identified; and 4 estimate the groundwater withdrawals by principal-use categories in the area.
Results of this study will be used by Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Federal agencies in developing strategies that can result in containment of high nitrate groundwater to minimize degradation of fresh groundwater in the aquifer. Chapter 6. Ranching history. Against the chain of gently sloping summits which forms the main range from the peak of Abiquiu to the Sierra de la Palisada in the south abuts in the west an elevated plateau, containing a series We examine a silver nanoparticle with an ellipsoid-like The anaplerotic node is essential for the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Enzymes at the phosphoenolpyruvate PEP —pyruvate—oxaloacetate or anaplerotic ANA node control the metabolic flux to glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and anaplerosis. Here we used genetic, biochemical, and 13C isotopomer analysis to characterize the role of the enzymes at the ANA node in intracellular survival of the world's most successful bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb. Propionate and cholesterol detoxification was also identified as an essential function of PPDK revealing an unexpected role for the ANA node in the metabolism of these physiologically important intracellular substrates and highlighting this enzyme as a tuberculosis TB -specific drug target.
In addition to providing a back-up role in anaplerosis we show that MEZ also has a role in lipid biosynthesis. MEZ knockout strains have an altered cell wall and were deficient in the initial entry into macrophages. This work reveals that the ANA node is a focal point for controlling the intracellular replication of Mtb, which goes beyond canonical gluconeogenesis and represents a promising target for designing novel anti-TB drugs. Chapter 8. Industrial mineral extraction and geothermal exploration.
This geological feature is a diverse suite of basaltic through rhyolitic rocks, which erupted from some time less than 13 million years ago to no later than. It represents some of the greatest volcanic activity documented in The dawn and the first twenty-five years of proteomics in Mexico: a personal chronicle.
This review does not aim to be an up-to-date of proteomics in Mexico; it simply tries to trace its development, exposing the story of the researchers, laboratories and some institutions that have contributed to the establishment and development of this science in Mexico. Investigations on the effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the distribution, abundance, and diversity of deep-sea benthic and pelagic fauna of the Gulf of California and Eastern Tropical Pacific has received attention recently.
The genus Mesocletodes Sars, is one of the most common and abundant genera of deep-sea harpacticoids. As a result of their investigations, other researchers proposed the monophyly of the abyssicola group, and suggested the probable monophyly of two other species-groups. In this paper, the descriptions of three new species of the genus Mesocletodes from the deep sea of the Gulf of California are presented with some notes on their relationships with other species. Some comments on the monophyly of the genus are given.
Abstract Investigations on the effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the distribution, abundance, and diversity of deep-sea benthic and pelagic fauna of the Gulf of California and Eastern Tropical Pacific has received attention recently. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.
Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L. Mez , B. Morren, B. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key.
The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family. Simultaneous quantification of metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole and morinidazole in human saliva.
This method produced linear responses in the concentration ranges of The methods were validated in terms of intra- and inter-batch precision within 7. Effective degree Markov-chain approach for discrete-time epidemic processes on uncorrelated networks.
Moreno, and A. Arenas, Phys. However, we found that the approach cannot be straightforwardly extended to a susceptible-infected-recovered SIR epidemic process due to its irreversible property , and the epidemic prevalences obtained by MMCA and Monte Carlo simulations do not match well when the infection probability is just slightly above the epidemic threshold. In this contribution we extend the effective degree Markov-chain approach, proposed for analyzing continuous-time epidemic processes [J.
Lindquist, J. Ma, P. Driessche, and F. Willeboordse, J. It is shown that the final epidemic size as well as the time series of infected individuals obtained from this approach agree very well with those by Monte Carlo simulations. Our results are robust to the change of different parameters, including the total population size, the infection probability, the recovery probability, the average degree, and the degree distribution of the underlying networks.
Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and successional trajectories in plant community assembly.
In this study we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early-successional Alnus sinuata alder to late successional Picea sitchensis spruce in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early-successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment.
Additionally, we found that spruce leachate drives shifts in the relative abundance of major taxa of bacteria in alder-influenced soils, including declines in those that are enriched by alder. We found these effects to be spruce-specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our results show that spruce leachate addition more strongly structures bacterial communities than alders less dispersion in bacterial community beta diversity.
Air pollution can be defined as: "the introduction into the atmosphere by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy with have effects deleterious of such a nature that endangers human health, causing damage to biological resources and to ecosystems, which impair material goods and to harm or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment".
One of the main pollutants in air is the particulate matter. For what its effects are most pronounced in the vicinity of the emitting sources. The study area is located in the city of Alcora. This population is located in the region eastern of the province of Castellon Spain. The municipality of Alcora has a high industrial density, highlighting framed companies in chemical industry and non-metallic mineral products. The area has a high traffic density due to the proximity of population to various roads.
These two factors point peaks rise high concentration of atmospheric particulate pollutants. The purpose of this paper is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of settleable particulate concentrations. Sanfeliu T. Protecction and conservation of the cultural heritage of the Mediterranean cities. Programming a patient with cochlear impant follows a standardized and individualized protocol, although there is a percentage of users in which, for some reason, it is not possible to establish appropriate levels of stimulation.
In these patients, the audiologist has to make adjustments in some special parameters such as a change in the strategy, stimulation rate, pulse width, among others, in order to obtain an auditory performance as expected. East Europe Report. It turned out, however, that the But this did not prove successful.
The reason partly was that it began. Exact coupling threshold for structural transition reveals diversified behaviors in interconnected networks. An interconnected network features a structural transition between two regimes [F. Radicchi and A. Arenas, Nat. Our exact solution for the coupling threshold uncovers network topologies with unexpected behaviors. Moreover, we find that components of certain interconnected network topologies are indistinguishable despite very weak coupling between them.
On page , J. Zamora, and co-workers describe the isolation of antimonene, a new allotrope of antimony that consists of a single layer of atoms. They obtain antimonene flakes by the scotch tape method; these flakes are highly stable in ambient conditions and even when immersed in water.
The 1. KGaA, Weinheim. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain. Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system.
For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri polygodial and drimanial , Phyllanthus rutin and quercetine , Jathopha elliptica jatrophone , Hedyosmum brasiliense 13HDS , Ocotea suaveolens Tormentic acid , Protium kleinii alphabeta-amyrin , Citrus paradise naringin , soybean genistein and Crataeva nurvala lupeol , described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [ 3 H]glutamate binding, [ 3 H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [ 3 H]glutamate release.
All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and below-ground processes.
The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon C and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Tree litter in three natural lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests , two sustainably used homegardens and one intensively managed shaded coffee plantation ecosystems was collected on a biweekly basis from May to July Leaves, branches and remaining residues were separated and analyzed for C and nutrient contents.
The annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall seasonality, exhibiting a large peak towards the end of the dry season August-October. This peak decreased at higher elevations with decreasing rainfall seasonality. Macronutrients N, P, K in leaf litter increased at mid elevation m a. Carbon content and micronutrients Al, Fe, Mn, Na however, were unaffected or decreased with land-use intensity. While leaf litterfall decreased with elevation, total annual input was independent of climate.
Compared to natural forests, the nutrient cycles in agroforestry ecosystems were accelerated by fertilization and the associated changes in dominant tree species. Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and belowground processes.
Tree litter in three natural lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests , two sustainably used homegardens and one intensively managed shaded coffee plantation was collected on a biweekly basis from May to July On the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, the annual pattern of litterfall depends on seasonal climatic conditions. Greenhouse gas emissions and N turnover along an altitudinal gradient at Mt.
Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Worldwide climate and land-use change force alterations in various ecosystem properties and functions such as diversity and activity of soil microbial communities which are responsible for biogeochemical processes like soil nitrogen N turnover and associated greenhouse gas GHG exchange. Tropical deforestation is highest in Africa and despite the importance of those ecosystems to global climate and biogeochemical cycles, data for greenhouse gas exchange is still rare Serca et al.
For that reason, we focused on seven different land-use types extending along an altitudinal gradient -- m at Mt. Kilimanjaro, East Africa, covering semi- natural savanna, two montane forests and one afro alpine ecosystem, an extensive agroforest homegarden and an intensively managed coffee plantation. Emissions are highest during the rainy seasons while lowest at dry season conditions. Soils of the studied ecosystems were a sink of atmospheric CH.
Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants. Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral geranial-neral. Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing QS system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA, in particular Lippia alba.
In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal. The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr.
Monteiro da Silva Flora Medicinal leader and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation.
In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria.
Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.
Cascade degradation of organic matters in brewery wastewater using a continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor and analysis of microbial communities. The system realized Co-existence of fermentative bacteria Clostridium and Bacteroides, The CSMER shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application due to high pre-hydrolysis and acidification rate, high energy recovery and low capital cost. Bose—Einstein graviton condensate in a Schwarzschild black hole.
In order to do so we extend the Einstein—Hilbert action with a chemical potential-like term, thus placing ourselves in a grand-canonical ensemble. The form and characteristics of this chemical potential-like piece are discussed in some detail. We argue that the resulting equations of motion derived from the action could be interpreted as the Gross—Pitaevskii equation describing a graviton Bose—Einstein condensate trapped by the black hole gravitational field.
After this, we proceed to expand the ensuring equations of motion up to second order around the classical Schwarzschild metric so that some non-linear terms in the metric fluctuation are kept. Next we search for solutions and, modulo some very plausible assumptions, we find out that the condensate vanishes outside the horizon but is non-zero in its interior.
Inspired by a linearized approximation around the horizon we are able to find an exact solution for the mean-field wave function describing the graviton Bose—Einstein condensate in the black hole interior. Cystic fibrosis CTFR is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in European descendants. Geographic distribution of CFTR gene mutations vary worldwide. The degree of isonimy was evaluated in a sample of parents with children affected by cystic fibrosis.
These parameters were calculated for both the total population of Antioquia Province and for an eastern subpopulation of Antioquia. For the eastern subpopulation, the values were 0. A high percentage of last-names was shared, as is reflected in the isonimy values. Similarly, the presence of a reduced number of last-names in an important percentage of the population is reflected in the Fr values obtained for both analyses, which suggest homogeneity.
Thus, it is expected a low number of CFTR mutations in the children from Antioquia with cystic fibrosis. Categorizing words using 'frequent frames': what cross-linguistic analyses reveal about distributional acquisition strategies.
Mintz described a distributional environment called a frame, defined as the co-occurrence of two context words with one intervening target word. Analyses of English child-directed speech showed that words that fell within any frequently occurring frame consistently belonged to the same grammatical category e.
In this paper, we first generalize this result to French, a language in which the function word system allows patterns that are potentially detrimental to a frame-based analysis procedure. Second, we show that the discontinuity of the chosen environments i. This property might be relevant for any computational approach to grammatical categorization. Finally, we investigate a recursive application of the procedure and observe that the categorization is paradoxically worse when context elements are categories rather than actual lexical items.
Item-specificity is thus also a core computational principle for this type of algorithm. Discontinuity and item-specificity appear to be crucial features. Bartolomei, V. Hydroxyl radical OH is one of the most important oxidant species in the atmosphere controlling its self-oxidizing capacity. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as the main OH formation pathway.
Models and indirect measurements to the present time predicted concentrations of OH radicals in the order of cm Recently, by direct measurements we have detected high OH radical concentrations of 1. This is mainly due to 1 direct combustion sources and 2 heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on the numerous surfaces present in the indoor environment. HONO levels of 30 ppb were measured in a previous campaign carried out in Bayreuth in July as direct emissions from the combustion of a candle.
The combination between so high concentrations of HONO and higher than expected light transmissions indoors or indoor artificial lighting could have a significant impact on the OH concentrations indoors which could feasibly become considerably higher than we measured in our school campaign Gomez Alvarez et al. In order to evaluate these upper limits under combustion conditions in the indoor environment, we have carried out a campaign in the LOTASC chamber Bayreuth, Germany.
For this aim, the exhaust fumes from the burning of a commonly used domestic candle have been introduced in the chamber. The chamber was irradiated under well research indoor lighting conditions. A thorough characterization of light intensities. Habitability: where lo look for life? The first astrobiological mission specially designed to detect life on Mars, the Viking missions, thought life unlikely, considering the amount of UV radiation bathing the surface of the planet, the resulting oxidative conditions, and the lack of adequate atmospheric protection.
The necessity of the Europa surface exploration comes from the idea of a water ocean existence in its interior. Life needs several requirements for its establishment but, the only sine qua nom elements is the water, taking into account our experience on Earth extreme ecosystems The discovery of extremophiles on Earth widened the window of possibilities for life to develop in the universe, and as a consequence on Mars.
The compilation of data produced by the ongoing missions Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity offers a completely different view: signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity.
The discovery of important accumulations of sulfates, and the existence of iron minerals like jarosite, goethite and hematite in rocks of sedimentary origin has allowed specific terrestrial models related with this type of mineralogy to come into focus. But, where to look for life in other planetary bodies? Terrestrial analogues work could help us to. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.
Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. This Technical Memorandum TM presents the analytical tool, Tank System Integrated Model Tank SIM , which can be used for modeling pressure control and predicting the behavior of cryogenic propellant for long-term storage for future space missions.
Utilizing Tank SIM, the following processes can be modeled : tank self-pressurization, boiloff, ullage venting, mixing, and condensation on the tank wall. This TM also includes comparisons of Tank SIM program predictions with the test data andexamples of multiphase mission calculations.
The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site SRS typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four dual-nozzle slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. For the work, a Tank 48 simulation model with a maximum of four slurry pumps in operation has been developed to estimate flow patterns for efficient solid mixing.
The modeling calculations were performed by using two modeling approaches. The other is a two-phase CFD model to estimate solid concentrations in a quantitative way by solving the Eulerian governing equations for the continuous fluid and discrete solid phases over the entire fluid domain of Tank The two-phase results should be considered as the preliminary scoping calculations since the model was not validated against the test results yet.
A series of sensitivity calculations for different numbers of pumps and operating conditions has been performed to provide operational guidance for solids suspension and mixing in the tank. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary. Major solid obstructions including the pump housing, the pump columns, and the 82 inch central support column were included.
Recommended operational guidance was developed assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and spatial mixing under single-phase tank model. For quantitative analysis, a two-phase fluid-solid model was developed for the same modeling conditions as the. Abort staging characteristics of an external oxygen tank separating from the space shuttle A orbiter.
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a. Normal force, pitching moment and axial force components were recorded simultaneously on the orbiter and the tank at selected tank field positions beneath the orbiter as both models were pitched through an angle of attack range of -5 deg to 20 deg. Incidence angles between orbiter and tank of 0 deg, 5 deg, 10 deg and 15 deg were investigated.
During these tests Mach number was set at 0. Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow.
The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined. Advance and application of the stratigraphic simulation model 2D- SedFlux: From tank experiment to geological scale simulation. The stratigraphic simulation model 2D- SedFlux is further developed and applied to a turbidite experiment in a subsiding minibasin.
The new module dynamically simulates evolving hyperpycnal flows and their interaction with the basin bed. Comparison between the numerical results and the experimental results verifies the ability of 2D- SedFlux to predict the distribution of the sediments and the possible feedback from subsidence. The model was subsequently applied to geological- scale minibasins such as are located in the Gulf of Mexico.
Distance from the sediment source is determined to be more influential than the sediment entrapment in upstream minibasin. The results suggest that efficiency of sediment entrapment by a basin was not influenced by the distance from the sediment source. Tests were conducted on scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank ET to determine the aerodynamic interactions during a return to launch site abort separation. The orbiter model was built to vehicle 3 configuration lines B and the ET model approximated the vehicle 5 configurations with protuberances and attach hardware.
For these investigations the orbiter was mounted on the primary support system and the external tank was mounted on the captive trajectory system. Six-component data were obtained for each vehicle at various orbiter angles of attack and sideslip for a range of relative angular and linear displacements of the ET from the orbiter. Tank irrigation is an ancient tradition in Asia which is now being reviewed as a potential model for future irrigation expansion.
South India has thousands of tanks which are in need of rehabilitation after being in operation for over a century. This study evaluates tank irrigation in an area of south India which has the greatest concentration of tanks. Constraints and unique characteristics of tank irrigation are analyzed to provide a basis for devising strategies for improving tank irrigation. A combination of public and private investments along with institutional changes are recommended to help farmers organize to improve irrigation.
Yet, only if public investment is carefully integrated with existing private efforts will farmers have incentives to maintain the irrigation systems. A phenomenological retention tank model using settling velocity distributions. Many authors have observed the influence of the settling velocity distribution on the sedimentation process in retention tanks.
However, the pollutants' behaviour in such tanks is not well characterized, especially with respect to their settling velocity distribution. This paper presents a phenomenological modelling study dealing with the way by which the settling velocity distribution of particles in combined sewage changes between entering and leaving an off-line retention tank.
The work starts from a previously published model Lessard and Beck, which is first implemented in a wastewater management modelling software, to be then tested with full- scale field data for the first time. Next, its performance is improved by integrating the particle settling velocity distribution and adding a description of the resuspension due to pumping for emptying the tank.
Finally, the potential of the improved model is demonstrated by comparing the results for one more rain event. Extensive user logic was used to allow for tailoring of the above features to specific cases. Most of the code input for a specific case could be done through the Registers Data Block. Transition heating rates obtained on a matted and isolated 0. Model information and data obtained from wind tunnel tests performed on a 0.
Tests were performed at a Mach number of 8. Transition heating rates were determined using thin skin thermocouples located at various locations on the orbiter and ET. The test was conducted in three stages: orbiter plus external tank mated configuration ; orbiter alone, and external tank alone. The effects of boundary layer trips were also included in the test sequence. The plotted results presented show the effect of configuration interference on the orbiter lower surface and on the ET. Tabulated data are given.
Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot- scale poison tank using radiotracer technique. Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution borated water into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot- scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water.
In order to design a full- scale poison tank , it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution RTD measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet.
From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times MRTs , dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks -in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode The results were utilized to scale -up and design a full- scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor.
This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks F and F. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.
Tests were conducted in a 14 foot transonic wind tunnel to examine the feasibility of the auxiliary aerodynamic data system AADS for determining angles of attack and sideslip during boost flight. The model used was a 0. The model terminated in a blunt base with a Pressure data were obtained from five pressure orifices one total and four statics on the nose probe, and sixteen surface static pressure orifices along the ET forebody.
For long-duration in-space storage of cryogenic propellants, an axial jet mixer is one concept for controlling tank pressure and reducing thermal stratification. Extensive ground-test data from the s to the present exist for tank diameters of 10 ft or less. The design of axial jet mixers for tanks on the order of 30 ft diameter, such as those planned for the Ares V Earth Departure Stage EDS LH2 tank , will require scaling of available experimental data from much smaller tanks , as well designing for microgravity effects.
This study will assess the ability for Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD to handle a change of scale of this magnitude by performing simulations of existing ground-based axial jet mixing experiments at two tank sizes differing by a factor of ten. Data from jet mixing experiments performed in the s by General Dynamics with water at two tank sizes 1 and 10 ft diameter are used to evaluate CFD accuracy.
Jet nozzle diameters ranged from 0. Thermally stratified layers were created in both tanks prior to turning on the jet mixer. Jet mixer efficiency was determined by monitoring the temperatures on thermocouple rakes in the tanks to time when the stratified layer was mixed out. Dye was frequently injected into the stratified tank and its penetration recorded. There were no velocities or turbulence quantities available in the experimental data. Comparisons are made between computed temperatures at various axial locations in the tank at different times and those observed experimentally.
Assessing the applicability of the 1D flux theory to full- scale secondary settling tank design with a 2D hydrodynamic model. The applicability of the one-dimensional idealized flux theory 1DFT for the design of secondary settling tanks SSTs is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow SOR and solids loading SLR rates with that calculated with the two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full- scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.
From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i. Simulations of the Watts et al. Water Res. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also performed. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, has a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration while the SST is underloaded, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i. Until more information is obtained, it would appear from the simulations that the flux rating of 0.
It is recommended that i while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, this be avoided and ii the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the.
A numerical model to predict boil-off of stored propellant in large spherical cryogenic tanks has been developed. Accurate prediction of tank boil-off rates for different thermal insulation systems was the goal of this collaboration effort. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, integrating flow analysis and conjugate heat transfer for solving complex fluid system problems, was used to create the model. Calculation of tank boil-off rate requires simultaneous simulation of heat transfer processes among liquid propellant, vapor ullage space, and tank structure.
The reference tank for the boil-off model was the , gallon liquid hydrogen tank at Launch Complex 39B LC- 39B at Kennedy Space Center, which is under study for future infrastructure improvements to support the Constellation program. The methodology employed in the numerical model was validated using a sub- scale model and tank.
Favorable correlations between sub- scale model and experimental test data have provided confidence in full- scale tank boil-off predictions. These methods are now being used in the preliminary design for other cases including future launch vehicles. Results of investigations on a 0. Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in a 3. The model used for this test was a 0. All testing was done at Mach 7.
Various elevon, rudder and orbiter to external tank attaching structures and fairings were tested to determine longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics. Non-metric exhaust plumes were installed during a portion of the testing to determine the effects of the main propulsion system rocket plumes.
Results of oil flow visualization tests of an 0. The tests utilized oil flow techniques to visualize the flow patterns. Tunnel free stream Mach number was 7. Model angle of attack was varied from -5 deg through 10 deg and angle of sideslip was 0 deg and 2 deg.
Photographs of resulting oil flow patterns are presented. Aquantis 2. This is the detailed documentation for scaled device testing in a tow tank , including models , drawings, presentations, cost of energy analysis, and structural analysis. This dataset also includes specific information on drivetrain, roller bearing, blade fabrication, mooring, and rotor characteristics. When spins were obtained with either alternate nose configuration, they were oscillatory and recovery characteristics were considered unsatisfactory on the basis of the fact that very slow recoveries were indicated to be possible.
The simultaneous extension of canards near the nose of the model with rudder reversal was effective in rapidly terminating the spin. The addition of empty wing tanks had little effect on the developed spin and recovery characteristics. The model did not spin erect with full wing tanks. For optimum recovery from inverted spins, the rudder should be reversed to 22O against the spin and simultaneously the flaperons should be moved with the developed spin; the stick should be held at or moved to full forward longitudinally.
The minimum size parachute required to insure satisfactory recoveries in an emergency was found to be 12 feet in diameter laid out flat with a drag coefficient of 0. Development of an energy storage tank model. A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume.
The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity.
Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided. Mated aerodynamic characteristics investigation for 0. Kirsten Wind Tunnel CA Experimental investigations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0. The was tested alone to establish baseline data and to verify test results. Six-component force and moment data were also recorded for the ET, which was mounted on an internal balance supported by the Testing was conducted at Mach 0.
Photographs of test configurations are shown. After initial tests were conducted with small diameter, low viscosity simulant this matrix was revised to allow evaluation of a broader range of U0D0s. Test conditions were achieved by varying the simulant viscosity, the mean particle size, and the jet nozzle exit velocity. Concentration measurements at sampling locations throughout the tank were used to assess the degree of uniformity achieved during each test. Concentration data was obtained using a real time ultrasonic attenuation probe and discrete batch samples.
The undissolved solids concentration at these locations was analyzed to determine whether. However, as these are critical facilities whose continued performance in the post-earthquake scenario is of vital concern, it is significant to investigate their seismic vibration control using reliable and cost-effective passive dampers such as the Tuned Liquid Damper TLD.
Here, this aspect is studied for flexible EWT structures, such as those with annular shaft supports. The criterion of tuning the sloshing frequency of the TLD to the structural frequency necessitates dimensions of the TLD larger than those hitherto examined in literature. Grey-box modelling of aeration tank settling. A model of the concentrations of suspended solids SS in the aeration tanks and in the effluent from these during Aeration tank settling ATS operation is established.
The model is based on simple SS mass balances, a model of the sludge settling and a simple model of how the SS concentration in the effluent from the aeration tanks depends on the actual concentrations in the tanks and the sludge blanket depth. The model is formulated in continuous time by means of stochastic differential equations with discrete-time observations.
The parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood method from data from an alternating BioDenipho waste water treatment plant WWTP. The model is an important tool for analyzing ATS operation and for selecting the appropriate control actions during ATS, as the model can be used to predict the SS amounts in the aeration tanks as well as in the effluent from the aeration tanks.
Computer modeling of tank track elastomers. Computer models of the T, T and the British Chieftain tank tracks have been studied as part of a program to examine the tank -track-pad failure problem. The modeling is based on the finite element method with two different models being used to evaluate the thermal and mechanical response of the tracks. Modeling has enabled us to evaluate the influence of track design, elastomer formulation and operating scenario on the response of the track.
For all designs and materials studied, stresses produced during contact with a flat roadway surface were not considered large enough to damage the pad. Operating scenarios were studied in which the track pad contacts rigid bars representing idealized obstacles in cross country terrain.
A highly localized obstacle showed the possibility for subsurface mechanical damage to the track pad due to obstacle contact. Contact with a flat rigid bar produced higher tensile stresses that were near the damage thresholds for this material and thus capable of producing cutting and chunking failures.
Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.
High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0. Additional information is given in tabular form. Data is given in graphical and tabular form. Helium inventory in high energy accelerators, tokamaks and free electron lasers may exceed tens of tons. The gaseous helium is stored in steel tanks under a pressure of about 20 bar and at environment temperature.
Accidental rupture of any of the tanks filled with the gaseous helium will create a rapid energy release in form of physical blast. An estimation of pressure wave distribution following the tank rupture and potential consequences to the adjacent research infrastructure and buildings is a very important task, critical in the safety aspect of the whole cryogenic system.
According to the present regulations the TNT equivalent approach is to be applied to evaluate the pressure wave following a potential gas storage tank rupture. A special test stand was designed and built in order to verify experimentally the blast effects in controlled conditions. In order to obtain such a shock wave a pressurized plastic tank was used. The tank was ruptured and the resulting pressure wave was recorded using a spatially-distributed array of pressure sensors connected to a high-speed data acquisition device.
The results of the experiments and the comparison with theoretical values obtained from thermodynamic model of the blast are presented. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained. Recommendations regarding the applicability of thermodynamic model of physical blast versus TNT approach, to estimate consequences of gas storage tank rupture are formulated. The laboratory scale experimental results have been scaled to ITER pressurized helium storage tanks.
Denitrogenation model for vacuum tank degasser. Nitrogen in steel is both beneficial and detrimental depending on grade of steel and its application. To get desired low nitrogen during vacuum degassing process, VD parameters namely vacuum level, argon flow rate and holding time has to optimized depending upon initial nitrogen level. In this work a mathematical model to simulate nitrogen removal in tank degasser is developed and how various VD parameters affects nitrogen removal is studied.
Ladle water model studies with bottom purging have shown two distinct flow regions, namely the plume region and the outside plume region. The two regions are treated as two separate reactors exchanging mass between them and complete mixing is assumed in both the reactors. In the plume region, transfer of nitrogen to single bubble is simulated.
At the gas-liquid metal interface bubble interface thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed and the transfer of nitrogen from bulk liquid metal in the plume region to the gas-metal interface is obtained using mass transport principles. The model predicts variation of Nitrogen content in both the reactors with time.
The model is validated with industrial process and the predicted results were found to have fair agreement with the measured results. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above; pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield pressure measurements.
The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield pressure measurements; Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures; and Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions.
Data from each of the four test phases are presented. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: 1 Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above.
The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield pressure measurements. Implications to stormwater management as a result of lot scale rainwater tank systems: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia. Rainwater tanks are increasingly adopted in Australia to reduce potable water demand and are perceived to reduce the volume of stormwater discharge from developments.
This paper investigates the water balance of rainwater tanks , in particular the possible impacts these tanks could have in controlling the stormwater discharge volume. The study collected water quantity data from two sites in the Hawkesbury City Council area, New South Wales, Australia and utilised the collected data in a simple water balance model to assess the effectiveness of rainwater tanks in reducing the stormwater discharge volume.
The results indicate that a significant reduction in discharge volume from a lot scale development can be achieved if the rainwater tank is connected to multiple end-uses, but is minimal when using irrigation alone. In addition, the commonly used volumetric runoff coefficient of 0. Also, sole reliance on the water in the rainwater tanks can make the users aware of their water use pattern and water availability, resulting in significant reductions in water use as the supply dwindles, through self-imposed water restrictions.
Analysis of full- scale tank car shell impact tests. This paper describes analyses of a railroad tank car : impacted at its side by a ram car with a rigid punch. This : generalized collision, referred to as a shell impact, is examined : using nonlinear finite element analysis FEA and threedimensional PubMed Central. Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG storage tanks.
In this paper, we present a large- scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.
A computational fluid dynamics CFD model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in normal gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system TVS centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank , mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure.
The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW software. The engineering checkout tests provide cryogenic tank self-pressurization test data at various heat leaks and tank fill levels.
The predicted self-pressurization rates, ullage and liquid temperatures at discrete locations within the STUSTD tank are in good agreement with test data. The work presented here advances current CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and helps develop a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.
The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered with rigid polymeric closed-cell foam insulation to prevent ice formation, protect the metallic tank from aerodynamic heating, and control the breakup of the tank during re-entry. The cryogenic state of the tank , as well as the ascent into a vacuum environment, places this foam under significant stress.
Because the loss of the foam during ascent poses a critical risk to the shuttle orbiter, there is much interest in understanding the stress state in the foam insulation and how it may contribute to fracture and debris loss. Several foam applications on the external tank have been analyzed using finite element methods. This presentation describes the approach used to model the foam material behavior and compares analytical results to experiments.
Paddles agitated Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. After drying, After drying, skins were rolled in borax and packed into barrels, such as those seen in background. The scale -up of a solid-liquid stirred tank with an Intermig impeller was characterized via experiments. Solid concentration, impeller just-off-bottom speed and power consumption were measured in stirred tanks of different scales.
The scale -up criteria for achieving the same effect of solid suspension in small- scale and large- scale vessels were evaluated. The solids distribution improves if the operating conditions are held constant as the tank is scaled -up.
In this paper we consider the identification of a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical model for a cascade water tank process. The proposed method starts with a nominal linear dynamical model of the system, and proceeds to model its prediction errors using a model that is piecewise affine in the data. As data is observed, the nominal model is refined into a piecewise ARX model which can capture a wide range of nonlinearities, such as the saturation in the cascade tanks.
The proposed method uses a likelihood-based methodology which adaptively penalizes model complexity and directly leads to a computationally efficient implementation. Draw forming of scale shuttle external tank dome gores. The process for manufacturing external tank dome gores is discussed.
The test fixture and test procedure are described. The characteristics of the draw forming die are analyzed. The specific subjects included are: 1 forming, 2 trimming, 3 cleaning, and 4 heat treatment. The library for Mathworks Simscape does not currently contain a model for a closed volume fluid tank where the ullage pressure is variable.
In order to model a closed-volume variable ullage pressure tank , it was necessary to consider at least two separate cases: a vertical cylinder, and a sphere. Using library components, it was possible to construct a rough model for the cylindrical tank. It was not possible to construct a model for a spherical tank , using library components, due to the variable area. It was decided that, for these cases, it would be preferable to create a custom library component to represent each case, using the Simscape language.
Once completed, the components were added to models , where filling and draining the tanks could be simulated. When the models were performing as expected, it was necessary to generate code from the models and run them in Trick a real-time simulation program. The data output from Trick was then compared to the output from Simscape and found to be within acceptable limits. VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry.
In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks , Tanks 4. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank , a vertical fixed roof tank , an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4. Tanks 4. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories.
In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement.
The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied.
By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank , it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis. The purpose of this thesis is to mathematically model a duel between the armed helicopter and the tank.
In addition to providing a parametric All three models stem from stochastic. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation program has been used to model boiloff in 1,L demonstration tanks built for testing the thermal performance of glass bubbles and perlite insulation. Numerical predictions of boiloff rate and ullage temperature have been compared with the measured data from the testing of demonstration tanks.
A satisfactory comparison between measured and predicted data has been observed for both liquid nitrogen and hydrogen tests. Based on the experience gained with the modeling of the demonstration tanks , a numerical model of the liquid hydrogen storage tank at launch complex 39 at KSC was built. The predicted boiloff rate of hydrogen has been found to be in good agreement with observed field data. This TM describes three different models that have been developed during this period of study March to June , comparisons with test data, and results of parametric studies.
Room temperature stretch forming of scale space shuttle external tank dome gores. Volume 1: Technical. An account of activities and data gathered in the Room Temperature Stretch Forming of One-third Scale External Tank Bulkhead Gores for space shuttle study, and a tooling design and production cost study are reported.
The following study phases are described: 1 the stretch forming of three approximately one-third scale external tank dome gores from single sheets of T37 aluminum alloy; 2 the designing of a full scale production die, including a determination of tooling requirements; and 3 the determination of cost per gore at the required production rates, including manufacturing, packaging, and shipping. All landings were made normal to the direction of wave advance, a condition assumed to produce the greatest accelerations.
Wave heights of 4. Maximum normal accelerations of about 6. A maximum angular acceleration corresponding to 16 radians per second per second, full size, was obtained in the higher waves. The data indicate that the airplane will experience its greatest accelerations when landing in waves of about 20 feet ft, full size in length.
Thirty cryogenic pressure cycles have been completed on the Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems quarter scale RLV composite multi-lobe liquid hydrogen propellant tank assembly, completing the initial phases of testing and demonstrating technologies key to the success of large scale composite cryogenic tankage for X33, RLV, and other future launch vehicles. Thermodynamic models for bounding pressurant mass requirements of cryogenic tanks. Thermodynamic models have been formulated to predict lower and upper bounds for the mass of pressurant gas required to pressurize a cryogenic tank and then expel liquid from the tank.
Limiting conditions are based on either thermal equilibrium or zero energy exchange between the pressurant gas and initial tank contents. The models are independent of gravity level and allow specification of autogenous or non-condensible pressurants. Partial liquid fill levels may be specified for initial and final conditions. Model predictions are shown to successfully bound results from limited normal-gravity tests with condensable and non-condensable pressurant gases.
Representative maximum collapse factor maps are presented for liquid hydrogen to show the effects of initial and final fill level on the range of pressurant gas requirements. Maximum collapse factors occur for partial expulsions with large final liquid fill fractions.
Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large- scaled tank. A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump SMP on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site SRS tanks.
The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. This document is a viewgraph presentation reporting on work in modeling the foam insulation of the Space Shuttle External Tank. An analytical understanding of foam mechanics is required to design against structural failure. The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered primarily with closed cell foam to: Prevent ice, Protect structure from ascent aerodynamic and engine plume heating, and Delay break-up during re-entry.
It is important that the foam does not shed unacceptable debris during ascent environment. Therefore a modeling of the foam insulation was undertaken. This significant experiment is the only known, adequately-instrumented, low-gravity, cryogenic self pressurization test that is well suited for CFD model validation.
A cell, axisymmetric model predicts motion of the LH2 surface including boil-off and thermal stratification in the liquid and gas phases. During the experiment, heat enters the LH2 tank through the tank forward dome, side wall, aft dome, and common bulkhead. In both model and test the liquid and gases thermally stratify in the low-gravity natural convection environment. LH2 boils at the free surface which in turn increases the pressure within the tank during the second experiment.
The Saturn S-IVB tank model is shown to accurately simulate the self pressurization and thermal stratification in the AS test. The model is based on first principles only and includes no adjustments to bring the predictions closer to the test data. Although quantitative model validation is achieved or one specific case, a significant step is taken towards demonstrating general use of CFD for low-gravity cryogenic fluid modeling.
A system to accurately weigh the fluid contents of a small- scale liquid hydrogen test tank has been experimentally verified. It is intended for use as a reference or benchmark system when testing lowgravity liquid quantity gauging concepts in the terrestrial environment. The reference gauging system has shown a repeatable measurement accuracy of better than 0. With further refinement, the system accuracy can be improved to within 0. This report describes the weighing system design, calibration, and operational results.
Suggestions are given for further refinement of the system. An example is given to illustrate additional sources of uncertainty when mass measurements are converted to volume equivalents. Specifications of the companion test tank and its multi-layer insulation system are provided. Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks. The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks.
However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In activated sludge systems, accurate estimation of the solids in the underflow stream will facilitate the calibration process and can lead to correct estimates of particularly kinetic parameters related to biomass growth.
Using principles of compaction and consolidation, as in soil mechanics, a dynamic model of the sludge consolidation processes taking place in the secondary settling tanks is developed and incorporated to the commonly used double exponential settling model. The modified double exponential model is calibrated and validated using data obtained from a full- scale wastewater treatment plant.
Good agreement between predicted and measured data confirmed the validity of the modified model. Correlation models for waste tank sludges and slurries. The end products of this task are correlation models sets of algorithms that can be added to the TEMPEST computer code to improve the reliability of its simulation of the physical processes that occur in Hanford tanks. The correlation models can be used to augment, not only the TEMPEST code, but other computer codes that can simulate sludge motion and flammable gas retention.
The submodel-development process is an ongoing effort designed to increase our understanding of sludge behavior and improve our ability to realistically simulate the sludge fluid characteristics that have an impact on safety analysis. The effort has employed both literature searches and data correlation to provide an encyclopedia of tank waste properties in forms that are relatively easy to use in modeling waste behavior.
These properties submodels will be used in other tasks to simulate waste behavior in the tanks. Density, viscosity, yield strength, surface tension, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, salt solubility, and ammonia and water vapor pressures were compiled for solutions and suspensions of sodium nitrate and other salts where data were available , and the data were correlated by linear regression. In addition, data for simulated Hanford waste tank supernatant were correlated to provide density, solubility, surface tension, and vapor pressure submodels for multi-component solutions containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate.
The challenge of emergency response dispersion models on the meso-gamma urban scale : A case study of the July 26, Oleum tank car spill in Richmond, California. This paper presents a recent case study that illustrates the difficulty of modeling accidental toxic releases in urban area. On the morning of July 26, , oleum was accidentally released from a railroad tank car in Richmond, California.
The primary protective action for the public was to shelter in place. Highways, rail lines and public transportation were blocked. The incident was significant, enough that over 24, people sought medical attention within the week following the release. The slosh dynamics of propellant tanks can be represented by an equivalent mass-pendulum-dashpot mechanical model. The parameters of this equivalent model , identified as slosh mechanical model parameters, are slosh frequency, slosh mass, and pendulum hinge point location.
They can be obtained by both analysis and testing for discrete fill levels. Anti-slosh baffles are usually needed in propellant tanks to control the movement of the fluid inside the tank. Lateral slosh testing, involving both random excitation testing and free-decay testing, are performed to validate the slosh mechanical model parameters and the damping added to the fluid by the anti-slosh baffles.
Traditional modal analysis procedures were used to extract the parameters from the experimental data. Test setup of sub- scale tanks will be described. A comparison between experimental results and analysis will be presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center has established a facility for the joining of large- scale aluminum-lithium alloy cryogenic fuel tanks using the friction-stir welding process.
Longitudinal welds, approximately five meters in length, were made possible by retrofitting an existing vertical fusion weld system, designed to fabricate tank barrel sections ranging from two to ten meters in diameter. The structural design requirements of the tooling, clamping and the spindle travel system will be described in this paper. Process controls and real-time data acquisition will also be described, and were critical elements contributing to successful weld operation.
The Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC has established a facility for the joining of large- scale aluminum cryogenic propellant tanks using the friction stir welding process. Longitudinal welds, approximately five meters in length, have been made by retrofitting an existing vertical fusion weld system, designed to fabricate tank barrel sections ranging from two to ten meters in diameter. The structural design requirements of the tooling, clamping and travel system will be described in this presentation along with process controls and real-time data acquisition developed for this application.
The approach to retrofitting other large welding tools at MSFC with the friction stir welding process will also be discussed. Vehicle- scale investigation of a fluorine jet-pump liquid hydrogen tank pressurization system. A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to evaluate the performance of a fluorine-hydrogen jet-pump injector for main tank injection MTI pressurization of a liquid hydrogen LH2 tank. The injector performance during pressurization and LH2 expulsion was determined by a series of seven tests of a full- scale injector and MTI pressure control system in a Although the injector did not effectively jet-pump LH2 continuously, it showed improved pressurization performance compared to straight-pipe injectors tested under the same conditions in a previous program.
The MTI computer code was modified to allow performance prediction for the jet-pump injector. Modeling of Liquefaction of Cryogenic Propellant in a Tank. Over the past decades NASA has been focusing to develop technology that would to allow for production of cryogenic propellants on the surface of Mars. The in-situ propellant production reduces the amount of propellants needed to be taken to Mars and ultimately to reduce mission cost.
Utilizing Martian resources, the produced gaseous propellants i. In this paper, a model for the liquefaction process of gaseous propellants in a cryogenically refrigerated tank is presented. The tank is considered to be cylindrical with elliptical top and bottom domes. A multi-node transient model is developed based on the mass and energy conservation equations and wall-gas and liquid-gas interface mass and heat transfer correlations.
Description of the model and predicted results will be presented in the final paper. Rogue waves in a water tank : Experiments and modeling. Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors Zakharov and al.
As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum Akhmediev et al. These results were already presented Lechuga Similar waves in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves were described as crossing waves in a water tank Shemer and Lichter To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves.
After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group.
The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank. The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank ,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.
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